SSC CHSL Topic Wise Study Material – English Language – Spotting Errors (Tense, Subject-Verb Agreement, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Articles, Adverb)
In the questions based on Spotting Errors, a sentence is given which is usually divided into three parts (a), (b) and (c). The candidate is required to find out the part which has an error. If the sentence is correct, you have to choose (d) which signifies a‘No error’ response.
* Read the complete sentence before selecting the part with the error
* Look for the error in the use of Preposition, Conjunction, Adverb and Verb particularly
* Keep in mind the various exceptions to the grammatical rules.
* Remember the sentence may not contain any error.
* Avoid extra effort and creating an error yourself.
1. In the following question, a part of the sentence may have an error. Find out, which part of the sentence has an error and select the appropriate option. If a sentence is free from error, select ‘No error’.
Although of good(A)/rains the production (B)/of food grains fell. (C) / No error (D) SSC (10+2) 2017
(a) ‘Although of good’ should be replaced with ‘Despite good’ to make the sentence correct.
Directions (Q.Nos, 2-6) Some parts of the sentences have errors and some are correct. Find out which part of a sentence has an error. If a sentence is free from error, your answer is “No error”(10+2) 2015
2. Whoever assumes his statement true is foolish
(a) No error
(b) is foolish
(c) his statement true
(d) Whoever assumes
(b)Use ‘a fool’ in place of ’foolish’.
3. Iodine deficiency is an easy and inexpensive nutrient disorder to prevent.
(a) Iodine deficiency
(b) No error
(c) is an easy and inexpensive
(d) nutrient disorder to prevent
(a) Use ’deficiency’ in place of ’disorder’.
4. The people gathered at the funeral to pay respect.
(a) at the funeral
(b) No error
(c) The people gathered
(d) to pay respect
(d) It should be ’to pay homage’.
3. When the workers threatened to go on a strike, the mill owner declared a lay off on his mill.
(a) No error
(b) declared a lay off on his mill
(c) go on a strike, the mill owner
(d) When the workers threatened to
(a) Remove ‘a’. Go on strike is the correct phrase.
Directions (Q.Nos.6-10) In the following questions, some parts of the sentences have errors and some are correct. Find out which part of a sentence has an error. If a sentence is free from error, your answer is (d). SSC (10 + 2) 2014
6. The crime rate increases inspite (a)/formal moral education (b)/given in schools. (c)/No error (d)
(a) Use ‘inspite of or ‘despite’ in place of ‘inspite’.
7. As soon as they (a)/entered the temple (b)/they prayed to the gods on bent knees, (c)/No error (d)
(c) Remove ‘the’.
8. Three-fourths of the men (a)/has gone (b)/to war. (c)/No error (d)
(b)Use ‘have’ in place of ‘has’.
9. The conversation (a)/we are having is completely (b)/out of the mam topic. (c)/No error (d)
(c) It should be ‘irrelevant to the main topic’.
10. A five men (a)/enquiry committee was appointed (b)/to look into the matter. (c)/No error (d)
(b) Remove ‘enquiry’, its use is superfluous.
Directions (Q.Nos. 11-15) In the following questions, some parts of the sentences have errors and some are correct. Find out which part of a sentence has an error. If a sentence is free from error, your answer is (d), SSC (10+2) 2013
11. The redevelopment project is aimed (a)/ not just providing good houses to shanty dwellers (b)/ but also developing infrastructure around the major Mumbai localities, (c)/ No error (d)
12. Unless he apologies (a)/ he should not be (b)/ allowed to stay with us. (c)/ No error (d)
13. I met the gentleman (a)/ today morning on my way (b) to the market, (c) / No error (d)
14. She regards (a) / negotiating prices with customers (b)/ as her special expertise, (c)/ No error (d)
15. The police is investigating (a)/ for the recent happening (b)/ in the area, (c)/ No error (d)
Tense is the study of the forms of the verb. It is a category of the verb such as Present, Past and Future, that expresses the relation between what is reported ma sentence and the time of its utterance.
- In Present Indefinite Sentences, the number and person of the subject play very important role.
If the subject is singular number third person, affix ‘s’ or -es’ to the verb.
(a) He goes to school everyday.
(b) She prays to God.
- When the main verb is in future, use Present Simple m clauses with ; If, till, as soon as, j when, unless, before, until, even, if in case and as. , , .
(a) They will wait till we arrive.
(b) I shall not go there even if it rams
- Present Simple must be used instead of the Present Continuous with verbs of perception,(feel, hear, smell etc), Verbs of cognition (believe, know, think etc), Verbs of emotion (hope, love, hate etc) which cannot be used normally in Continuous form.
(a) We see with our eyes.
(b) Do you hear a strange noise?
In case if you make the above sentences in these way
(a) We are seeing with our eyes.
(b) Are you hearing a strange noise?
- Both are incorrect sentences.‘Don’t use progressive form with see and hear.
But these verbs can be used progressive form in the following cases.
I .The Session Judge is hearing our case.
II .We are thinking of going to USA next year.
III .He is minding (looking after) the children, his wife is away.
IV .I’m seeing my lawyer today.
V .I am having some difficulties with this puzzle.
- One must not use adverbs of past time like; yesterday, last year, last month, ago short while ago etc. with . Present Perfect Tense.
Rahul has completed his book yesterday. (Incorrect)
Rahul completed his book yesterday. (Correct)
- Use of Since/For Students to commit mistake in using ‘Since’ or ‘For’. Please note; For’ is used for ‘Period of Time’ and ‘Since’ is used for ‘Point of Time’. With morning, evening etc use since and with ‘some time’, ‘hours’, ‘months’ etc use ‘for’.
(a) It has been raining since morning.
(b) I have been studying for two hours.
- In the following structure the use of Simple Past denotes ‘Unreal Past’ and Present Time Situation.
(a) It is time we went home.
(It is time for us to go home)
(b) It is time you finished. (It is time for you to finish)
- Use of Past Continuous with ‘When’ and ‘while’ ‘When’ is usually used when one action was completed and another action was going on.
(a) When Mr. Sharma arrived, his wife was washing clothes.
‘While’ is used when two actions were going on at a time.
(b) While she was cooking, I was watching T V.
- Past Perfect is used when we look back on earlier action from a certain point in the past.
She had written an essay before I reached there.
- The Past Perfect is also used for an action which began before the time of speaking in the. past and which stopped some time before the time of speaking.
He had served in a bank for twenty years, then he retired and established’ his business. His children were now well settled
Here we cannot use either since or the Past Perfect Continuous.
- Past Perfect Continuous is used when the action began before the time of speaking in the past and continued up to that time.
It was now eight and she was tired because she had been cleaning the house since dawn.
- When two actions are to be taken place on some future time, we use Future Perfect for the action completed first and Present Simple for the action to be completed afterwards.
(a) The student will have left the class before the teacher comes.
(b) The Principal will have started before I reach there.
- Future Perfect is also used for such incidents/actions about which we presume that another person already had the knowledge of that incident or the action is already completed by that time.
(a) You will have heard about Indira Gandhi who was the first lady Prime Minister in India.
(b) He will have read the newspaper so far.
Directions (Q.Nos. 1-15) Find out the part which has an error in the following sentences. If there is no error, your answer is (d).
1.We already left (a)/ the station (b)/ when our host came, (c) / No error (d)
2.Nowadays he teaches physics (a)/ because the teacher of physics (b) / has been absenting himself for a month, (c)/ No error (d)
3.My sister has gone (a)/ to England for higher study (b) / only a month ago. (c) / No error (d)
4.When they (a) / were playing hockey (b) / he had been sleeping, (c) / No error (d)
5.When you will find out (a) / any solution to this problem (b) / you will become able to finalize the project, (c) / No error (d)
6.He came to the meeting (a) / much later (b) / than I expect, (c) / No error (d)
7.I could not recall (a) / what he has told me (b) / about her concern with Mahesh. (c)/ No error (d)
8.She (a)/ did not write (b)/ the letter till now(c)/ No error (d)
9.Many observations indicate (a)/ that the number of the drug addicts (b) / is grew day by day. (c) / No error (d)
10.I knew our college library was run chaotically (a) / but only recently did I discover (b) / how bad the situation is. (c)/ No error (d)
11. He asked (a) / why he does not (b) / join the picnic party, (c) / No error (d)
12. My wife is painting (a)/ the furniture (b)/ whenever she has time, (c)/ No error (d)
13. The police break open (a)/ the trunk (b)/ and found the looted jewelery, (c) / No error, (d)
14.The secret of his good health lies in the fact (a)/ that he is getting up before sunrise (b)/ and has a two mile walk every morning, (c)/ No error (d)
15. Looking into the situation (a)/ that prevailed a few years ago (b)/ he was taken that decision. (c)/ No error (d)
Verifying the Answers
1. Say ‘had already left’
2. Use ‘is teaching’ for ’teaches’
3. Use ‘went’ in place of ‘has gone’
4. Say ‘was sleeping’
5. Delete ‘will’
6. Say ‘I had expected’
7. Use ‘had’ for ‘has’
8.Say ‘ has not written’
9.Say ‘is growing’
10.Use ‘was’ for ’is’
11.Use ‘ did not’ in place of ’does not’
12.Say ‘paints’ for ‘is painting’
13.Say ‘broke open’
14.Use ’gets up’ in place of ‘is getting up’
15.Say ’took’ for ‘was taken’
The subject and the verb are the essential parts of a sentence. A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.
* If the subject is singular, verb must be singular.
If the subject is plural, verb must be plural.
* Noun + s/es – Plural Verb + s/es – Singular
Some Important Rules
- Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by and take a plural verb.
(i) He and his sister were playing.
(ii) Gold and silver are precious metals.
(iii) Fire and water do not agree.
- If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb must be singular.
(i) The magistrate and collector has come.
(ii) The poet and critic has been honoured.
(iii) A red and white bull is in the field.
- When the article is used before only one noun, one person/thing is intended and hence the verb must be singular.
(i) If you are fortune’s favourite, you might escape suffering while others suffer.
(ii) He is at death’s door.
- When the article is used before both the nouns, two different persons/things are intended and hence the verb must be plural.
(i) The magistrate and the collector Have come.
(ii) The poet and the critic have been honoured.
(iii) A red and a white bull are in the field.
- When two or more subjects are joined by as well as, like, besides, with, in addition to, together with, along with, but, except etc, the verb is used according to the first subject.
(i) The leader with all his followers was arrested.
(ii) The ship along with its crew was lost.
(iii) The guru as well as his disciples is committed to celibacy.
- Either, neither, each, every,’anyone, someone, nobody must be followed by a singular verb.
(i) Neither of your friends is intelligent.
(ii) Each of these substances is found in India.
(iii) Either of them has done this.
- When the subjects joined by or, nor, either__or, neither__nor are of different persons, the verb agrees with the nearer.
(i) Either you or I am going.
(ii) Neither Rekha nor her friends were present at the party.
(iii) You or she is to blame.
- If two subjects together express one idea, tire verb is singular.
(i) Honour and glory is his reward.
(ii) Whisky and soda,was served in the party.
(iii) The horse and carnage is at the door.
- If the subject of a clause is a relative pronoun (who, which, that), the verb is used according to the antecedent of the relative pronoun.
(i) The boys who are playing are my friends.
(ii) It is I who am helping you.
(iii) She knows the boys who have broken the glass.
- When plural nouns explain specific amount, distance, quantity, time or period as a whole, the verb should be singular
(i) Fifty rupees was the amount given to her.
(ii) Three hours is too short a time to judge one’s character.
(iii) Hundred miles is a long distance.
- When nouns like glasses, shoes, scissors, pants, trousers, spectacles etc are used as subject, the verb is plural.
(i) His trousers are very loose.
(ii) My scissors are sharp.
(iii) Your spectacles were on the table.
- If a pair of is used before these nouns, the verb must be singular,
(i) A pair of scissors has been bought.
(ii) A pair of shoes was presented to him.
- Furniture, luggage, scenery, information, poetry, percentage, knowledge, advice, news, music etc are always singular and take a singular verb.
(i) All his luggage was thrown out.
(ii) Wordsworth’s poetry is immortal.
(iii) The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.
- Some nouns like politics, billiards, darts, bowls, physics, civics, statistics, measles, mumps etc are plural in form, but singular in meaning and take a singular verb.
(i) Measles is a dangerous disease.
(ii) Politics was the business of his life.
(iii) Mathematics is an interesting subject.
- When the or possessive adjectives (my, your, his etc) are used before the nouns ending with ‘ics’, the verb is plural
(i) The physics of Rakesh are not good.
(ii) His statistics are good.
- Nouns like jury, council, mob, committee, army, family, audience, team, crew, government etc take a singular verb when the collection is thought of as a whole.
(i) The committee has issued its report.
(ii) The government has done so in its interest.
(iii) The mob has dispersed.
- When the individuals of which a collective noun is composed are thought of, a plural verb is used
(i) The committee were divided in their opinions.
(ii) The government have done so in their interest.
(iii) The mob were dispersed in all directions.
- People, folk, gentry, cattle, police, children etc are plural and take a plural verb.
(i) The police have arrested the criminal.
(ii) The cattle are grazing in the field.
(iii) Children love cartoons.
- After I wish/as if/as though/if a plural verb is used to express regret, unfulfilled wish and unlikely condition.
(i) I wish I were a millionaire.
(ii) He commanded me as if he were my boss.
(iii) If I were a bird I would fly to you.
- Many a/an must be followed by a singular verb.
(i) Many a man does not know his own good deeds.
(ii) Many a girl has failed.
(iii) Many a man has resigned in crisis.
Directions (Q. Nos. 1-15) Find out the part which has an error in the following sentences. If there is no error, your answer is (d).
1. All, one can gather (a) / from the children are that (b) / there was a loud noise and smoke, (c)/ No error (d)
2.Many a man (a)/ have been working (b)/ under me. (c) / No error, (d)
3.Why we do not meet (a)/ to discuss this matter (b) / in detail on next Sunday ? (c) / No error (d)
4.The sum and substance (a) / of the passage is (b) /beyond my understanding, (c) / No error (d)
5. Four miles are not (a)/ a long distance for (b)/ a young person like you. (c) / No error (d)
6. Neither Sunil nor I (a)/ are leaving (b)/ for Mumbai, (c) / No error (d)
7. The rest of the students (a) / is still working (b) / in the classroom, (c)/ No error (d)
8. He don’t know (a)/ the difference between (b)/ a ship and a submarine, (c)/ No error (d)
9. Ramesh possess (a)/ all the good qualities which (b)/ every ideal student should possess, (c)/ No error (d)
10.The period of twenty-five years (a) / have passed and still (b)/ he is without a job. (c)/ No error (d)
11.From Mumbai the Rajdhani Express (a)/ do not go (b) / straight to New Delhi, (c) / No error (d)
12.Our source of information (a) / was the spies (b) / captured during the raid, (c)/ No error (d)
13.The issues are complex (a)/ and has been obscured (b)/ by other factors, (c)/ No error (d)
14.His benevolence and kindness (a)/ are admired (b)/ by his friends, (c)/ No error /(d)
15.Just to the North of India (a)/ is the Himalayas (b)/ that were once impregnable, (c)/ No error (d)
Verifying the Answers
1. Use ‘is’ in place of ‘are’
2. Say ‘has been working’
3. Say ‘do we not’
4. No error
5. Use ‘is’ for ‘are’
6. Use ‘am’ in place of ‘are’
7. Use ‘are’ for ‘is’
8. Say ‘ He doesn’t know’
9. Say ‘possesses’ m Use ’has’ for ‘have’
11. Say ‘does not go’
12. No error
13. Use ‘have’ in place of ‘has’
14. Use ’is’ for ’are’
15. Say ‘are the Himalayas’
Noun is a word or group of words that refers to a person, place or thing.
- Some nouns always remain in plural form. They take plural verb. These nouns have no singular form.
Assets, alms, amends, annals, archives, ashes, arrears, athletics, auspices, species, scissors, trousers, pants, clippers, bellows,’ gallows, fangs, measles, eyeglasses, goggles, belongings, breeches, bowels, braces, binoculars, dregs, earnings, entrails, ‘ embers, fetters, fireworks, longings, lees, odds, outskirts, particulars, proceeds, proceedings, riches, remains, shambles, shears, spectacles, surroundings etc.
- Some nouns look plural in form but have singular meaning. Such nouns take singular verb.
News, innings, politics, . summons, physics, economics, ethics, mechanics, mathematics, measles, mumps, rickets, billiards, draughts etc.
- Some nouns look singular but have plural meaning. Such nouns take plural verbs.
Cattle, clergy, cavalry;,-infantry, poultry, peasantry, , ,r /children, gentry, police, etc,
- Some nouns are always used in singular. These are uncountable nouns. We should not use article A/An with such nouns.
Scenery, poetry, furniture, advice, information, hair, language, business, mischief, bread, stationery, crockery, luggage, baggage, postage, knowledge, wastage, money, jewellery, breakage etc.
It is incorrect to write sceneries, informations, furnitures. If hair is used as countable it can be pluralized as one hair, two hairs.
- Some nouns have the same form in singular as well as in plural, Examples deer, fish, crew, family, team, jury, carp, pike, trout, aircraft, counsel, swine, vermin etc.
- Some nouns have plural meaning. If a definite numeral adjective is used before them they are not pluralized.
Pair, score, gross, stone, hundred, dozen, thousand, million, billion etc.
These nouns can be pluralized as
Dozens of women, Hundreds of people, Millions of dollars, Scores of shops, many pairs of shoes, thousands millions etc.
- If the same noun is repeated after preposition, the noun will be singular.
(a) Town after town was devastated.
(b) Row upon row of pink marble looks beautiful.
- If a numeral adjective and a fraction are used with a noun, the noun is used with the numeral and the noun will be in singular
(a) He gave me one and a half rupees. (Incorrect)
(b) She gave me two and a quarter rupees. (Incorrect)
- Some nouns are known as common gender nouns. They can be used for either sex, Male or Female. These are called dual gender noun.
Teacher, student, child, clerk, candidate, advocate, worker, writer, author, leader, musician, politician, enemy, client, president, person, neighbour etc. When these are used in singular, use third person singular masculine (his) pronoun with them.
(a) Every candidate, should write his (not her) name.
(b) Every person should perform his (not her) duty.
Each, either, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, neither, anybody are also common gender pronoun.
- Some nouns are used for specifically feminine gender only. Like blonde, maid, mid wife, coquette, virgin etc.
Now-a-days noun ‘bachelor’ and ‘virgin’ are being used for masculine and feminine gender as well.
Use of Apostrophe with ‘s’
- You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in ‘s’ by adding an apostrophe and ‘s’. We should use apostrophe in following situations only
(a) Living things -> Mohan’s book
(b) Thing personified, as -> week’s holiday
(c) Space time or weight, as -> a day’s leave
(d) Certain dignified objects, as ->
1. the court’s orders
2. at duty’s call
(e) Familiar phrases as
1. at his wit’s end
2. at a stone’s throw
- Do not use ‘Double apostrophe.’ Avoid double apostrophe in a sentence.
My wife’s secretary’s mother has expired. (Incorrect)
The mother of my wife’s secretary has expired.(Correct)
- Apostrophe with ‘s’ is used with, anybody/ nobody/everybody/somebody/anyone/someone/no one/everyone.
Everyone’s concern is no one’s concern.
- If else is used after these words, use apostrophe with else as per following
I rely on your words, not somebody else’s
- You can form the Possessive case of a plural noun that does hot end in ‘s’ by adding an apostrophe and a ‘s’, as in the following example
The men’s cricket team will play as soon as the women’s team is finished.
- You can form the Possessive case of a plural noun that does end in ‘s’ by adding an apostrophe.
The concert was interrupted by the dogs barking, the ducks quacking and the babies squalling.
- Do not use apostrophe with Possessive pronoun like his, hers, yours, mine, ours, its, theirs etc.
Yours faithfully, yours truly.
- Use apostrophe with the last word in following titles
Directions (Q.Nos. 1-15) Find out the part which has an error in the following sentences. If there is no error, your answer is (d).
1. It is not my business (a) / to give an advice to those (b) / who are not sensible enough to deal with their own problems, (c) / No error (d)
2. I don’t think (a)/ it is your house (b)/ it is somebody’s else, (c)/ No error (d)
3. She misplaced her spectacle (a)/ and is now feeling (b) / great difficulty in studying, (c) / No error (d)
4. Arabian Nights are (a)/ a collection of (b)/ very interesting episodes of adventure, (c)/ No error (d)
5. I hope to visit (a)/ my uncle only next year (b)/ during summer vacations, (c)/ No error (d)
6. Ration has run out (a)/ and the District Magistrate (b) / has been informed, (c) / No error (d)
7. The table’s wood (a)/ is infested with mite (b)/ and I am likely to dispose it off. (c) / No error (d)
8. The morale of the army (a)/ was high because the news (b) / coming from the front are very encouraging, (c) / No error (d)
9. I can’t come to you now (a)/ because a lot of works (b)/ remains to be done, (c)/ No error (d)
10. A farmer was leading oxes (a)/ to his field for ploughing (b) / early in the morning, (c)/ No error (d)
11. One of the most (a) / widely spread bad habit (b) / is the use of tobacco, (c)/ No error (d)
12. Recently I visited Kashmir (a)/ and found the sceneries (b) / to be marvelous, (c) / No error (d)
13. All the furniture’s have been (a)/ sent to the new house (b)/ located in a village, (c)/ No error (d)
14. The crowd of angry students (a)/ ordered the (b)/ closing of shops, (c)/ No error (d)
15. They left (a)/ their luggage’s (b)/ at the railway station, (c)/ No error (d)
Verifying the Answers
Pronoun is one of a class of words that serves to replace a noun or noun phrase that has already been or is about to be mentioned in the sentence or context.
- A pronoun should clearly refer the noun it stands for. When it is not obvious to which antecedent a pronoun refers, the sentence should be corrected This can be done either by repeating the noun or by rewriting the sentence to make the meaning clear.
(a) My friend was there with his friend. He was playing hockey.
(b) My friend, wearing a blue shirt, was there with his uncle.
- A noun or pronoun which forms part of a prepositional phrase is said to be the object of the preposition. Personal pronoun in the objective case are used as objects of preposition.
(a) Please give the document to him.
(b) They went with her.
The underlined pronoun are the objects of the prepositions to with.
- The Possessive adjective must agree with their antecedents.
(a) The boy obeys his father.
(b) The girls like her mother.
(c) The bird sat on its nest.
- Possessive adjectives are used with gerunds. When a gerund is preceded by a personal pronoun, the pronoun must be in the form of a Possessive adjective.
(a) The girl said that her writing had improved.
(b) The boy entertained the guests with his singing.
In the above examples, the gerunds are underlined and the Possessive adjectives are printed in bold type.
- The possessive form of a personal pronoun which is called as a possessive pronoun, can be used in the place of a noun.
(a) He did not bring his briefcase, but I brought mine.
(b) Because I forgot my pen, she lent me hers
In the above sentences, the possessive pronouns are underlined.
- Pronoun follows Let When a pronoun follows ‘let’, we use the objective form of the pronoun. We should not use subjective form after ‘let’.
(a) Let you and I decide the matter once for all. (Incorrect)
(b) Let you and me decide the matter once for all.(Correct)
- Different person pronoun with the same verb If pronoun of different persons are used with the same verb in a sentence, they should be placed in following sequence.
(i) If all the pronoun are in singular form then the good manners demand that second person pronoun should come first and then the third person. The first person should take the last position, i.e., 2 + 3 + 1.
(a) You, he and I are partners.
(b) He and I are good friends.
(ii) If pronoun are in plural forms then the sequence should be 1+2+3, it means the first person plural pronoun is followed by second and third person plural pronouns.
(a) We and you cannot live together.
(b) We you and they can purchase that complex.
(iii) Sometimes the sentence have some apologetic sense or negative sense or sense of some errors committed etc in such sentence the good manners demand, to accept the guilt first by the speaker that . means by the first person. In such case the sequence should be 1+2+3.
(a) I and you are responsible for the loss.
(b) You and he spoiled the party.
- If a pronoun refers to more than one noun or pronoun of different persons, it must be of the first person plural in case, noun or pronoun are first and second person and if noun or pronoun referred by the pronoun are second and third person it must be second person plural. In case of noun or pronoun of first and third person, the pronoun must be first person plural.
II + I….. I Person plural
II + III….II Person plural
III + I…..I Person plural
(a) You and I have done our job.
(b) You and he have completed your job.
- If a collective noun is used as a unit denoting a unitary action as a whole, the pronoun used is singular and in neutral gender.
(a) The crew revolted and murdered its captain
(b) After three days, the jury gave its verdict.
- If the collective noun denotes separation or division, the pronoun used is plural.
The jury were divided in their opinions.
- When two or more noun are joined by ‘and’ the pronoun used would be plural.
(a) Ram and Mohan went to their school.
(b) The.collector and magistrate is negligent in his duty.
- When two singular noun are joined by and preceded by each or every, the pronoun used would be singular.
Every teacher and every boy was in his room.
- Singular pronoun and singular verb is used with; Each, Either and Neither
(a) Each of the students is ready to do his duty.
(b) Neither of them gets his turn.
- Singular pronoun is used when two or more singular nouns are joined by ‘or.’ ‘Either …. or’, ‘Neither…nor’.
Either Ramesh or Ganesh lost his purse. .
- But if one noun is plural, then the pronoun should be plural and plural noun should be placed near the verb.
Either the principal or the teachers failed in their duty.
It denotes a class of pronoun that refer back to the subject of a sentence or clause.
- When pronoun are combined, the reflexive will take either the first person or when there is no first person, the second person.
(a) Ram and I have deceived ourselves about purchasing a house.
(b) You and Ram have ruined yourselves.
- Transitive verbs take object with them. Such commonly used verbs are: avail, absent, enjoy, resign, apply, revenge, exert etc.
(a) I absented myself from the office.
(b) I revenged myself upon her.
- Verbs when used intransitively don’t need an object. Such commonly used verbs are : keep, break, set, bathe, make, stop, steal, qualify, move, open, draw, rest, roll, burst, hide, feed, gather etc. These verbs are commonly used intransitively.
(a) He kept himself away from the function. (Incorrect)
(b) He kept away from the function. (Correct)
- The indefinite pronoun one has its own reflexive form.
One must have faith in oneself.
An Emphatic pronoun refers back to another noun or pronoun in the sentence to emphasize it. The Emphatic pronoun (such as myself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves) consist of a personal pronoun plus self or selves. The Emphatic pronoun is used to emphasize a noun. It is possible (but rather unusual) for an Emphatic pronoun to precede the noun it refers to. (Myself, I don’t believe a word she says). Usually Emphatic pronoun is placed after the noun it refers.
(a) I myself solved this question.
(b) She herself found the solution.
Reciprocal Pronoun Is used when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other.
‘Each other’ and ‘one another’ are only two Reciprocal Pronoun. These are always used objectively.
As per traditional theory each other is used for two and one another for more than two.
For you and I are foreigners to one another.
Reciprocal pronoun can also take possessive forms.
(a) They both borrowed each other’s ideas.
(b) The students in this dab often use one another’s equipment.
Who is used as the subject of a verb, whom is used as the object of a verb or the object of a preposition and whose is used as an adjective denoting possession. The relative pronoun who, whom and whose generally refer only to persons and are used either in defining or non-defining relative clauses. Who refers to the subject of the sentence whom refers to the object of a verb or a preposition, while whose refers the possession and it is used as adjective.
In the following examples, who introduces the defining relative clause who secures the highest marks and the non-defining relative clause who is learning Russian.
(a) The child who secures the highest marks will receive a trophy.
(b) My brother, who is learning Russian, wants to travel to Kazhakistan.
In these examples, who has the antecedents child and brother and acts as the subject verbs secures and learning.
In the following examples, whom introduces the defining relative clause whom we visited and the non-defining relative clause whom we, will meet tomorrow.
(a) The girl whom we visited is her sister
(b) Mr. Francis, whom we will meet tomorrow, will be our guide.
In these examples, whom has the antecedents sister and Mr. Francis and acts as the object of the verbs visited and will meet.
In the following examples, to whom introduces the defining relative clause to whom you gave your Umbrella and the non-defining relative clause to whom we send a birthday card every year
(a) The girl to whom you gave your umbrella lives near my house.
(b) His aunt, to whom we send a birthday card every year, is ninety-eight years old now.
In these examples, whom has the antecedents, aunt and is the object of the preposition to.
In the following examples; whose introduces the defining relative clause whose house was sold and the non defining relative clause whose family lives in America.
(a) The man whose house was sold will leave this town.
(b) My brother, whose family lives in America, will visit us for a few days.
In these examples, whose has the antecedents man and brother and modifies the noun house and family. In the
case of whose, it should be noted that it is the antecedent which must be a person, the noun being modified may be ‘ a person or a thing.
As a relative pronoun, that can refer to either persons or things. The relative pronoun that is generally used only in defining relative clauses.
(a) The girls that were here yesterday will return in a week.
(b) The bag that was on the steps belongs to our, tenant.
In these examples, that has the antecedents girls and bag and introduces the defining relative clauses that were here yesterday and that was on the steps. Here, that acts as the subject of the verbs were and was.
- That can be used for living and non-living nouns, for singular as well as plurals.
(a) I have lost the book that you gave me.
(b) He that is content is happy.
- No preposition is used before that, if any preposition is required to be used, it is used in ending position.
(a) We know the hotel that she lives in.
(b) This is the lady that I told you about.
- In a sentence after the following words that is generally used All, any, anybody, anything, much, nothing, little, somebody, no one, none, the same + noun + that, the only + noun + that etc.
(a) Ail that glitters is not gold.
(b) There was none that didn’t support the cause.
- After interrogative pronoun ‘who’ and ‘what’ that is used!
(a) What is it that you can’t solve.
(b) Who was there that you were talking with.
It is important to note that when used as a relative pronoun, which refers only to things, when used as an adjective or interrogative pronoun, which can refer to either persons or things.
The book which I purchased last week is very useful.
Preferring ‘that’ to ‘who’ or ‘which’
- That is preferably used after Superlative degree instead of who or which.
He is the most eloquent speaker that I have ever heard.
- After two antecedents one referring a person and the other referring an animal or a thing, use that, instead of who or which.
The boy and his dog that entered the temple were caught by the people.
- After ‘same’ or ‘such’ use ‘as’ or That’ not ‘who’ or ‘which’.
This is the same fellow that came yesterday also.
Relative pronoun what is used without antecedents. When it used as a relative pronoun, what has the meaning the thing or things that.
What you say is not true.
- The antecedent of a relative pronoun should not be in possessive case
These are chairman’s instructions’ that must be followed. (Incorrect)
It is an incorrect structure. This sentence should have been written as following
These are the instructions of the chairman that must be followed.(Correct)
- The relative pronoun should be of same number and person as its antecedent. It means the verb should agree with the number and. person of the antecedent.
(a) The girl who was late was fined.
(b) The girls who were late were-fined.
Each, Either and Neither are classified as Distributive pronouns. They denote person or thing one at a time. These pronouns are always treated as singular and take singular verbs.
fa) Each of the students gets a prize.
(b) Either of the two will win the race..
(c) Every one of the students was happy.
(d) Each of the two students, received a medal.
Each can be used of two or more persons or things and is normally used to small number. Every is not normally used of very small numbers. Each can be used for more than two when the number is usually definite. Both take a singular verb.
Who/Whom in relative clause A frequent source of trouble is sentences of this type
(a)The person who (or .whom?) we thought was guilty proved to be innocent.
(b) The man who (or whom?) we feared we had . injured proved to be unharmed.
The temptation is always to use whom, presumably because it is felt that the word is the object of thought and feared (or whatever verb takes their place, in other sentences), but it is not. In the first sentence, it is the subject- of was guilty, hence, who is correct and in the second) the object of had injured hence whom is required. If there is any doubt, a useful test is to substitute the personal pronoun he or him, if he would be used, the correct relative is who, if him, it is whom.
(a) We thought he was guilty. (therefore who)
(b) We feared we had injured him. (therefore whom)
(c) We thought him to be guilty. (therefore whom) A similar difficulty may arise with questions
Who (not whom) do you think we saw?
Because it is the object of saw
Whom is never indirect object Whom is not used as an indirect object. We do not say the boy whom I gave the book or ask whom did you give the book? It must be to whom (or the preposition may Re placed at the end).
The verb after who Who is the same number and person as its antecedent and takes its verb accordingly.
It is I who am to blame.
Directions (Q.Nos. 1-15) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if any will be in one part of the sentence, the number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (d).
1. The audience (a) / are requested (b) / to be in its seats, (c)/ No error (d)
2. The scientist must follow (a) / his hunches and his data (b) / wherever it may lead, (c) / No error (d)
3. I am used to (a)/ many guests everyday (b)/ but there was none today, (c) / No error (d)
4. The number of vehicles (a) / plying on this road (b) / is more than on the main road, (c) / No error (d)
5. Being a destitute (a) / I admitted him (b) / to an old people’s home, (c) / No error (d)
6. One should make / (a) his best efforts if one wishes to achieve (b) / success in this organization, (c) / No error (d)
7. May I (a) / know who you want (b) / to see please.(c) / No error (d)
8. Our is the only country (a) / in the world that can boast of (b) / unity in diversity, (c) / No error (d)
9. Last summer he went (a) / to his uncle’s village (b) / and enjoyed very much, (c) / No error (d)
10. If I were him (a) / I would have taught (b) / those cheats a lesson, (c) / No error (d)
11. Those sort of people (a) / usually do not (b) / earn fame in society, (c) / No error (d)
12. Being a very (a) / hot day I (b) / remained indoors, (c) / No error (d)
13. Had I come (a) / to know about his difficulties (b) / I would have certainly helped, (c) / No error (d)
14. One of them (a) / forgot to take their bag (b) / from the school, (c) / No error (d)
15. Mr Sharma, our representative, (a) / he will attend the meeting (b) / on our behalf, (c) / No error (d)
Verifying the Answers
An adjective is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to add something to its meaning.
Kinds of Adjective
Adjective of Quality Show the traits of person or a thing.
Flowers were plucked, fresh.
Fresh flowers were plucked.
(a) Verbal / Oral
Verbal pertains to words
Oral means mouth.
His verbal words spoken orally, are more dangerous than his figures on paper.
Elder and Eldest for blood relation only.
Old/Older/Oldest for both persons and things.
(i) My friend is older than I am.
(ii) I am his elder brother.
Farther Geographical distance (comparative degree). Its superlative is farthest.
Further besides (in addition to).
Nearest shows distance.
Next shows position.
The nearest post-office is next to the college.
Rules of Degrees
- Double comparative and double superlative are not used
- The Adjective ending in-er (e.g., wiser) should be used as more wise while comparing two qualities of the same person or thing.
- In comparative cases, other is used with than.
- In Superlative case,other is not used.
e.g., Samudragupta was the most powerful of all kings of his time.
- Adjectives expressing qualities, that do not have different degrees, cannot be compared.
Perfect, complete, circular, finish, square, empty, impossible enough, full, unique, wonderful, marvelous excellent, Ultimate.
- Similar things should be compared when we compare two things.
- The comparative degree is generally followed by than, but the following comparative adjectives are followed by the preposition to.
Superior, inferior, junior, senior, prefer, preferable, elder, younger, prior, etc.
(i) He is senior to me
(ii) I prefer tea to coffee
- If there is a gradual increase, it is expressed with two comparatives and not with positives.
(i) Indian fielding is getting better and better day-by-day.
(ii) He bacame more and more intelligent while studying.
- When two adjectives qualify the same noun, both the adjectives should be represented in the same degree.
- The adjectives ’little’ and few’ are not made to qualify the nouns ’quantity’ and ’number’ Instead ’small’ should be used to qualify these nouns.
- Do not say two first for first two.
- When two adjectives in different degrees of comparison are used in the same sentence, each should be complete in itself.
- Worth + V1 + ing is placed after the same noun it qualifies.
(i) Taj Mahal is a monument worth visiting.
(ii) Computer is a commodity worth buying.
(a) Hard / Hardly
Hard Difficult, tough
Hardly Rarely, a little
(i) He studies hard, (i.e., works very hard in studies)
(ii) He hardly studies, (i.e., weak in studies)
(b) Late / Lately
(i) Lately he is coming late from the office.
Near: At short distance
(i) Although he was near the truck, he nearly escaped.
Directions (Q.Nos. 1-15) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if any, will he in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, the answer is (d).
1. Neither she is intelligent (a) / not hard working (b) / and still she expects to secure first class, (c) / No error (d)
2. I requested him (a) / to lend me few books (b) / that might help me in studies, (c) / No error (d)
3. Your essay (a) / should not exceed more than (b) / hundred words, (c) / No error (d)
4. He is the tallest (a) / than anybody (b) / in the school, (c) / No error (d)
5. I was surprised (a) / to see her speak (b) / with somewhat anger, (c) / No error (d)
6. My brother is elder (a) / than me although (b) / he looks younger, (c) / No error (d)
7. Could you please (a) / give me any money (b) / to buy food? (c) / No error (d)
8. Privatization offers the most ideal situation (a) / for consumers because private sector (b) /is very conscious of quality, (c) / No error (d)
9. Little care on your part (a) / would have made you (b) / more successful than your friend, (c) / No error (d)
10. He is as intelligent if not more intelligent / (a) than his brother who has qualified(b) / for this post, (c) / No error (d)
11. She is better than (a) / any girl that studies (b) / in our institute, (c) / No error (d)
12. The latest chapter of this novel (a) / is the most comprehensive of all (b) / the chapters in the books, (c) / No error (d)
13. She was not punished (a) / though she came (b) / latter than I. (c) / No error (d)
14. She is the best (a) / and beautiful girl (b) / of our class, (c) / No error (d)
15. My notes are superior (a) / than yours although I have prepared (b) /them in a hurry, (c) / No error (d)
Verifying the Answers
Article is a kind of determiner, ‘A’,’An’ and ‘The’ are called articles. ‘A’and’An’ are called indefinite articles and ‘The’ is called definite article.
Use of A /’An’
Article A or An is used before a singular noun. The choice between A or An is determined by first sound of pronunciation (not by the letter of alphabet even it may be (A, E, I, O, U) of the noun. If it is pronounced with vowel sound, use An otherwise A.
(a) He is an honest man.
(b) He is a European.
(c) He is an MLA.
(d) He is an SDO.
Look at the following words and the use of ‘A’ or ‘An’ before them. Students generally make mistake using A or An before these words.
Some Uses of A and An
An hours daybreak
An honorary past
An honest man
A historical fair
A young man
A one rupee note
A useful feature
A united front
An hourly meeting
An honourable person
A humble person
A heinous crime
A one eyed man
A useful book
A unique decision
A unified plan
A USA ally
A forest officer
A member of society
Use of ‘The’
The definite article ‘The’ is used in following cases.
- While speaking of a particular person or thing or one already referred to
She found her diary. The diary contained important notes.
- When a singular noun is meant to represent a whole
The dog is a faithful animal.
- ‘The’ is used before Superlatives.
This is the most beautiful diamond.
- ‘The’ is used with the names of renowned building, gulf, river, ocean, sea etc.
The Taj Mahal, The Persian Gulf, The Char Minar, The Pacific Ocean, The Ganges, The Red Sea, The Yamuna, The Thames
- ‘The’ is placed only before the plural names of islands and the mountain ranges, chains of mountains, plural names of countries.
The Netherlands, The Phillipines, The Bahamas, The Laccadives Islands, The Himalayas, The Alps
- ‘The’ is also used before names consisting of noun+of +noun.
The Cape of Good Hope, The Boy of Biscay, The Gulf of Mexico
- ‘The’ is used before the adjectives East/West etc. + noun in certain names
The East/West End, The East/ West Indies, The North/South Pole
- ‘The’ is also used before the name of directions.
The East, The West, The North, The South
- ‘The’ is used before the name of persons (Family) in plural.
The Raymonds, The Ambanis, The Birlas
- Before the names of important and renowned books.
(a) The Quran
(b) The Ramayana
(c) The Mahabharata
But we ‘say-Homer’s Iliad, Valmiki’s Ramayana, Jaidev’s Geet Govind.
- Before such common noun that are names of things unique of their king
The Sun, The Earth, The Sky, The World, The Sea, The Environment.
(a) The sky is dark and the moon is shining.
(b) The sea seems calm today.
- ‘The’ is used as an adverb with a comparative.
(a) The more he earns, the more he demands.
(b) The sooner you complete the better it is.
‘The’ is not used before the name of countries but if the name of country contains words like, States, Kingdom, Republic, we use ‘The’ before them
e-g;The USA, The USSR, The UK, The Republic of Ireland, The Domonican Republic.
A. In following cases we do not use ‘The’ before ‘Sea’.
(a) We go to sea as sailors.
(b) He is at sea now-a-days. means (on a voyage)
B. We can use “the’ before ‘Space’ if it means place.
He tried to park his car there but the space was too small. But if it means area beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, do not use ‘the’ before it.
There are lakh of stars in space.
- Before terms referring Nationality or Community.
The Indian, The French, The American, The English.
- Before a proper noun, only when it is qualified by an adjective.
The Great Caesar, The Immortal Shakespeare, The Brave Napolean
- With ordinals like.
(a) He was the first man to stand up.
(b) The sixth chapter of this book is very interesting.
First, Second, Third___are called ordinals.
One, Two, Three___are called cardinals.
- Before Musical Instruments and name of Inventions.
(a) He can play the flute/the tabla/the harmonium well.
(b) Who invented the telephone?
- Before an adjective, when the noun represents a class of persons.
(a) The young will support the motion
(b) The poor can be trusted.
- Before a common noun to give it the meaning of an abstract noun,
The judge in her prevailed upon the wife and she sentenced her husband to prison.
- ‘The’ is used before name of Newspaper, Community, Political Party, Historical Event, Train, Ship, Aeroplane etc.
I prefer to read the times of India.
- ‘The’ is used before comparative degree being used for selection or comparison.
(a) He is the stronger of the two.
(b) This is the better of the two novels.
- When a person being referred by his designation, ‘the’ is used.
The Chairman, The . Director, The President, The Chancellor.
All financial decisions will be taken by the Chairman.
- Before names of Committee, Club, Foundation and Trust.
The Lions Club, The Rotary Club, The United Nation, The WHO, The Ford Foundation, The Rajiv Gandhi Trust etc.
Omission of Articles
Articles are not used
- Before a proper noun.
Akbar was a great king.
When ‘Article’ is used before a proper noun, it becomes a Common noun.
(a) Do you know that Mumbai is the Manchester of India?
(b) He is a second Sachin.
- Before a common noun, used in its widest sense.
(a) Man is mortal.
(b) What kind of bird it is?
- Before plural noun referring a class in a general sense.
(a) Bankers are generally honest.
(b) Lawyers are generally intelligent.
- Before abstract noun that express qualities, state, feeling, actions.
(a) Honesty is the best policy.
(b) Virtue is its own reward.
- Before material noun
(a) Gold is a precious metal.
(b) Silver is a semi-precious metal.
(c) He threw a stone on the mad dog.
- Before names of diseases like. Fever, Cholera, Consumption etc. (But if the names of diseases are plural in their form, the article is generally used as : the measles, the mumps.)
- Before name of regular meals.
Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner
He was invited to dinner.
(But if the meal becomes particular article is used)
The dinner hosted by the friend was superb.
- Before name of things single in land; Hell, Heaven, God, Parliament, Paradise (But ‘The Pope’, ‘The Devil’ are exceptions’)
(a) He was condemned to death.
(b) The Hindu delivered a religious speech.
- Before names of ‘Languages’ or ‘Colours’.
(a) I do not know ‘Hindi’ but know ‘English’.
(b) I like red and blue colours.
- Before certain titles and names indicating the relationship. Emperor Ashoka, President Bush.
(a) Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth’s son.
(b) President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
(c) Dr. Watson was ‘Sherlock Holmes’ friend.
(d) He is Duke of York.
- In certain phrases.
To take breath, to set sail, to leave school, to lay seige, to catch fire, at home, in hand, at school, by water, at sunset, on earth, by land, by train, by car, on demand, in debt, in jest etc.
- Before noun, which are plural in their meanings, though singular in form.
Cattle, gentry, furniture, scenery, advice, information.
- Before names of public institutions (Church, School, University, Prison, Hospital, Court, etc.) if they are used, for the purpose they exist rather than actual building.
They went to Church.
- Article is omitted after the Possessive case.
His brother’s car, Peter’s house.
- Article is omitted with professions.
(a) Engineering is a useful career.
(b) He’ll probably go into medicine.
- Article is omitted with years.
(a) 1947 was a wonderful year.
(b) Do you remember 2000?
- No article is used before name of games, sports.
(a) I am playing cricket.
(b) He is fond of playing tennis.
- No article is used before a noun when it is modified by either a possessive adjective or a demonstrative adjective.
(a) Do you like my shirt? (possessive adjective ‘my’)
(b) I like this pen. (demonstrative adjective ‘this’)
- ‘Nature’ when means environment, do not use article before it.
If he interferes with nature, he will suffer a lot.
- No article is used before name of ‘Season’.
(a) In spring we like to clean the house.
(b) She is planning to visit her parents in this early winter.
- Definite article ‘the’ is not used before ‘Time of day’
(a) We travelled mostly by night.
(b) We’ll be there around midnight.
- Names without ‘the’
Names of many places especially names of important buildings and institutions consist of two words. First word is usually the name of a person or a palace, we do not use ‘the’ before such names usually.
Delhi Airport, Victoria Station, London Zoo, Jaisingh Palace, Indira Gandhi Airport, Edinburgh Castle, Jaipur Palace etc.
- Usually no article is used with the name of Airlines, Companies.
British Airways, Sony, IBM, KODAK, Indian Airlines etc.
Directions (Q.Nos. 1-15) Find out the part which has an error in the following sentences. If there is no error, your answer is (d).
1. This town isn’t very well known (a) / and there isn’t much to see (b) / so a few tourists come here. (c) / No error (d)
2. He took to (a) / reading Times (b) / for better knowledge of the facts, (c) / No error (d)
3. The accelerating pace of life in our metropolitan city (a) / has had the tremendous effect (b) / on the culture and life- style of the people, (c) / No error (d)
4. Both the civilians (a) / and army men (b) / joined the First World War. (c) / No error (d)
5. The school is (a) / within hundred yards (b) / from my house, (c) / No error (d)
6. The majority of the computer professionals recommends (a) / that effective measures (b) / should be taken against software piracy, (c) / No error (d)
7. The famous Dr Chandra (a) / is only dentist (b) / in our village, (c) / No error (d)
8. This candidate lacks (a) / an experience (b) / otherwise he is well qualified, (c) / No error (d)
9. A person I met (a) / in the theater (b) / was the playwright himself, (c) /No error (d)
10. The war of Mahabharata (a)/ is the full length illustration (b) /of a righteous war. (c) / No error (d)
11. The interviewer asked me (a) / if I knew that Kalidas was the greater (b) / than any other poet. (c) / No error (d)
12. The reason we have not been able to pay income tax (a) / is due to fact (b) / that we did not receive pay on time, (c) / No error (d)
13. Even now when I see the spot (a) / I am reminded of an unique incident (b)/ that took place several years ago. (c) / No error (d)
14. As soon as the teacher entered (a)/ everyone fell (b) / in a silence, (c) / No error (d)
15. As he had taken only a few sips (a) / there was still little water (b) / left in the glass, (c) / No error (d)
Verifying the Answers
An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
Kinds of Adverbs
(A) According to their uses, adverbs are divided into three classes.
1. Simple Adverbs These adverbs modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or an adverb,
(i) You are quite right.
(ii) She can hardly believe it.
2. Interrogative Adverbs These adverbs are used for asking questions.
(i) How did you come here?
(ii) Why is she not playing?
3. Relative Adverbs These adverbs are the same in form as interrogative adverbs, but instead of asking questions, they join two sentences together.
These adverbs relate to some antecedent,
expressed or understood.
(i) Let me know the time when you will come.
(The antecedent expressed)
Let me know when you will come.
(The antecedent understood)
(ii) I remember the house where I was born.
(B) According to their meanings, adverbs-may be divided into the following classes.
1. Adverbs of Time These are the adverbs which tell us when an action takes place.
(i) I hurt my knee yesterday.
(ii) He comes here daily.
2. Adverbs of Place These are the adverbs which tell us where an action takes place.
(i) He follows Nisha everywhere.
(ii) She left her bag here.
3. Adverbs of Frequency These are the adverbs which tell us how often an action takes place.
(i) He seldom makes mistakes.
(ii) I have called you twice.
4. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity These are the adverbs which tell us how much or in what degree or to what extent.
(i) These apples are almost ripe.
(ii) He is kind enough to help her.
5. Adverbs of Manner These are the adverbs which tell us how an action takes place or in what manner.
(i) The soldiers fought bravely.
(ii) He came down slowly.
6. Adverbs of Reason These are the adverbs which tell us why an action takes place.
(i) She therefore left school.
(ii) I am hence unable to do it.
7. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation These are the adverbs, which tell us whether an action is done or not.
(i) She certainly hit him.
(ii) I did not meet her.
Some Important Adverbs
1. Too and Very
Too means ‘more than required’ and it is usually used before unpleasant adjectives.
Very means ‘in a great degree’ and it is used before pleasant/ unpleasant adjectives.
- If the sentence is not based on too… to structure, very should be used in place of too.
(i) lam too happy today. (Incorrect)
I am very happy today. (Correct)
(ii) My son’s health has been too good. (Incorrect)
My son’s health has been good. (Correct)
2. Too Much and Much Too
After too much a noun is used.
After much too an adjective is used.
His wife’s rude behaviour gives him much too pain. (Incorrect)
His wife’s rude behaviour gives him too much pain. (Correct)
3. Much and Very
(a) Very is used with positive degree and much is used with comparative degree.
(i) The air is very hot today.
(ii) The air is much hotter today than yesterday.
(b) Very is used with present participle and much is used with past participle.
(i) It is very surprising for me.
(ii) I was much surprised at hearing the news.
4. Fairly and Rather
(a) Fairly is used with positive degree while rather is used with both positive degree and comparative degree.
(b) Fairly is used with pleasant objectives while rather is usually used with unpleasant adjectives.
(i) She is fairly wise.
(ii) This job is rather difficult.
- But, rather good, rather clever, rather pretty are used.
5. Hard and Hardly
Hard means ‘difficult’ or ‘solid’. It is used as an adjective as well as an adverb.
Hardly means ‘almost not’ and it is used as an adverb.
(i) It is hard to believe that he is guilty.
(ii) There is hardly any tea left.
6. Late and Lately
Late means ‘near the end of a period of time’ and lately means ‘recently’.
(i) She married in her late twenties.
(ii) He had lately returned from Australia.
Ago is always used in past indefinite tense.
(i) I met her a year ago.
(ii) This had happened a week ago. (Incorrect)
This happened a week ago. (Correct)
(a) Enough is used just after the word that it qualifies.
(b) Always use positive degree of adjective/adverb before enough.
(i) He is now strong enough to leave his bed.
(ii) She is enough wise to allow her son to go. (Incorrect)
She is wise enough to allow her son to go. (Correct)
Else should always be followed by but and never by than.
It is nothing else but love.
10. Still and Yet
Still is usually used in affirmative sentences and yet in negative sentences.
He has not still returned the money. (Incorrect)
He has not yet returned the money. (Correct)
Position of Adverbs
1. Always, often, seldom, never, just, ever, usually, hardly, already, nearly etc are used before the main verb.
(i) I have told often him to write neatly. (Incorrect)
I have often told him to write neatly. (Correct)
(ii) He never talks ill of his friends.
(iii) Imran always comes late.
2. Adverbs of time/ place/manner are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one.
(i) He does his work carefully.
(ii) She looked everywhere.
(iii) I met her yesterday.
- Adverb of manner is used before the object if a clause starting with who/ which/ that is used after the object, e.g.,
- She received warmly all those who had come in time.
3. If adverbs of time/place/manner all are to be used in a sentence, the normal order is-adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time.
He danced in the city hall well last night. (Incorrect) He danced well in the city hall last night. (Correct)
- With come/ go / arrive etc adverb of manner is used after adverb of place.
4. Adverbs of quantity are usually used before the word that they qualify.
(i) The party was too dull.
(ii) She is quite cool.
But enough is always placed after the word which it qualifies.
5. Only should be placed immediately before the word it qualifies.
(i) We worked only four sums.
(ii) She has slept only two hours.
6. Preposition is not used before an adverb.
My sister asked me to go to market with quickly. (Incorrect)
My sister asked me to go to market quickly. (Correct)
7. The adverbs of frequency and quantity should be placed before the auxiliaries have to and used to.
I used to often take a break from my packed schedule. (Incorrect)
I often used to take a break from my packed schedule. (Correct)
8. An adverb is not used by splitting an infinitive.
She asked him to carefully write the answer. (Incorrect)
She asked him to write the answer carefully. (Correct)
9. No adverb is used before quite.
Raman is absolutely quite alone. (Incorrect)
Raman is quite alone. (Correct)
10. ‘Inverted form of verb’ is used in the sentences starting with seldom, never, hardly, scarcely, rarely, no sooner.
(i) No sooner had he entered the class than the bell rang.
(ii) Seldom she meets her friends. (Incorrect)
Seldom does she meet her friends. (Correct)
Directions (Q.Nos. 1-15) In each of the following questions, find out which part of the sentence has an error. If the sentence is correct, the answer is ‘No error’.
1. All of them will execute the plan (a)/ so skilfully that their (b)/ officer will feel surprised, (c)/ No error (d)
2. All of them work (a)/ very careful right from(b)/ the beginning till they finish, (c)/ No error (d)
3. One should (a)/ face the misfortunes (b)/ of life manly, (c) / No error (d)
4. He has been trying to lure her for months (a) / but owing to his misfortune (b)/ he has not still succeeded, (c)/ No error (d)
5. He walked quick (a)/ so that he would (b)/ not be late, (c)/ No error (d)
6. If you ask me (a)/ Asha is quite all right (b) / but I can’t tell you much about Neha (c) / No error, (d)
7. No sooner we entered (a) / than he got up (b) / and left the room, (c)/ No error (d)
8. This room is very beautiful (a)/ but too much small (b) / to accommodate all of you. (c) / No error (d)
9. Though his actions (a)/ were severe criticised, (b)/ he didn’t lose his temper, (c) / No error (d)
10. Kunal’s father advised him (a)/ not to ride the motor cycle (b)/ lately at night, (c)/ No error (d)
11. Being much contented with the sincerity (a)/ of the members of the staff, the CM said that (b)/ the state needed sincere men like them, (c)/ No error (d)
12. He asked me to completely forget her, (a)/ but only I know (b)/ how easy ins to say so. (c) / No error (d)
13. They were exceptional (a)/ good orators, so all of us (b)/ listened to them very attentively, (c) / No error (d)
14. He is enough kind (a)/ to help everybody (b)/ in need, (c) / No error (d)
15. We could not see the places (a)/ clear as the train (b)/ was moving very fast, (c)/ No error (d)
Verifying the Answers