SSC CHSL Topic Wise Study Material – English Language – Comprehension
In the questions based on Comprehension, a passage is given with some questions related to its contents. You are required to read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
* Get the theme of the passage.
* Be absolutely clear about what is being asked in the question.
* Analyse all the alternatives within the context of the passage.
* Don’t waste your time over words or sentences that you find difficult to understand.
* Pick the most appropriate answer and not the partially correct one.
Directions (Q. Nos. 1-5) In questions you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives, ssc (10 + 2) 2014
As the rulers of the planet humans, like to think that it is the large creatures who will emerge victorious from the struggle for survival. However, nature teaches us the opposite : it is often the smallest species which are the toughest and most adaptable. A perfect example is the hummingbird, which is found in the Americas. One species of hummingbird known as the bee hummingbird ranks as the world’s smallest and lightest bird and it is barely visible when it is in flight.
Hummingbirds are the only birds that can fly backwards. They feed mainly on the nectar of flowers, a liquid that is rich in energy. Nectar is an ideal food source, for hummingbirds need an incredible amount of energy to sustain their body metabolism. A hummingbird’s wings flap at a rate of about 80 times per second and its tiny heart beats more than 1000 times per minute. This is why they must consume relatively large quantities of food. In the course of a day, a hummingbird consumes about half its body weight in nectar.
1. Nature has made man realize the fact that
(a) the large creatures emerge victorious from the struggle for survival
(b) the smallest creatures are the toughest and most adaptable
(c) humans who rule the planet are the most powerful beings on Earth
(d) the largest and the smallest species are equally tough and strong
2. Which of the following statements about the bee hummingbird is true?
(a) It is obviously visible when it lies
(b) It escapes our sight when it is in flight
(c) It could fly high beyond the -clouds
(d) It cannot be seen when it is-bi flight
3. Hummingbirds need a lot of energy in order to
(a) maintain their body metabolism
(b) flap their wings and fly backwards
(c) sustain a steady rhythm of heart-beat
(d) win in the struggle for survival
4. The hummingbirds are exclusive in the sense that
(a) they subsist only on nectar
(b) their pulse rate is more than 1000 per minute
(c) they consume half their body weight everyday
(d) they can fly backwards
5. The word‘incredible’in the passage means
Directions (Q. Nos. 6-10) In questions you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. SSC (10 + 2)2013
Bringing up the baby is now a science and fine art! Most of the maternal grandparents would agree with this statement. My mother lost fifteen kilos in six months when my son was born and I gained that as much. Both ways it was because of the anxiety and shared responsibility. My colleagues welcome retirement when their daughter is ready to deliver or had just delivered. They most often befriend young experienced mothers and spend long counselling sessions with them collecting tips on how to tackle a crisis.
It is a funny sight to see grey haired women browse ‘Bringing up Boby’ books at the local book store. One tends to think what they did with their own off springs. Ask them and pat comes the reply “it was so easy then. They grew up on their own”. The mother may wear many hats at the same time. But to her or her parents, the mind boggling thing for the first few years is diaper changes, circadian rhythm and continual feeding. At home social life is taboo. Phone calls give cause for irritation, music becomes noise, friends and relatives bocome total strangers, the domestic help a spirit of mercy and the pediatrician a fairy godmother. Raising a kid is akin to a guerilla warfare and it you hear a woman say that her baby ‘is beautiful and perfect and an angel all the time’ then she is the grandma.
6. Why do female colleagues welcome Retirement?
(a) They get lot of free time
(b) They become free to attend to household duties
(c) They can be of help to their daughters and their offspring
(d) They can cook good food for their children and grandchildren
7. To wear many hats means
(a) wear helmet
(b) wear head gear
(c) do hairstyling
(d) undertake much work
8. Why is social life taboo at home?
(a) Babies are demanding
(b) Babies do not like guests
(c) Babies hate parties
(d) Babies prefer to go out than stay at home
9. What is difficult for maternal grandparents?
(a) Raising grandchildren
(b) Feeding children
(c) Giving birth to grandchildren
(d) Bringing up babies
10. How did the mother and the daughter share the same anxiety?
(a) Both were uneasy with the new born
(b) Both feared babies
(c) Both were concerned about raising the baby
(d) Both were nervous about shared responsibility
Directions (Passages 1-20) You have twenty brief passages with 10 or 5 or 4 questions following each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
Of the many aspects of public administration, the ethical aspect is perhaps the most important but the least codified. While administrative rules and procedures have been codified in various public documents and manuals, There is no manual for the ethics of public servants. While organisational behaviour analyses the factors which influence the behaviour of individuals in an organisation, ethics refers to those norms and standards which behaviour of the people in an organisation must conform to. While behaviour analysis deals with factual aspects, ethics relates to the normative aspects of administration. The normative aspects are of the greatest significance. Just as for an individual if character is lost, everything is lost, so also for an administration if the ethics is lost, everything is lost. Neither efficiency nor loyalty could be substitute for high ethical standards. In India, though there is no ‘ethical code for public administrators, there is what is called, the Government Servants’ Conduct Rules. These rules lay down what constitutes misconduct for the public servants. It is apparently implied that such misconduct, which is not permitted, is also unethical conduct.
1.As per the passage, organisational behaviour is
(a) same as ethics in organisations
(b) different from ethics in organisations
(c) human behaviour in organisations including ethics
(d) None of these
2.Ethics is to an administrator, what character is for
(a) an administrator
(b) an official
(c) an individual
(d) None of these
3.Government Servant’s Conduct Rules are meant for
(a) guiding the ethical conduct of government servants
(b) guiding what constitutes misconduct for public
(c) guiding what constitutes misconduct for government servants
(d) None of these
4.The word manual in the context of the passage means
(a) hand operated
(d) None of these
Scarce diamonds are more valuable than the clusters of smaller crystals known as bort and carbonados. These diamonds are large single crystals of genuine crystalline carbon.
Diamonds are found in diamantiferous earth that is located in both open-air pits and underground mines. To retrieve the diamonds, the earth is crushed and concentrated. The concentrated material is then sorted by passing it over streams of water on greased tables. Since diamonds are water repellent they will stick to the grease, while the other minerals will absorb water and pass over the grease. The diamonds are then removed from the grease and cleaned, examined, sorted and graded. The best diamonds are noted for their cleavage, their translucence and their colour.
All diamonds have a natural line of cleavage along which they may be split, and it is essential to split them before they are cut and polished. Before they are cut and polished, they look like tiny blue grey stones; they do not twinkle or shine yet. A perfectly cut and polished diamond has 58 faces arranged regularly over its surface. It will be translucent and colorless, blue, white, green or yellow. The value of a jewel diamond depends largely on its colour or ‘water’, as it is called professionally. A stone of the finest water is blue-white.
1. Which of the following statements is best supported by this passage?
(a) The value of a diamond is in large part dependent on the way it is prepared
(b) The natural cleavage will determine the value of a diamond
(c) Translucent and transparent diamonds are considered the most valuable
(d) It is easy to retrieve diamonds from underground mines
2. Which of the following most probably was the subject of the paragraph preceding the passage?
(a) A discussion of scarce diamonds
(b) A discussion of bort and carbonados
(c) A discussion of various colours of diamond
(d) A discussion of means of mining diamonds
3. The relationship between the cleavage and translucence of a diamond is most similar in relationship as between the style of a car and its
4. The word genuine could best be replaced by which of the following?
5. Which of the following statements best describes the organisation of this passage?
(a) Comparison and contrast
(b) Chronological order
(c) Statements and illustration
(d) Cause and result
Both plants and animals of many sorts show remarkable changes in form, structure, growth habits and even mode of reproduction, in becoming adapted to different climatic environment, types of food supply or mode of living. This divergence in response to evolution is commonly expressed by altering form and function of some parts of the organism, the original identification of which is clearly discernible. For example, the creeping foot of the snail is seen in related marine pteropods to be modified into flapping orgap useful for swimming, and is changed into prehensile arms that bear suctorial disks in the squids and other cephalopods. The limbs of modes of life—for swift running (cursorial) as in the horse and antelope, for swinging in trees (arboreal) as in the monkeys, for digging (fossorial) as in the moles and gophers, for flying (volant) as in the bats, for swimming (aquatic) as in the seals, whales and dolphins, and for other adaptations. The structures or organs that show main change in connection with this adaptive divergence are commonly identified readily as homologous, in spite of great alterations. Thus, the finger and wrist bones of a bat and whale, for instance, have virtually nothing in common except that they are definitely equivalent element of the mammalian limb.
1. Which is the most appropriate title for the passage, based on its content?
(b) Our Changing Bodies
(c) Adaptive Divergence
(d) Changes in Organs
2. The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions?
I. What factors cause change in organism ?
II. What is the theory of evolution ?
III. Could structurally different organs be similar in evolution ?
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) I and III
(d) All of these
3.The author organises the passage by
(a) comparison and contrast
(b) general statements followed by examples
(c) hypothesis and proof
(d) definition of key terms
4.Which of the following words could best be substituted to ‘homologous’ without substantially changing the author’s meaning?
5.The author’s style can best be described as
Acquisitive nature has become the hallmark of people in modern times. If a neighbour possesses a kitchen gadget like a mixer or a grinder, we too have the desire to own the same. All efforts are geared to make this purchase, whether the item is essential or not. Shopkeepers vie with each other to sell these things. It is as if the whole world has conspired to sell the mixer or grinder to me whether I want it or not. Of course, my wife wants it.
1.In this passage acquisition means
(a) working regularly
(b) being lazy
(c) gaining things
(d) giving away things
2.According to the passage, the purchase is made
(a) when the article is useful
(b) because the article is essential
(c) whether the article is needed or not
(d) only when the article is in demand
3.Posses sing new things sets a kind of
(a) competition among neighbours
(b) love among neighbours
(c) hatred among neighbours
(d) indifference among neighbours
4.The writer considers acquisitive nature to be
(a) a depressing quality in people
(b) a bad quality in people
(c) a good quality in people
(d) an encouraging quality in people
5.From the passage it is clear that the writer
(a) wants to buy a mixer
(b) is keen on buying a mixer
(c) does not want to buy a mixer
(d) is indifferent to -buy a mixer
“The history of science is the real history of mankind.” In this striking epigram a nineteenth century writer links science with its background. Like most epigrams, its power lies in emphasizing by contrast an aspect of truth which may be easily overlooked. In this case it is easy to overlook the relations between science and mankind and to treat the former as some abstract third party, which can sometimes be praised for its beneficial influences, but frequently and conveniently blamed for the horrors of war. Science and mankind cannot be divorced from time to time at men’s convenience. Yet we have seen that, in spite of countless opportunities of improvement, the opening years of the present period of civilization have been dominated by international conflict. Is this the inevitable result of the progress of science or does the fault lie elsewhere?
1.The sentence “The history of science is the real history of mankind” means
(a) science has given man countless opportunities for improvement
(b) science and mankind cannot always be divorced
(c) mankind has progressed as science has developed
(d) the good and bad uses of science reflect the character of man
2.The epigram given in the passage highlights
(a) the evolution of science
(b) the real history of man
(c) the contrast between science and civilization
(d) an elusive truth about human nature
3.The aspect of truth likely to be overlooked is that science
(a) has made war horrible
(b) is beneficial to man
(c) is what man has made it
(d) has created international conflicts
4.The writer implies that international conflict is the result of
(a) faulty relations between nations
(b) human weaknesses
(c) invention of deadly weapons
(d) progress of science
5.The last sentence of the passage suggests that
(a) civilization could prosper well without scientific inventions
(b) the trouble lies with human beings themselves
(c) people have missed opportunities to improve their lot
(d) the horrors of modem life are the inevitable result of the progress of science
There is more than a modicum of truth in the assertion that “a working knowledge of ancient history is necessary to the intelligent interpretation of current events”. But the sage who uttered these words of wisdom might well hive added something on the benefits of studying, particularly the famous battles of history for the lessons they contain for those of us who lead or aspire for leadership. Such a study will reveal certain qualities and attributes which enabled the winners to win, and certain deficiencies which caused the losers to lose. And the student will see that the same pattern recurs consistently, again and again, throughout the centuries.
1. The expression ‘more than a modicum of truth’ means
(a) nothing but truth
(b) some truth
(c) much truth
(d) more than a small amount of truth
2. In this context, ‘intelligent interpretation of current events’ means
(a) skillful interpretation of events
(b) intellectual outlook on events
(c) appropriate understanding of events
(d) rational explanation of events
3. According to the writer, a study of the famous battles of history would
(a) provide food to modem leaders for reflection
(b) be beneficial to wise men
(c) help us understand the art of human warfare
(d) be more useful than a general knowledge of ancient history
4. A person who aspires to lead could learn from the history of battles
(a) the qualities and deficiencies of commanders of these battles
(b) what led the previous leaders win a battle
(c) what made them lose a battle
(d) the strategies they evolved in course of these battles
5. A knowledge of history is necessary to interpret current problems because
(a) they may be repetitions of past events
(b) only then they can be put in a proper context
(c) they have roots in the past
(d) they can be contrasted with the past events
No one knows when or by whom rockets were invented. In all probability the rocket was not suddenly invented but evolved gradually over a long period of time, perhaps in different parts of the world at the same time. Some historians of rocketry notably Willy Ley, trace the development of rockets to the 13th century China, a land noted in ancient times for its fire work display. In the year 1232 AD when the Mongols laid siege to the city of Kai-Feng Fu, the capital of Honan province, the Chinese defenders used weapons that were described as “arrows of flying fire”. There is no explicit statement that these arrows were rockets, but some students have concluded that they were because the record does not mentioned bows or other means of shooting the arrows. In the same battle, we read, the defenders dropped from the walls of the city a kind of bomb described as “heaven-shaking thunder1′. From these meagre references some students have concluded that the Chinese, by the year 1232 had discovered gunpowder and had learned to use it to make explosive bombs as well as propulsive charges for rockets.
1. The passage gives primarily a history of
(a) the bravery of the Chinese
(b) the invention of rockets
(c) the attack on China by the Mongols
(d) the battle against the Chinese wall
2. According to this passage, rockets were invented by
(a) Willy Ley
(b) unknown people
(c) the Mongols
(d) the ruler of Honan province
3. According to this passage, rockets were
(a) a gift of God to the Chinese
(b) invented in the twentieth century
(c) invented in 1232 AD
(d) developed over many centuries
4. The phrase ‘arrows of flying fire’
(a) means some ancient phenomenon in the skies
(b) refers to lightning and thunder
(c) is another name for rockets
(d) is assumed to refer to rockets
5. The bombs have been referred to as “heaven shaking thunder” because they
(a) contain gunpowder
(b) make thunderous noise
(c) are propelled by rockets
(d) seem to fall from heaven
The object underlying the rules of natural justice ‘is to prevent miscarriage of justice’ and secure ‘fair play in action.’ As pointed out earlier the requirement about recording of reasons for its decision by an administrative authority exercising quasi-judicial functions achieves this object by excluding chances of arbitrariness and ensuring a degree of fairness in the process of decision-making. Keeping in view the expanding horizon of the principles of natural justice, we are of the opinion that the requirement to record reason can be regarded as one of the principles of natural justice, which govern exercise of power by administrative authorities. The rules of natural justice are not embodied rules. The extent of their application depends upon the particular statutory framework where jurisdiction has been conferred on the administrative authority. With regard to the exercise of a particular power by an administrative authority including exercise of judicial or quasi-judicial functions the legislature, while conferring the said power, may feel that it would not be in the larger public interest that the reasons for the order passed by the administrative authority be recorded in the order and be communicated to the aggrieved party and it may dispense with such a requirement.
1. According to the passage, there is always a gap between
(a) demand for natural justice and its realization
(b) intention and execution
(c) rules of natural justice and the application
(d) conception of a rule and its concretisation
2. According to the passage, natural justice can be brought about by
(a) administrative authority framing rules suitably
(b) administrative authority observing the rules of fair play
(c) administrative authority remaining vigilant
(d) administrative authority upholding rules of natural justice
3. To dispense with a requirement’ means
(a) to drop the charge
(b) to cancel all formal procedure
(c) to alter the provisions of the case
(d) to do without the demand
4. The rules of the natural justice are not embodied rules’ means that these rules
(a) are flexible
(b) cannot be visualised
(c) are left deliberately vague
(d) cannot be satisfactorily interpreted
5. From the passage it is clear that it is the legislature
(a) invests the administrative authority with enormous powers
(b) embodies rules
(c) has the larger interests of public welfare
(d) leaves administrative authority enough discretion to interpret rules
Many sociologists have argued that there is a functional relationship between education and economic systems. They point to the fact that mass formal education began in industrial society and is an established part of all industrial societies. They note that the expansion of the economies of industrial societies is accompanied by a corresponding expansion of their educational systems. They explain this correspondence in terms of the needs of industry for skilled and trained man-power, needs which are met by the educational system. Thus, the provision of mass elementary education in Britain in 1870 can be seen as a response to the needs of industry for a literate and numerate work-force at a time when industrial processes were becoming more complex and the demand for technical skills was steadily growing.
1. The sociologists referred to in the passage say that the relationship between industry and elementary education was one
(a) based on mutual need
(b) based entirely on the need of the industry
(c) based entirely on economic need
(d) based on some inexplicable historical forces
2. The author agues that
(a) formal education can be traced to industrial society
(b) industrial society changed the pattern of education
(c) industrial society is responsible for expansion of education at the mass level
(d) industrial society changed the pattern of education
3. By ‘functional relationship is meant
(a) a short term relationship
(b) temporary arrangement
(c) practical and utilitarian relationship
(d) close and unbreakable relationship
4. The observations of the sociologists are based on a study of
(a) growth of industry in the 19th century
(b) economic system of the 19th century
(c) the statistical data available in a historical context
(d) the correlation between industry and education in a historical context
5.The industry needs a literate work—force because
(a) it relies heavily on expertise
(b) it promotes a competitive spirit
(c) its expansion needs sound teaming
(d) its operations need intricate technical knowledge
Organizations are institutions in which members compete for status and power. They compete for the resources of the organization, for example, finance to expand their own departments, for career advancement and for power to control the activities of others. In pursuit of these aims, groups are formed and sectional interest emerge. As a result, policy decisions may serve the ends of the political and career systems rather than those of the concern. In this way, the goals of the organization may be displaced in favor of sectional interests and individual ambition. These preoccupations sometimes prevent the emergence of organic systems. Many of the- electronics firms in their study had recently created research and development departments employing highly qualified and well paid scientists and technicians. Their high pay and expert knowledge were sometimes seen as a threat to the established order of rank, power and privilege. Many senior managers had little knowledge of the technicalities and possibilities of new developments and electronics. Some felt that close cooperation with the experts in an organic system would reveal their ignorance and show that their experience was now redundant.
1. The author makes out a case for
(a) research and development in organizations
(b) a refresher course for senior managers
(c) an understanding between senior and middle level executives
(d) organic system
2. The author tends to see the senior managers as
(a) ignorant and incompetent
(b) jealous of their younger colleagues
(c) a little out of step with their work environment
(d) robbed of their rank, power and privilege
3. ‘Organic system’, as related to the organisation implies its
(a) natural and unimpeded growth
(b) growth with inputs from science and technology
(c) growth with the help of expert knowledge
(d) steady ail-round development
4. Policy decisions in organization should involve
(a) modernization of the organization
(b) cooperation at ail levels in the organization
(c) attracting highly qualified personnel
(d) keeping in view the larger objectives of the organization
5. The theme of the passage is
(a) groupism in organisations
(b) frustration of senior managers
(c) individual ambitions in organizations
(d) emergence of sectional interests in organizations
The history of literature really began long before man learned to write. Dancing was the earliest of the arts. Man danced for joy round his primitive camp fire after the defeat and slaughter of his enemy. He yelled and shouted as he danced and gradually the yells and shouts became coherent and caught the measure of the dance and thus the first war song was sung. As the idea of God developed prayers were framed. The songs and prayers became traditional and were repeated from one generation to another, each generation, adding something to its own.
As man slowly grew more civilized, he was compelled to invent some method of writing-by three urgent necessities. There were certain things that it was dangerous to forget and which, therefore, had to be recorded. It was often necessary to communicate with persons who were some distance away and it was necessary to protect one’s property by making tools, cattle and so on, in some distinctive manner. So, man taught himself to write and having learned to write purely for utilitarian reasons he used this new method for preserving his war songs and his prayers. Of course, among these ancient peoples, there were only a very few individuals who learned to write and only a few could read what was written.
1. Before man invented writing
(a) literature was passed on by word of mouth
(b) prayers were considered literature
(c) literature was just singing and dancing
(d) there was no literature
2. As for the war songs and prayers each generation
(a) added something of its own to the stock
(b) blindly repeated the songs and prayers
(c) composed its own songs and prayers
(d) repeated what has handed down to it
3. The first war-song
(a) was inspired by God
(b) developed spontaneously
(c) was a song traditionally handed down
(d) was composed by leading dancers
4. The war song evolved out of
(a) creative inspiration
(b) there was no literature
(c) artistic urge
(d) yelling and shouting
5. Man invented writing because he wanted
(a) to be artistic
(b) to write war song
(c) to write literature
(d) to record and communicate
The crowd surged forward through the narrow streets of Paris. There was a clatter of shutters being closed hastily by trembling hands-the citizens of Paris knew that once the fury of the people was excited there was no telling what they might do. They came to an old house which had a workshop on the ground floor. A head popped out of the door to see what it was all about. ‘Get him! Get Thimonier! Smash his devilish machines!’ yelled the crowd.
They found the workshop without its owner. M. Thimonier had escaped by the back door. Now the fury of the demonstrators turned against the machines that were standing in the shop, ready to be delivered to buyers. They were systematically broken up and destroyed dozens of them. Only when the last wheel and spindle had been trampled under foot did the infuriated crowd recover their senses.
’That is the end of M’ sieur Thimonier and his sewing machines’, they said to one another and went home satisfied. Perhaps now they would find work, for they were all unemployed tailors and seamstresses who believed that their livelihood was threatened by that new invention.
1. The passage throws light on
(a) why inventions should be avoided altogether
(b) how a well-meant inventor can be misunderstood
(c) what mischief an inventor can do to ordinary people
(d) how dangerous an invention can prove to be
2. The crowd was protesting against
(a) the closing of workshops
(b) the misdoings of Thimonier
(c) the newly invented sewing machine
(d) Thimonier keeping the invention a secret
3. The aim of the crowd was to
(a) kill Thimonier
(b) drive Thimonier away
(c) bring discredit to Thimonier
(d) destroy the sewing machines
4. The people thought that
(a) their lives were in danger
(b) Thimonier was mad
(c) the sewing machine was dangerous
(d) Thimonier was depriving them of their livelihood
5. Shutters were being closed hastily because the shopkeepers
(a) wanted to attack the crowd
(b) wanted to protect Thimonier
(c) feared their shops would be invaded
(d) wanted to show their solidarity with the crowd
The supervisor would have to change his attitude towards people first. The staff under him must be perceived as human beings with feelings and needs. They are not automations within a complex work machinery. One of the greatest needs of today’s worker is to have a feeling that he is in control of his work place and not vice versa. The best way is to satisfy this need as far as possible. He must feel firstly, that his work is meaningful. To do this the supervisor must delegate responsibility and limited authority for the man to execute his job well. The subordinate must be properly trained to assume responsibility and authority. Once he is ready to assume these he can be made accountable for his job. Very often supervisors assume all responsibility and accountability for fear of losing control of the workplace. This makes workers under him pawns is a vast chessboard. Delegating accountability gives the worker a purpose in life and the need to do a job well. Most important is to sit with each worker and chalk out common objectives and agreed norms to achieve them. This gives workers a security as to what is expected of them. When he has met his objectives he certainly has a feeling of achievement. This feeling of achievement is the greatest motivator.
1. A humane attitude on the part of the supervisor towards his staff is necessary to
(a) get them to work
(b) keep them happy
(c) have a congenial atmosphere at workplace
(d) get the best out of them
2. Responsibility and accountability make a worker
(a) shirk his duties
(b) do his job properly
(c) tense and frightened
(d) vulnerable before his supervisors
3. Supervisors do not delegate responsibility and authority to their subordinates because
(a) subordinates are not capable enough
(b) they can’t trust their subordinates
(c) they are apprehensive of losing their hold on the place of work
(d) final responsibility is theirs
4. Orientation of subordinates of common objectives and how to achieve them is
(a) not very important
(b) a must
(c) not at all necessary
5. The greatest motivator is
(a) a good supervisor
(b) a good environment
(c) a sense of security
(d) fulfillment of purpose
S.N. Bose’s experimental skill was not confined to physics alone. His energy had been channelized in several directions. One direction in which his energy flowed more consistently than in any other was the popularization of science. In a newly independent country like India, determined to develop her industries as quickly as possible, there was every danger of leadership in scientific research failing into the hands of those whom C.P. Snow has called ‘slide-rule’ scientists. As a safeguard against this, even before independence, Bose found a scientific journal in Bengali, Bijnan Parichaya, to spread scientific knowledge among the common people.
1. Bose could allow his energy to flow successfully in several directions. Bose was thus,
(a) a vivacious man
(b) an energetic man
(c) a versatile man
(d) a virulent man
2. S.N. Bose made a major contribution to the spread of scientific knowledge among common people
(a) by channelizing his energies in several directions
(b) by consistently working for the popularization of science
(c) by becoming a ‘slide-rule’ scientist
(d) by founding a scientific journal in Bengali
3. It is learnt from the passage that India, immediately after becoming independent, sought to progress
(a) by means of industrialization
(b) by means of popularization of science
(c) by encouraging scientists like S.N. Bose
(d) by offering the leadership of scientific research to slide-rule scientists
4. A‘slide-rule’scientist is likely to be interested in
(a) spreading scientific, knowledge among common people
(b) diverting his energy in several channels
(c) depriving common people of scientific knowledge
(d) carrying on scientific research On stereotyped ideas
5. S.N. Bose’s scientific journal Bijnan Parichaya must have come out
(a) before 1947
(b) after 1947
(c) between 1947 and 1957
(d) after 1957
We are tempted to assume that technological progress is the real progress and that material success is the criterion of civilisation. If the eastern people become fascinated by machines and techniques and use them as western nations do, to build industrial organisations and large military establishments, they will get involved in power politics and drift into the danger of death. Scientific and technological civilisation brings opportunities and great rewards but also great risks and temptations. If machines get into the saddle, all our progress will have been in vain.The problem facing us is a universal one. Both East and West are threatened with the same danger and face the same destiny. Science and technology are neither good nor bad. They are not to be tabooed but tamed and assigned their proper place. They become dangers only if they become idols.
1. What is man tempted to assume?
(a) Western nations are superior to eastern nations
(b) Science and technology pose no danger to humanity
(c) Technological progress is the real progress
(d) As such, there is nothing wrong with machines
2. When do science and technology become dangerous?
(a) When they become idols
(b) When they are used with temptation .
(c) When their advantages are not used judiciously
(d) When it is assumed that material success is the criterion of civilisation
3. What will happen if eastern people use machines?
(a) It will bring great opportunities and rewards to them
(b) It will show the victory of mind over matter
(c) They will realise that it is not an end in itself
(d) They will get involved in politics and drift into the danger of death
4. Which of the following statements is/are true in the context of the passage?
I. Science and technology are neither good, nor bad.
II. Through machines, man can achieve all progress.
III. Science and technology bring great risks and temptations.
(a) I and II
(b) I and III
(c) II and III
(d) All of these
5. Choose the word which is similar in meaning as the word ‘tabooed’ used in the passage.
Among the major tasks before us, none is of greater importance for our strength and stability than the task of building up the unity and solidarity of our people. Our country often stood like a solid rock in the face of common danger and there is a deep underlying unity which runs like a golden thread through all our seeming diversity. There have been occasions when unfortunate and disturbing divisions, some of them accompanied by violence, have appeared in our society.
Political democracy and the way it has functioned in our country is surely a great achievement. Here again we owe an immeasurable debt to Shri J.L. Nehruji for his deep attachment to democracy as a form of government and as a way of life. There is something in our ,older cultural heritage too. I have particularly in view that enduring strength in Indian life which can best be described as respect for human personality and the spirit of tolerance. I have no doubt in my mind that it is only by methods of persuasion and mutual accommodation and by a constant search for areas of agreement as the basis for action, that democracy can work. It is in this spirit that I shall devote myself to the duties and responsibilities of the office I have been called upon to fill.
Of all the problems facing us, none is more distressing than that of dire poverty in which tens of millions of our country men continue to live. It is my great desire to be able to lighten in some measure the burden of poverty on our people. In this, I remember particularly the claims of most backward sections, like scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, who have suffered neglect and have had to endure disabilities for many centuries. It would be my proud privilege to work for the establishment of a more just social order.
1. Shri Nehru was deeply attached to
(a) democracy as a way of life
(b) democracy of the western
(c) democracy which emerges from our culture
(d) the Indian way of living
2. What is the permanent trend in Indian life?
(a) Respect for human personality
(b) Love for animals
(c) Worship of nature
3. The author believes that democracy can work
(a) if leaders are honest
(b) if people participate
(c) if method of persuasion and mutual adjustment are employed
(d) if people have faith in democracy
4. The writer wants to work for
(a) just economic forces
(b) just social order
(c) democratic forces
(d) None of the above
5. The writer thinks that
(a) we have never faced dangers
(b) in our country there is unity underlying diversity
(c) our society is tribal in organization
(d) stability of the nation depends upon many factors
By the beginning of the twentieth century, dSctors knew that many diseases were caused by living microbes. They knew about immunisation and vaccines. Thanks to the efforts of scientists like Jenner, Pasteur, Koch and Ehrlich Lister, it had taught them the value of antiseptics. Known chemical disinfectants, such as carbolic acid, would kill germs, but they would also injure cell tissues.
How could harmful microbes be destroyed without, at the same time, injuring body tissues?
In 1900, to a shipping clerk—Alexander Fleming—a career in Science seemed like distant dream. Alexander was born on August 6, 1881, the youngest son of an Ayrshire, Scottish farmer. He was able to complete high school but then his family’s funds ran out. At sixteen, he took a job as a shipping clerk and stayed there for four years. In 1901, Alexander came into a small legacy which enabled him to continue his education and on the advice of one of his brothers, who was a doctor, he chose to prepare for a career in medicine.
Alexander did unusually well in medical school along with rifle shooting, swimming, water polo and painting. After his graduation,his teacher professor Wright asked him to join him in bacteriological research, which he readily agreed.
1. According to the passage, what was the main problem being encountered by doctors?
(a) How to eliminate microbes while protecting body cells
(b) How to use known chemical disinfectants
(c) How to get fresh carbolic acid in time to treat the patient
(d) How to convince patients to get vaccination regularly
2. How did Alexander keep himself busy in his spare time during college days?
(a) By taking up part time job to get some money
(b) Studying the effect of chemicals on body tissues
(c) Helping his professor in his research work
(d) Not given in the passage
3. Which of the following was taught to the doctors at the beginning of twentieth century?
(a) Scientists can help doctors in the use of disinfectants
(b) The role and importance of antiseptics in medical treatment
(c) Pursuing a career in medicine is a difficult job
(d) Good microbes help in developing body cells
4. Why did Fleming take up the job as a shipping clerk?
(a) On the advice of one of his brothers
(b) His financial position was not good at that time
(c) It was his cherished dream
(d) It was a very prospective job with opportunities to go abroad
5. Which of the following advices was given by his brother to Alexander?
(a) To pursue a career in bacteriological research
(b) To continue his school education
(c) To take up a career in medicine
(d) Not to pursue career in shipping
6. Why was it possible for Alexander to continue his studies?
(a) The inspiration given by his farmer father
(b) His desire to become a scientist at any cost
(c) The shipping job gave him enough money
(d) He inherited sufficient money to continue his education
7. Who amongst the following has not been mentioned in the passage as ‘Scientist?
8. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?
(a) Alexander’s father was a Scottish farmer
(b) One of the Alexander’s brothers was a doctor
(c) Alexander’s performance in the medical school was very good
(d) Harmful microbes attack and cause diseases to tissues which are injured by chemical disinfectants
Directions (Q. Nos. 9 and 10) Which of the following is most nearly the same in meaning as the word printed in capital letters as used in the passage?
When you buy a ear, examine carefully the important features of the model you are considering. Many a buyer of the latest model has got into trouble by buying a car too broad or too long for his garage. Furthermore, a long car is too hard to manage in traffic and too difficult to park. Another feature is the comfort afforded. Are the seats nice and durably upholstered? Is there enough glass to give the driver a good view in all directions, particularly to the rear? It should be remembered that the heavier and the more powerful a car is, the more expensive it will be to operate. High powered motors require expensive high octane petrol. The greater weight means greater tyre wear and enlarged brakes. The old cliche is still true : it is not the initial cost but the upkeep which matters.
1.The writer favours a car with a wide glass areas so that the driver can
(a) enjoy the scene outside while driving
(b) have a good view of the rear
(c) roll down the glass panes to get enough fresh air
(d) display his beautiful upholstery with pride
2.It is very expensive to maintain a large car because it
(a) is heavy
(b) requires more space for parking
(c) needs changing its tyres more frequently
(d) needs more durable upholstery
3.While buying a car, one should specially consider its
(b) maintenance cost
4.According to this passage, the two factors that the buyer of a new car should keep in mind are
(a) its price and size
(b) its model and upholstery
(c) its size and the comfort it offers
(d) its upholstery and glass area
5. The size of the car should be in accordance with
(a) the money one can afford to pay
(b) the size of the garage the buyer has
(c) the width of the road where the buyer lives
(d) the volume of traffic on road
The greatest enemy of mankind, as people have discovered, is not science, but war. Science merely reflects the social forces by which it is surrounded. It is found that when there is peace, science is constructive, when there is war, science is perverted to destructive ends. The weapons which science gives us don’t necessarily create war, these make war increasingly more terrible. Until now it has brought us to the doorstep of doom. Our main problem, therefore, is not to curb science but to stop war. This is a job in which everybody must participate including the scientists. But the bomb of Hiroshima suddenly woke us to the fact that we have very little time. The hour is late and our work has scarcely begun. Now we are face to face with this urgent question. “Can education and tolerance, understanding and creative intelligence run fast enough to keep us abreast with our own mounting capacity to destroy” This is the question which we will have to answer one way or the other in this generation. Science must help us in finding the answer but ultimately the main decision lies within ourselves.
1. According to the author, the real enemy of mankind is not science but war, because
(a) science during the war is very destructive
(b) science merely invents the weapons with which war is fought
(c) the weapons that science invents necessarily lead to war
(d) the weapons invented by science do not cause war though they make it more destructive
2. According to the author, the solution lies in
(a) preventing scientists from participating in destructive activities
(b) abolishing war
(c) stopping scientific activities everywhere
(d) stopping science from reflecting social forces
3. The expression Tiring to the doorstep of doom means
(a) lead us to threshold of a new destiny
(b) introduce us to an unpredictable future
(c) carry us close to death and destruction
(d) take us step by step to ruin
4. The phrase, ‘our work has scarcely begun’ implies that our work
(a) has only just begun
(b) has not yet begun
(c) has begun but not yet finished
(d) is not likely to begin
5. Our mounting capacity to destroy can be kept under control by
(a) encouraging social forces
(b) education for all
(c) creativity and intelligence
(d) education, liberal thinking and creativity
“I am an urban creature, city-born. My childhood felt no touch of the village. When I started to look after our estates, I.feared that my duties would be irksome. I was not used to such work and my ignorance lay heavy on my mind. I could not imagine that, tied down to Figures and accounts, I might yet remain human and natural.
As I entered into the work, it took hold of me. It is my nature that, whenever I undertake any responsibility, I lose myself in it and try to do my utmost. Setting myself to unravel the complexities of Zamindari work, I earned a reputation for the new methods I evolved : as a matter of fact, neighbouring landlords began to send their men to me to learn my methods.
The old men on my staff grew alarmed. They used to maintain records in a way that I could never have grasped. Their idea was that I should understand nothing more than what they chose to explain, A change of method would create confusion, so they said. They pointed out that on anything becoming a subject matter of litigation, the court would.be doubtful about the new way the records were kept. I persisted through changing the thing from top to bottom and the result proved to be satisfactory.
The tenants often came to see me at any time. Sometimes I had to spend the whole day listening to their representations and meal times would slip by. I did all this work with enthusiasm and joy. I had lived in seclusion since boyhood and here was my first experience of the village. I was filled with the pleasure of blazing news trails.
I was anxious to see village life in the minutest detail. My duties took me from village to village, thus giving me a chance to see all aspects of village life and to satisfy my eager curiosity about the daily tasks of village-folk and the varied cycle of their work. Slowly, the poverty and misery of the people grew vivid before my eyes and made me restless and began to wish that I could do something for them. I was struck with shame that I was Zamindar, impelled by the money motive absorbed in revenue returns. With that realisation, I awoke to the task of trying to stir the minds of the people, so that they could shoulder their own responsibilities.”
1. The author was possessed by-the work when he started doing it because
(a) he used to concentrate on any work that he undertook
(b) he was not confident of getting support from others
(c) the work was very much interesting and absorbing
(d) the old men on the staff very much desired him to do so
2. Which of the following statements is/are definitely true in the context of the passage?
I. The author’s new accounting method proved to be satisfactory.
II. The courts expressed doubt about the new method.
III. The change in method created confusion among all.
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) Only III
(d) II and III
3. Which of the following statements is/are false in the context of the passage?
I. The author felt irritated when he had to skip meals for listening to the complaints of the villagers.
II. The author had spent his boyhood in village among the villagers and poor people.
III. The author was happy when he had escaped from the clutches of the nagging villagers.
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) Only III
(d) I and II
4. How did the author’s contribution to Zamindari work get recognition from others?
(a) His staff members grew alarmed and were reluctant to change
(b) The neighbouring Zamindars sent their men to impart training to the author
(c) The neighbouring Zamindars sent their men to the author to know his new methods
(d) His changed method created confusion among others
5. Which of the following aspects of the villagers made the author restless?
(d) None of these