SSC CHSL Topic Wise Study Material – General Awareness – Geography
Around 6 to 7 questions from this section have been asked from the same previous years. These questions are related to the both World Geography and The Geography of India. Under this section, the questions related to The Universe, The Earth, Landforms, Atmosphere, Climate, Hydrosphere, Pollution, Continents of the World, Forest and Natural Vegetation, Soils of India, Agriculture in India, Mineral Resources of India, Transports, etc. are asked in the examination.
1. The highest airport in India is SSC (10+2) 2017
(a) Dharamshala airport
(b) Pithoragarh airport
(c) Leh airport
(d) Dehradnn airport
2. World’s longest land border is between which two countries? SSC (10 + 2) 2017
(a) Australia and New Zealand
(b) India and China
(c) Switzerland and Italy
(d) Canada and USA
3. World’s largest producer of coffee? SSC (10+2) 2015
4. Soilless agriculture refers to SSC (10 + 2) 2015
5. Niyamgiri hill is located in Kalahandi district of SSC (10 + 2) 2014
(d) Paschim Banga
6. A cyclone occurs when SSC (10 + 2) 2014
(a) there is a low pressure in the centre and high pressure around
(b) the pressure in the centre is equal to the pressure around
(c) there is low pressure all around
(d) there is a high pressure in the centre and low pressure around
7. An earthquake is also known as SSC (10+2) 2014
(d) None of these
8. Our atmosphere is divided into layers. SSC (10 + 2) 2014
9. India is the largest producer and exporter of SSC (10 + 2) 2014
10. The soils which are rich in Calcium are known as SSC (10 + 2) 2014
11. Cultivable land is defined as SSC (10+2) 2014
(a) land actually under crops
(b) cultivable waste land + fallow land
(c) old fallow lands + current fallow lands
(d) total fallow lands + net sown area
»Our galaxy is Milky Way Galaxy (or the Akash Ganga). It is spiral in shape. Nearest galaxy to ours is Andromeda.
»Our solar system consists of a star (sun), 8 planets and countless fragments of left-overs called asteroids, meteors, comets and satellites of the planets.
» The sun is 109 times bigger than the Earth and weighs 2 x 1027 tonne.
» The energy of sun comes from the fusion of hydrogen into helium.
» Sunlight takes 8 minutes 16.6 seconds to reach Earth.
» The sun’s present age is 5 billion years and the total life is 10 billion years.
» Revolution: 88 days (Fastest revolution in Solar System).
» Maximum diurnal range of temperature. Its days are scorching hot and nights are frigid.
» It has no atmosphere and no satellite.
» Also called Earth’s twin, because it is slightly smaller than earth (500 km less in diameter).
» Popularly known as Evening star and Morning star.
» Brightest Planet (because of 70% albedo, the reflecting power).
» Closest planet to earth.
» It is the hottest planet in Solar System. It is because of the Green house effect as its atmosphere contains 90-95% carbon dioxide.
» Rotates (clockwise) 257 days (slowest in solar system)
» No satellite.
» Also called ‘Red Planet’.
» Rotation: 24.6 hours
»» Revolution : 687 days
» It has 2 satellites- Phobos and Deimos.
» Largest , of all planets (71% of the total mass of all planets). Called ‘Lord of the Heavens’.
» It gives off more energy than it receives from the sun, because of the heat inside.
» Its atmosphere contains hydrogen, helium, methane and ammonia.
» Fastest rotation time (9.8 hrs) in the Solar System.
» It has 67 satellites (Prominent are Europa, – Gannymede & Callisto). Gannymede is the largest satellite of Solar System
» Second in size after Jupiter.
» Revolution: 29 years. Rotation: 10.3 hrs
» Least density of all (30 times less dense than earth).
» Unique feature is its system of rings (3 well defined).
» 62 satellites (Prominent is Titan).
» Rotates from north to south as it is inclined at an angle of 98° to its orbit.
» Surrounded by a system of 9 faint rings.
» Has 27 satellites (prominent are Miranda, Ariel, etc)
» Revolution: 165 years. Rotation: 15.7 days.
» 14 satellites (Prominent are Triton, Noreid)
» Circumference: 11000 km Diameter: 3475 km Gravitational pull: l/6th of Earth.
» Takes 27 days, 7 hrs, 43 minutes and 11.47 second to complete one revolution around Earth.
» Rotates on its axis in exactly the same time as that of its revolution. That is why we see only one side of the moon (only 59% of its surface)
» Moon has no atmosphere.
» Moon-light takes 1.3 seconds to reach earth.
» Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin reached moon on July 21, 1969 on Apollo XI (landing spot is called ‘Sea of tranquility’).
Asteroids are a series of very small planets or fragments of planets lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. They are thought to be the debris left over from the formation of inner planets.
» It has a head and a tail. Its tail originates only when it gets closer to the sun. It always points away from the sun because of the force exerted by solar wind and radiation on the cometory material.
» Hailey’s comet: Reappears after 76 years. Last seen in 1986.
Meteors (Shooting Stars)
The meteors are probably the remains of comets which are scattered in the inter-planetary space of the Solar System. On contact with the earth’s atmosphere, they burn due to friction.
» Also called ‘Blue Planet’. It is the densest of all planets.
» Circumference: 40232 km Area: 510 million sq km
» 2 types of movements:
* Rotation or daily movement
* Revolution or annual movement
» Spins on its imaginary axis from West to East in 23 hrs, 56 minutes and 40.91 seconds.
» Earth’s rotation results in
(i) causation of days and nights;
(ii) change in the direction of wind and ocean currents;
(iii) rise and fall of tides everyday.
» The longest day in North Hemisphere is June 21, while shortest day is on 22 December (Vice-versa in South-Hemisphere).
» Days and nights are almost equal at the equator.
» It is earth’s motion in elliptical orbit around the sun. Earth’s average orbital velocity is 29.79 km/s.
» Takes 365 days, 5 hrs, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds. It results in one extra day every fourth year.
» Revolution of the earth results in
(i) change of seasons;
(ii) variation in the lengths of days and nights at different times of the year;
(iii) shifting of wind belts;
(iv) determination of latitudes.
» These are dates when days and nights are equal. During these days the sun shines directly over the equator.
» March 21 Vernal equinox September 23 Autumnal equinox
» The time of the year when the difference between the length of days and the length of nights is the largest.
» During these days the sun shines directly over the tropics.
» June 21 Summer Solstice
» December 22 Winter Solstice
» Imaginary lines drawn parallel to the equator. Measured as an angle whose apex is at the centre of the earth.
» The equator represents 0° latitude, while the North Pole is 90°N and the South Pole 90°S.
» 23 ° N represents Tropic of Cancer while 23 0° S represents Tropic of Capricorn.
» It is the angular distance measured from the centre of the earth. On the globe the lines of longitude are drawn as a series of semicircles that extend from the North Pole to the South Pole through the equator. They are also called meridians.
» India, whose longitudinal extent is approx. 30°, has adopted only one time zone, selecting the 82.5°E for the standard time which is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT (Greenwich Mean Time).
International Date Line
» It is the 180° meridian running over the Pacific Ocean, deviating at Aleutian Islands, Fiji, Samoa and Gilbert Islands.
» Travellers crossing the Date Line from West to East (i.e., from Japan to USA) repeat a day and travellers crossing it from East to West (i.e., from USA to Japan) lose a day.
» When earth comes between sun and moon.
» Occurs only on a full moon day. However, it does not occur on every full moon day.
» When moon comes between sun and earth.
» Can be partial or total.
» Occurs only on a new moon day when the moon is in line with the sun. However, due to the inclination of the moon’s orbit, a solar eclipse doesn’t occur on every new moon day.
Internal Structure of Earth
The structure Of the Earth’s interior is layered and broadly three layers can be identified:-Crust, mantle and the core.
1. The Crust
It is the outermost and the thinnest layer of the earth’s surface, about 8 to 40 km thick. The crust is made up of two layers- an upper lighter layer called the Sial (Silicate + Aluminium) and a lower density layer called Sima (Silicate + Magnesium).
2. The Mantle
» This layer extends up to a depth of 2,900 kms.
» The line of separation between the mantle and the crust is known as Mohoviricic Discontinuity.
3. The Core
» Beyond a depth.of 2,900 km lies the core of the earth.
» The line of separation between the mantle and the core is called Gutenberg-Wiechert Discontinuity.
Composition of Earth’s Crust
» Made up of over 100 elements. The following 8 are important
The sequence of continents area-wise is: Asia, Africa, North
America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia.
It is the topmost crust of the earth.
» Any aggregate of material particles that forms part of the earth’s crust is called a rock.
» There are 3 major types of rock
» Formed by the solidification of molten magma from the interior of the earth.
» Most abundant of the three (95%).
» All other types of rocks originate from these rocks, thus called Primary rocks.
» Granite, Basalt, Gabbro are some of the examples of Igneous rocks.
» Made up of weathered remains of igneous rocks. Also contains fossils of plants and animals.
» Comprise only about 5% of the earth’s crust but cover about 75% of the total land surface.
» Coal and gypsum are some of the examples of sedimentary rocks.
» When igneous or sedimentary rocks metamorphize or change due to great pressure, intense temperature or the action of water and chemical activity is called Metamorphic Rocks
Examples of metamorphic rocks formed from different rocks are
» The magnitude of waves is measured on Richter’s scale.
» The atmosphere is a mixture of a layer of gases enveloping the earth, held to it by gravitational force. Almost all the atmosphere (97 per cent) lies within 29 kms of the earth’s surface.
» Up to about 5 0 kms the atmosphere is composed of Nitrogen : 78.09%
Oxygen : 20.95%
Argon : 0.93%
Carbon dioxide : 0.03%
(Others are Neon, Helium, Ozone, Hydrogen, etc)
» Carbon dioxide is important for absorption of heat from the sun as well as from the earth. A high concentration of carbon dioxide leads to Greenhouse Effect.
Layers of Atmosphere
The column of atmosphere is divided into five different layers depending upon the temperature condition.They are
» Layer nearest to earth’s surface. Thickness varies from 8 km at the poles to 16 km at the equator.
» All weather phenomenons occur here.
» Tropopause separates troposphere from stratosphere.
» Stratosphere provides ideal conditions for flying large airplanes.
» Contains ozone (25-30 km from earth’s surface), region being called Ozonosphere, It absorbs the ultra-violet rays from the sun.
» Up to a height of about 80 km.
» In this, the temperature decreases with height and falls to about -100°c at 80 km ht.
» Extends to about 500-600 km.
» Called so as it contains electrically charged particles (ions) that reflect the radio waves back to the earth thus making radio communication possible.
» It also protects earth from falling meteorites, as most of them burn out in this region.
» Here the earth’s gravity is extremely weak.
» The outer part is called Magnetosphere.
Winds and Their Types
» 3 broad categories are
* Regular (e.g., Trade winds, Westerlies and Polar Easterlies).
* Winds/Prevailing Winds/ Planetary Periodical Winds (which blow seasonally): Monsoons
* Variable Winds: Cyclones and other local winds.
» Trade in German means ‘Track’. To blow ‘trade’ means ‘to blow steadily in the same direction and in a constant course’.
» These are steady’ currents of air blowing from the sub-tropical high pressure belts towards the equatorial low pressure areas (doldrums).
» Blows from subtropical high pressure to sub-polar low pressure belt.
» In the Northern hemisphere, land masses cause considerable disruption in the westerly wind belt. But between 40° and 60° S lies the almost unbroken ocean belt. Westerlies are strong and persistent here, giving rise to mariner’s expressions-‘Roaring Forties’, ‘Furious Fifties’ and ‘Shrieking Sixties’.
» Move from high pressure poles to sub-polar low pressure areas.
» These are deflected by the Earth’s rotation to become east winds, or the polar easterlies.
Cyclones are centres of low pressure surrounded by closed isobars, having increasing pressure outward and closed air circulation for outside towards the central low pressure in such a way that
Cyclones are mainly of two types
» Tropical Cyclone
» Temperate Cyclone
» They are caused due to the friction with the winds.
» The maximum height of waves in most oceans is about 12 m, but they may be. as high as 15 m. Seismic waves or tsunamis are the waves caused by earthquakes in volcanic eruptions in the sea bottom. The tsunamis which hit the coasts in the SE Asia on December 26, 2004, caused havoc in that region.
In decreasing order
I. South China Sea
II. Caribbean Sea
III. Mediterranean Sea.
» Largest river is Amazon, although it is 222 km shorter than Nile (the longest river of the world). It is considered so because it is navigable by deep sea steamers and has the greatest flow of water.
» III is Mississippi Missouri in USA.
» In decreasing order of size : Greenland, New Guinea, Borneo, Madagaskar, Baffin, etc.
» Largest river island is Majuli (Assam).
» Most populated island is Java (Indonesia).
» Largest island of India is Middle Andaman.
Area and Boundry
» India is the seventh largest country in the world with an area of 3287263 sq km, which is 2.42% of world’s area.
» India is the second most populous country in the world with a population of 1.21 billion, which is 17.5% of the worlds.
» Indian subcontinent is located in the Northern and Eastern hemisphere.
» India share longest boundary with bangladesh (4053 km), followed by China (3380 km) and Pakistan (2912 km).
» In India, the Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N latitude) passes through 8 states (Gujrat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Paschim Banga, Tripura and Mizoram).
» Indian Standard Time (1ST) The 82°30′ Elongitude is taken as the standerd time Meridian of India, as it passes through middle of India (from Naini, near Allahabad). It also dictates time in Shri Lanka and Nepal.
» India can be divided into 3 units
1. Mountains in the North
2. Plains in the Northern India and the Coast
3. Plateau region of the South
» To these can be added the fourth, namely, the coasts . and islands.
Mountains of India
1. The Himalayas
» Means ‘Abode of Snow’. They are one of the youngest fold mountain ranges in the world and comprise mainly sedimentary rocks.
» Some of the world’s highest peaks are
» This range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. It has some important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, Zanskar, etc. The highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (in Pak occupied Kashmir).
»The biggest glacier in the world is Siachin is in the Nubra valley. Biafo, Baltaro, Batura, Hispar are the other important glaciers in this region.
2. Peninsular Mountains
» While the Himalayas are Fold Mountains, they are not.
» The Aravalli mountains (Rajasthan) World’s oldest. Guru Shikhar is the highest peak on which Mount Abu (1722 m) is situated.
» The Vindhya mountains Stretching east to west in Madhya Pradesh.
» The Satpura mountains Highest point at Dhupgarh (1350 m) near Pachmarhi.
» The Western Ghats or Sahyadris Average height 1200 mtrs, 1600 km long. Its southern part is separated f from the main Sahyadri range by Palghat Gap (link between Tamil Nadu & Kerala). Other passes are Thalghat (connects Nasik to Mumbai) and Bhorghat (connects Pune to Mumbai).
» The Eastern Ghats [Highest peak: Mahendra Gin (1501 m)].
» The Nilgiris or the Blue mountains Meeting place of the Western and the Eastern Ghats. Two highest peaks are Dodda Betta and Makurti.
» The highest peak of Peninsular India is Anaimudi (2695 m) in Annamalai Hills,
» Cardamom hills or Ealaimalai is the southernmost.
Plains of India
To the south of the Himalayas and to the north of the Peninsula lies the great plains of North India. They are formed by the depositional works of three major river systems, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The vast plains of north India are alluvial in nature and the westernmost portion is occupied by the Thar Desert.
» Spreads South of the Indo-Gangetic plains flanked by sea on three sides. This plateau is shaped like a triangle with its base in the North. The Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats constitute its Eastern and . Western boundaries, respectively.
» Narmada, which flows through a rift valley, divides the region into two parts: The Malwa Plateau in the north & Deccan Plateau in the South.
» Vindhya plateau is situated South of Malwa plateau.
» The Deccan plateau is the largest plateau in India.
Islands of India
» Total coast; 7516 km Largest coastline: Gujarat(II-Andhara Pradesh).
» Indian territorial limits include 247 islands
1. The Andaman and Nicobar Group
» Saddle Peak (737 m) in N Andaman is the highest peak.
» Volcanic Islands: Barren and Narcondam Islands.
2. The Arabian Sea Group
All the islands in the Arabian Sea (Total 25) are coral islands and are surrounded by fringing reefs (North:Lakshadweep, South: Minicoy).
Rivers of India
Two main groups
1. Himalayan Rivers
» In this three major river systems are there:
I. The Indus System
» It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Rises in Tibet near Mansarovar Lake.
» The tributaries of Indus are: Jhelum (725 km), Chenab (1800 km), Ravi (720 km), Beas (470 km), Sutlej (1050 km).
II. The Ganga System
» It is 2525 km long of which 1450 km is in Uttarakhand and UP, 445 km in Bihar and 520 km in West Bengal.
» Sources: Bhagirathi from Gaumukh, Alaknanda from Badrinath, Mandakini from Kedamath.
III. The Brahmaputra System
» It is 2900 km long and rises in Tibet (from Chemayungdung glacier), where it is called Tsangpo, and it enters the Indian territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang.
» In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra is known by the name of Jamuna. Their combined stream (jamuna + Ganga) is known as Padma. Meghna is the most important distributary before it enters the Bay of Bengal.
» The combined stream of Ganga and Brahmaputra forms the biggest delta in the world, the Sundarbans, covering an area of 58752 sq km. Its major part is in Bangladesh.
» On Brahmaputra is the river island, Majuli in Asom, the biggest river island in the world.
2. Rivers of the Peninsula .
» Different from the Himalayan rivers because they are seasonable in their flow (while Himalayan rivers are perennial).
» Can be divided into two groups
A. Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal
(Delta forming rivers)
1. Mahanadi (858 km) Rises in Raipur distt. in Chhattisgarh. Main tributaries: lb, Sheonath, Hasdo, Mand, Jonk, Tel, etc.
2. Godavari (1465 km) Also called Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga. It is the longest peninsular river. Rises in Nasik. Main tributaries: Manjra, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Wainganga, Sabari, etc.
3. Krishna (1327 km) Rises in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Tributaries: Koyna, Dudhganga, Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi.
4. Cauvery (805 km) It is the largest peninsular river. Known as the ‘Ganga of the South’. Rises from Brahmagir range of Western Ghats. Tributaries: Hemavati, Lokpawni, Shimsa.
5. Subarnarekha (395 km) and Brahmani (705 km) From Ranchi plateau.
B. West flowing rivers
1. Narmada (1057 km) has only l/10th part in Gujarat and the rest in MP. Rises in Amarkantak Plateau and flows into Gulf of Khambat. Forms the Dhuan Dhar Falls. Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Tawa, etc.
2. Tapti (724 km) Rises from Betul distt in MP. Also known as twin or handmaid of Narmada. Main tributaries: Puma, Betul, Arunavati, Ganjal, etc.
3. Sabarmati (416 km) From Aravallis.
4. Mahi (560 km) From Vindhyas.
5. Luni (450 km) Rises from Aravallis. Also called Salt River. It is finally lost in the marshy grounds at the head of the Rann of Kachchh.
» Sharavati is a west flowing river of the Sahyadris. It forms theTfamous Jog or Mahatma Gandhi Falls or Gersoppa Falls (289 m), which is the highest in India.
» Inland Drainage Some rivers of India are not able to reach the sea and constitute inland drainage.
Ghaggar (494 km) is the most important of such drainage. It is a seasonal stream which rises on the I lower slopes of the Himalayas and gets lost in the dry sands of Rajasthan near Hanumangarh. It is considered the old Saraswati of the Vedic times.
* Chilka Lake (Odisha) is the largest brackish lake of India. Otherwise also, it is the largest lake of India,
* Wular Lake (J & K) is the largest fresh water lake of India,
* From Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), salt is produced.
* Other important lakes are Vembanad in Kerala, Kolleru in Andhra Pradesh and Pulicat in Andhra Pradesh only.
The three important Gulfs in the Indian territory are
* Gulf of Kuehchh (West of Gujarat) Region with highest potential of tidal energy generation.
* Gulf of Camba’y (South of Gujarat) Tapti, Narmada, Mahi and Sabarmati drain into it.
* Gulf of Mannar (South-East of Tamil Nadu) Asia’s first marine I biosphere reserve.
The Climate of India
» India has tropical monsoon type of climate. It is greatly influenced by the presence of the Himalayas in the north as they block the cold air masses from Central Asia. It is because of them only that the monsoons have a watershed in India.
» The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two almost equal climatic zones, namely, the northern zone and the southern zone. The warm temperate or the subtropical climate of the northern zone gives it cold winter seasons and the hot summer seasons. The southern tropical climatic zone is warmer than the north and does not have a clear-cut winter season.
Forests in India
» According to the National Forest Policy, the minimum desired area which is considered safe for a tropical country like India is about 33%. At present, about 21.23% India is covered with forests.
» Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under forests followed by Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Arunachal Pradesh.
» As per percentage of forest area to total area, first is Andaman and Nicobar Islands, followed by
Mizoram, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Nagaland. They are in a very comfortable position as more than half of their area is under forests.
» Arunachal Pradesh has the highest per capita forest area.
» In Mangrove forests, West Bengal holds the first position, followed by Gujarat and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
» The lowest forest percentage is in Haiyana and Punjab, because of the extensive agriculture.
National Parks and Wildlife
» There are 92 National Parks and 492 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India.
» Madhya Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands have the maximum number of National Parks (9 each) while Andaman and Nicobar Islands has 96 and Maharashtra has 36 Wildlife Sanctuaries (maximum in India). Important ones are
Biosphere Reserves in India
» The biosphere reserve programme was launched by the UNESCO in 1971 under the aegis of its Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme, to provide a global network of protected areas for conserving natural communities.
» It was launched on April 1,1973 to ensure maintenance of viable population of the tigers in India.
Agriculture in India
Cropping Seasons in India
Sown in summers between May and July, and harvested after the rains, in Sept and Oct. e.g., Rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, groundnut, pulses, etc.
Sown at the beginning of winter and harvested before the onset of the summer season, between Feb and April, e.g., Wheat, barley, oilseeds, gram, potatoes, etc.
They are raised between April and June, e.g., Melon, watermelon, cucumber, toris, leafy and other vegetables.
Cash Crops (Commercial Crops)
Grown mainly for the market, only a small portion of the product is consumed by the farmers themselves (cotton, sugarcane etc.)
1. Which of the following do not belong to solar system?
2. Consider the following statements
1. Jupiter seems to be reddish in the day and night.
2. Venus is also known as a star, which is morning star.
3. Venus is the planet, having same area with Earth.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these
3. Which of the following is the brightest planet?
4. Continents have drifted apart because of
(a) volcanic eruptions
(b) tectonic activities
(c) folding and faulting of rocks
(d) All of the above
5. The period of one revolution of Sun around the centre of galaxy is called
(b) Astronomical year
(c) Cosmic year
(d) Light year
6. If there is no Sun, the colour of the sky would be
7. The Saturn rings were discovered by
(d) None of these
8. The shape of our milky way galaxy is
(d) None of these
9. Which of the following phenomenon gives an evidence for the spherical shape of the Earth?
(a) Solar eclipse
(b) Lunar eclipse
(d) Rotation of Earth
10. Solar eclipse occurs when
(a) Earth comes between Sun and Moon
(b) Moon is at right angle to the Earth
(c) Moon comes between Sun and Earth
(d) Sun comes between Moon and Earth
11. The position of the earth in its orbit, when it is at its greatest distance from the Sun causing summer in the Northern hemisphere is
12. It is six months long day in the Northern polar region and six months long night in the Southern polar region because
(a) Earth is revolving around the Sun
(b) Earth is inclined towards its orbital plane
(c) Earth is rotating
(d) None of the above
13. When a ship crosses Date line from west to east
(a) it loses one day
(b) it gains one day
(c) it loses half a day
(d) it gains half a day
14. The chemically inactive gas present in the atmosphere is
(c) water vapour
15. Which of the following sequences of atmospheric layers is correct from below?
(a) Stratosphere, Ionosphere, Troposphere, Troposphere
(b) Ionosphere, Troposphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere
(c) Troposphere, Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere
(d) Troposphere, Troposphere, Ionosphere, Stratosphere
16. A sudden fall in the barometric reading indicates
(c) fine weather
(d) extreme cold
17. The form of precipitation in which the raindrops get frozen into ice on coming in contact with a cold layer of air near the Earth’s surface is called
18. Sun’s halo is produced by the refraction of light in
(a) water vapour in Stratus clouds
(b) ice crystals in Cirro-Cumulus clouds
(c) ice crystals in Cirrus clouds
(d) dust particles in Stratus clouds
19. Smog is likely to occur
(a) around valleys
(b) near lakes
(c) on calm, clear and cool nights
(d) near the industrial areas
20. Which of the following is produced by the rapid ascent of moist air?
21. Anticyclones are caused by
(a) violent wands
(b) heavy rainfall
(c) winds that blow spirally outwards from the centre
(d) winds that blow spirally inwards
22. The instrument used for recording earthquake waves is
23. Match the following
24. Which European country has over 200 volcanoes, many of them still active?
25. Which of the following is not a sedimentary rock?
26. Which of the following pairs is correct?
(a) Shale—possesses laminations
(b) Quartzite—soft rock
(c) Granite—sometimes contains fossils
(d) Basalt—coarse grained rock
27. Which of the following rocks is transformed into marble?
28. Glaciated regions are associated with
(a) V-shaped valley
(b) U-shaped valley
(c) sand dunes
29. Comets revolve around
(d) No single heavenly body
30. Which two planets of the solar system have no satellites?
(a) Mercury and Venus
(b) Venus and Mars
(c) Mercury and Pluto
(d) Venus and Neptune
31. On which of the following planets of the solar system does the Sun rise in the West and set in the East?
32. Which planet looks reddish in the night sky?
33. Halley’s comet appears once in a period of
(a) 24 years
(b) 32 years
(c) 76 years
(d) 84 years
34. ‘Parsec’ is the unit of measurement of
(a) density of stars
(b) astronomical distance
(c) brightness of heavenly bodies
(d) orbital velocity of giant stars
35. Which of the following gases is most predominant in the Sun?
36. The Earth rotates around its axis from
(a) North to South
(b) East to West
(c) South to North
(d) West to East
37. Summer Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere occurs on,
(a) December 22
0(b) September 23
(c) June 21
(d) March 21
38. Which one of the following is produced by rain water action?
39. One degree of longitude on the equator is equal to a distance of
(a) 34.5 miles
(b) 50 miles
(c) 60 miles
(d) 69 miles
40. The Victoria Falls in Africa is located on which river?
41. Lunar eclipse is caused when the
(a) Moon comes between the Sun and the Earth
(b) Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon
(c) Sun comes between the Earth and Moon
(d) None of the above
42. Lunar eclipse does not occur every month because
(a) the Sun’s orbit is not always in the same plane as the Moon
(b) the Moon revolves at a slower speed than the Earth
(c) the Moon’s orbit is not all the time in the same plane as the Earth
(d) None of the above
43. The tide at its maximum height is known as
(b) Neap tide
(c) Spring tide
44. The International Date Line passes through
(a) Bering strait
(b) Gibraltar strait
(c) Florida strait
(d) Malacca strait
45. The Great Barrier Reef is
(a) conglomeration of corals in Australian waters
(b) Mountains range in Utah, USA
(c) Salt hills of Afghanistan
(d) Sub-Oceanic mountain in South China Sea
46. The most important navigable river in Central Europe that provides a link between seven countries- Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Rome, Russia and Yugoslavia is
47. Which one of the following countries celebrates Christmas festival in summer season?
48. Which of the following deserts does not lie in the Northern Hemisphere?
49. Which one among the following covers the highest percentage of forest area in the world?
(a) Temperate Coniferous forests
(b) Temperate Deciduous forests
(c) Tropical Monsoon forests
(d) Tropical Rain forests
50. The greatest average annual precipitation is in
(d) West Indies
51. The climate best suited for horticulture is
52. Deciduous trees are those
(a) that grow up straight
(b) that grow plenty in dry places
(c) that never bear fruits
(d) that shed their leaves during a certain session
53. Which of the following pairings is incorrect?
54. Which of the following is fastest growing tree?
55. Which one of the following agricultural practices is Eco-friendly?
(a) Organic fanning
(b) Shifting cultivation
(c) Cultivation of high yielding varieties
(d) Growing plants in glass houses
56. The leading mica producer in the World is
57. Venice in Italy and Vienna in Austria are famous for
(b) glass industry
(c) chemical industry
(d) textile industry
58. World’s leading producer of fertilizers is
59. The largest exporter of cotton textile in the world is
60. Which of the following countries is the biggest producer of mango?
61. Wind power is employed prominently in
(c) Saudi Arabia
62. The first oil well in India was dug at
(a) Bombay High
63. Indian Standard Time refers to the local time of which one of the following places in India?
64. Which foreign country is closest to Andaman Islands?
(a) Sri Lanka
65. The States which have common borders with China are
1. Jammu and Kashmir
3. Arunachal Pradesh
4. Himachal Pradesh
(a) 1,2 and 4
(b) 1,2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these
66. The percentage of literates in India is
(a) almost equal among males and females
(b) lower among males than fern ales
(c) higher among males than females
(d) lower in urban areas than in rural areas
67. Why has the Green Revolution benefited only a small section of India?
(a) Large dependence on manual labour
(b) Poor storage facilities
(c) Poor farm management and administration
(d) All of the above
68. Lakshadweep is a group of how many islands?
69. Which one of the following is correct? The Palghat Gap serves inland communications from
(a) Madurai to Thiruvananthapuram
(b) Chennai to Kochi
(c) Pune to Mumbai
(d) Bengaluru to Mangalore
70. Which one of the following mountain peaks of Himalayas is not in India?
(b) Nanda Devi
(c) Mt. Kamet
(d) Nanga Parvat
71. The second highest peak in the world is
(b) K-2 (Godwin Austin)
72. The highest peak in South India is
(a) Doda Betta
(d) None of these
73. Which of the following is the main difference between the Western and Eastern Ghats?
(c) Proximity to the coast
74. Which one of the following is the junction point of the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats?
(a) Javadi Hills
(b) Anaimalai Hills
(c) Nilgiri Hills
(d) Shevaroy Hills
75.Where exactly id’Aksai Chin?
(a) Near Leh
(b) The North-East comer of Jammu and Kashmir
(c) Along the Zaskar mountains
(d) South of the Siachen Glacier
76. The Himalayan rivers are
(a) monsoon fed
(b) snow fed
77. By which name does the Brahmaputra enter into India?
78. For which one of the following is Sualkuchi famous?
(a) Bird sanctuary
(b) Temple city
(c) Silk centre
(d) Hill station
79. The river basin which is called ‘Ruhr of India’ is
80. Which of the following is the longest river in India?
81. The longest river of peninsular India is
82.Match the following
83. Why are the Western Slopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forest and not the Eastern Slopes?
(a) High rainfall
(b) High humidity
(c) Gentle gradient
(d) Nearness to the sea
84.By what name is the Ganga known in Bangladesh?
85.Which of the following peninsular rivers is Westward flowing?
86. Which of the following rivers is known as Vridha Ganga?
87. Which of the following is an East flowing river of Indian Peninsula?
88. Loktak lake is located in
89. Which one of the following lakes in India has the highest water salinity?
90.Tehri Dam is being constructed in Uttrakhand on the river
91. The port especially developed for exporting iron ore to Japan is
(b) New Tuticorin
92.Match the following
93. The soil formed by the deposition of silt brought by rivers is
(a) alluvial soil
(b) red soil
(c) black soil
(d) pod soil
94.The region of Darjeeling Hills is famous for which type of vegetation?
(a) Mangrove forests
(b) Mountain forests
(c) evergreen forests
(d) (b) and (c)
95.Duncan Passage is situated between
(a) Minicoy and Amindiv
(b) Minicoy and Maldives
(c) Little Andaman and Car Nicobar
(d) South Andaman and Little Andaman
96. Ten Degree Channel is behVeen
(a) Dover and Calais
(b) Alaska and Russia
(c) Little Andaman and Car Nicobar
(d) North Korea and South Korea
97. In which state is Maikal range situated?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Madhya Pradesh
98. The correct order of the given hills from West to East is
99. The mountain pass Nathula is located in
(a) Arunachal Pradesh
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Jammu and Kashmir
100. In which state is Jog Falls located?
(c) Tamil Nadu