SSC CHSL Topic Wise Study Material – General Awareness – History of India
The ‘Indian History’ is an essential and important component of the question paper of General Awareness asked in the Examination of SSC (10+2). Generally, the questions of Indian History can be divided into three following sections
- Ancient History
- Medieval History
- Modern History
Under the section of Ancient History, Indus Valley Civilization, Pre Mauryan Age, Magadh Empire, Foreign Invasions, Jainism, Buddhism, Post Mauryan Period, The Age of Gupta, The Sangam Age, etc. are included. In the section of Medieval India, all the events from the origin of Delhi sultnate to the advent of European Advent are included whereas in the Modem History Section the events related to the Freedom Movements, Indian National Movements, Division of the Nation and The Establishment of the Free Nation are studied. Generally, 5 to 6 questions are asked from the section of Indian History, which are related to all the three sections. But nowadays, more number of questions from the section of Modem History are being asked in the examination.
1. The Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb located in____It was built by Azam Shah, son of Aurangzeb, in 1678. SSC (10 + 2) 2017
2. Battle of Kannauj was fought in the year SSC (10 + 2) 2017
3. Who among the following rulers abolished Jaziya? SSC (10 + 2) 2015
4. Who was Akbar’s famous revenue minister? SSC (10 + 2) 2015
(b) Rana Pratap singh
5. The word “Buddha” means SSC (10 + 2) 2014
(a) an enlightened one
(b) a wanderer
(c) a conqueror
(d) a liberator
6. 1917 is known for SSC (10 + 2) 2014
(a) End of the World War I
(b) The Russian Revolution
(c) Battle of Trafalgar
(d) Battle of Waterloo
7. Who built the famous Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchipuram? SSC (10 + 2) 2014
(a) Nandi Varman II
(b) Aparajita Varman
(c) Narasimha Varman II
(d) Parameshvara Varman II
8. The first to invade India were the SSC (10 + 2) 2014
9. Name the oldest Indian civilization SSC (10+2) 2014
(a) Mesopotamian civilization
(b) Egyptian civilization
(c) Indus Valley civilization
(d) None of these
10. Who among the following Mughal rulers has been called the “Prince of Builders? SSC (10 + 2) 2014
(a) Shah Jahan
The Stone Age : Pre History
» The fossils of the early human being have not been found in India, but in Africa about 2.6 million years back. So, it appears that India was settled later than Africa.
» The recent reported artifacts from Bori in Maharashtra suggest the appearance of human beings in India around 1.4 million years ago.
» The early man in India used tools of stone roughly dressed by crude clipping. This period is therefore, known as the Stone Age, which has been divided into
* The Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age (5 lakh – 9000 BC)
* The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age (9000-4000 BC)
* The Neolithic or New Stone Age (4000-1000 BC)
» It seems that Palaeolithic men belonged to the Negrito race. Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.
» Palaeolithic men were hunters and food gatherers. They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire or pottery, they used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave rock shelters. They are also called
» The Mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing and food-gathering. At a later stage they also domesticated animals.
» The characteristics tools of the Mesolithic Age are microliths, pointed cresconic blades, scrapers, etc, made up of stones.
» Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bagor in Rajasthan provide the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals.
» The people of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic ages practicised painting. Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh is a striking site of Pre-historic painting.
» The people of Neolithic age used tools and implements of polished stone. They particularly used stone axes.
» It is interesting that in Burzahom domestic dogs were buried with their masters in their graves.
» The neolithic settlers were the earliest farming communities. They produced ragi and horse-gram (kulathi). Neolithic sites in Allahabad district are noted for the cultivation of rice in the sixth millenium BC. They domesticated cattle, sheeps and goats. They wove cotton and wool to make cloths.
» Hand made pottery and use of potter wheel first appears during the neolithic age.
» Indus Civilisation is one of the four earliest civilisation of the world along with the civilisation of Mesopotamia (Tigris and Eugphrates), Egypt (Nile) and China (Hwang Ho).
» The civilisation forms part of the proto-history of India and belongs to the Bronze age.
» The most accepted period is 2500-1700 BC (by Carbon-14 dating)
» Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa in 1921.
» RD Banneijee discovered Mohenjodaro in 1922.
» Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and some parts of Western UP.
» Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Ravi in Western Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhu-Daro (Sindh), etc. In India, major sites are Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banwani (Hissar), and Alamgirpur (Western UP).
» Elaborate town-planning. It follows the grid system. Roads well cut, dividing the town into large rectangular blocks.
» Used burnt bricks of good quality.
» Good drainage system.
» In Mohenjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 2.4 m deep, has been found.
» Grew wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, rice (in Lothal), cotton (first to produce cotton), dates, melon, etc.
» Used wooden ploughs.
Art and Craft
» The Harappan Culture belongs to the Bronze Age.
» Potter’s wheel was in use.
» Bronze image of the famous dancing girl (identified as devadasi) has been found at Mohenjodaro.
» Barter system was there. 16 was the unit of measurement.
» Harappan seals (made of steatite, had design on one side) and other material has been found at Mesopotamia.
» Main object of worship was the Mother Goddess.
» Phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also prevalent.
» Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones were worshipped.
» The script is pictographic, not deciphered.
» Invasion of the Aryans, recurrent floods, social breakup of Harappans, earthquakes, major ecological changes etc. are listed as possible’ causes.
Vedic Period : The Aryans
» The Aryans were semi-nomadic pastoral people and originated from area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia (many historians have given various theories regarding their original place). The Central Asian theory is given by Max Muller.
» Entered India probably through the Khyber Pass (Hindukush Mountains) around 1500BC.
Early Vedic or Rigvedic Period
» Monarchial form. Tribe was known as Jan and its king as Rajan.
» Family was the basic unit of society. The family was patriarchal in nature.
» The Samiti was the National Assembly of the people while the Sabha was Council of Elders.
» Social structure was patriarchal.
» Women had a high place in society and were co-workers and co-partners in the life with their husbands.
» Caste system was not hereditary, but was based on one’s own profession.
» Aryans followed a mixed economy-pastoral and agricultural- in which cattle played a predominant part.
» Standard unit of exchange was cow. At the same time coins were also there.
» The Aryans personified the natural forces and looked upon them as living beings.
» The most important divinity was Indra who played the role of warlord (breaker of forts- Purandar).
Later Vedic Period [Painted Grey Ware Phase]
» Rigvedic popular assemblies lost and royal power increased. The sabha and samiti continued to hold . the ground out their character changed.
» A rudimentary taxation system began with sangrath’itri.
» The four fold division of society became clear- initially based on occupation, which later became hereditary: Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (Warriors), Vaishyas (agriculturists, cattle-rearers, traders) and Shudras (servers of the upper three).
» The institution of gotra appeared for the first time in this age.
» Agriculture remains main occupation but methods of cultivation improved.
» The Gold bar, ‘Nishka’ (weight-320 ratis) was the unit of value.
» Indra and Agni lost their importance. Prajapati (the creator) became supreme. Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver and protector of the people.
The Vedic Literature :
* The word ‘veda’ comes from the root ‘vidi’, signifying knowledge.
* They are four in all-Rig Veda,Sama Veda,Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.
(a) Rig Veda Oldest religious text in the world.
Contains 1028 hymns and is divided into 10 mandalas.
(b) Sam a Veda Derived from the root ‘Saman’, i.e., ‘melody’. It is a collection of melodies.
(c) Yajur Veda Deals with the procedure for the performance of sacrifices.
(d) Atharva Veda Mostly dealing with magic (along with personal ;problems of people).
» Called Vedanta.
» They are the main source of Indian Philosophy, 108 in numbers.
Explains rules and regulations in the Vedic life.
» There are 6 schools of Indian Philosophy known as Darshana.
» These are given by 6 philosophers of Ancient India
Nyaya (Analysis) Darshana: Gautama.
Vaishesika Darshana: Kannada Rishi (referred atom as kan/anu).
Sankhaya Darshana: Kapila
Yoga Darshana: Patanjali.
Purva Mimamsa: Jaimini
Uttara Mimamsa: Badaryana or Vyasa (wrote Mahabharata, classified vedas, composed the puranas, gave vedaptic philosophy).
» The Mahabharata, attributed to Vyasa, is considered older than the Ramayana and describes the period from the 10th century BC to the 4th century AD. It is also called Jaisamhita and Satasahasri Samhita and has one lakh verses.
» The Ramayana, attributed to Valmiki.
» Also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
» Born to Suddhodana (Sakya ruler) and Mahamaya in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima day of Lumbini (near Kapilvastu) in Nepal.
» Lost mother 7 days after the birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
» Married at 16 to Yoshodhara and blessed with a son named Rahula.
» Left his palace at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The Great Renunciation) and wandered for 6 years.
» Attained ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.
» Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan’ or ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’,
» Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80.
In Fourth Council Buddhism separated into Mahayana and Hinyana Sects.
Teachings of Buddha
(a) His Four Noble Truths (Arya Satyas)
1. The world is full of sorrows Sabbam Dukkam.
2. The cause of sorrow is desire Dwadash Nidan/Pratitya Samutpada.
3. If desires are conquered, all sorrows can be removed Nirvana.
4. This can be achieved by following the 8-fold path , Ashtangika Marga.
» The second truth, is based on Buddha’s doctrine of Paticheha samutpada or Pratitya samutpada i.e., law of dependent origination or causation.
(b) Eight-fold Path (Ashtangika Marga)
» Right understanding
» Right thought
» Right speech
» Right action
» Right livelihood
» Right effort
» Right mindfulness
» Right concentration
(c) Three Jewels (Triratnas)
» Buddha (the enlightened)
» Dhamma (doctrine)
» Sangha (order)
» In Pali language.
» Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitakas, i.e. ‘Threefold Basket’.
» Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries.
» Largest, contains collection of Buddha’s sermons.
* Jataks are the fables about the different births of Buddha.
It contains profound philosophy of the Buddha’s teachings.
» Founded by Rishabha.
» There were 24 Tirthankaras, First was Rishabhdev (Emblem: Bull).
» The 23rd Tirthankar was Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake)
» The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion). He was born in Kundagram (Distt Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 540 BC.
» Born to Siddhartha (Head of the Kshatriya clan) and Trishla (sister of Lichhavi Prince chetak of Vaishali)
» Bimbisara was related to Lord Mahavira.
» Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple.
» At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic. » In the 13 th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha), outside the towp of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme . knowledge (Kaivalya).
» From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e., worthy.
» At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, in 468 BC.
Teachings of Mahavira
» Rejected the authority of Vedas and did not believe in existence of God.
» He believed in karma and transmigration of soul.
(a) Three Ratnas (Way to Nirvana)
» Right faith (Samyak Vishwas)
» Right knowledge (Samyak Gyan)
» Right conduct (Samyak Karma)
(b) Five Cardinal Principles
» Non-injury (Ahimsa).
» Non-lying (Satya).
» Non-stealing (Asteya).
» Non-possession (Aparigraha).
» Observing continence (Brahmachaiya).
The first four principles were given by Parsavnath while fifth was added by Lord Mahavira.
Originally founded in 566 BC by the grand father of Bimbisara named Brihdratha but actually founded by Bimbisara.
Bimbisara (544 BC-492 BC)
Ajatshatru (492 BC-460 BC)
Son of Bimbisara, killed his father & seized the throne.
He founded the new capital at Pataliputra, situated at the confluence of the Ganga & Son
Founded by a minister Shishunaga.
» Considered by many as the first non-Kshatriya dynasty. Founder was Mahapadma Nanda.
» Alexander attacked India in their reign. Dhana Nanda was there at that time.
Alexander (356 BC-323 BC) invaded India in 326 BC.
The Mauryan Dynasty
Chandragupta Maurya (322-298 BC)
» With the help of Chanakya, known as Kautilya or Vishfiugupta, he overthrew the Nandas and established the rule of the Maurya dynasty.
» He also called as Sandrocottus/Androcottus by Greek scholars.
» He defeated Selucus Nikator, the General of Alexander in 305 BC from North-West India.
» Selucus sent a Greek Ambasrador Megasthenes to the court of Chandragupta.
Bindusara (298-272 BC)
Chandragupta was succeeded by his son Bindusara in 297 BC. At the time of his death, almost the entire subcontinent came under the Mauiyam rule.
Ashoka (269-236 BC)
» Regarded as one of the greatest kings of all times.
» In his inscriptions following languages have been used Brahmi, Kharoshthi, Armaic and Greek.
» The Kalinga War (261 BC, mentioned in XIII rock edict) changed his attitude towards life. Ashoka became a Buddhist after that.
» Built the Sanchi Stupa.
* The last Mauryan -king Brihadratha was killed by Pushyamitra Shunga (Commanderin Chief) in 185 BC, who started the Shunga dynasty in Magadha.
» Ashok took some measures for propagation of Dhamma in his empire through his Dhamma Mahamattas, undertaking of Dhamma by regulation.
Post Mauryan Age
Shunga Dynasty (185 BC-73 BC)
» Pushyamitra Shunga ruled from Vidisha (MP). He defeated Bactrian king, Dematrius and conducted two Ashwamedha Yajnas (chief priest-Patanjali).
» However, the Buddhist Stupa at Bharhut was built during his reign.
» The Greek Ambassador Heliodorus visited the court of fifth Shunga king Bhagabhadra and set up a pillar in honour of Lord Vasudeva near Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh).
» Shunga king Agnimitra was hero of Kalidas’s ‘Malvikagnimitram.
» The great Sanskrit Grammanian, Patanjali was patronised by them.
» The famous book on Hindu Law Manusmriti was compiled during this period.
Kanva Dynasty (73 BC-72 BC)
» Kanva was a minor dynasty founded by Vasudeva, who killed the last Shunga King Devabhuti. Capital at Patliputra.
» Bhumimitra and Narayana succeeded Vasudeva. All the rulers were Brahmins.
» The last ruler, Susarman, was killed by Andhra King Simuka.
The Age of Satavahans
» The earliest inscriptions of the Satavahanas belong to the first century BC.
» They were successors of Maurya in Deccan and Central India.
» The founder of this empire was Simuka after the assassination of last Kanava King Susarman.
» Gautamiputra Satakarni (AD 106-130) was the greatest ruler of this dynasty.
» His capital was at Paithan or Pratisthan on the bank
» Yajna Sri Satkarni (AD 165-194) the later king of Satavahanas recovered North Konkan and Malwa from Shaka rulers. His coins figured ‘ship with double mast’.
» Pulamayi III was the last Satavahanas ruler succeeded by Ikshavakus in 3rd century BC.
» They issued mostly lead coins (apart from copper and bronze).
» Satavahanas were the first ruler to make land grants to Brahmins.
Central Asian Contacts and Their Results
» The most famous Indo (553-18l)Greek ruler was Menander (165-145 BC), also known as Milinda.
» Greeks were the first to issue coins which can be definitely attributed to the kings, and also the first to issue gold coins in India.
The Shakas or Scythians
The Greeks were followed by the Shakas, who controlled a larger part of India than the Greek did.
The most famous Parthian King was Gondophernes (AD 19-45).
The Kushans (AD 45)
» Came from North Central Asia near China. Their empire included a good part of Central Asia, a portion of Iran, a portion of Afghanistan, Pakistan and almost the whole of North India.
» Kanishka was their most famous king.
» He patronized the following persons
* Ashwaghosha (wrote ‘Buddhacharita’)
* Vasumitra (Chairman of fourth Buddhist Council)
* Charak (a physician, wrote ‘Charak Samhita’)
» He started an era in AD 78, which is now known as Saka Era and is used by the Govt, of India.
The Gupta Dynasty
The first two kings of the dynasty were Srigupta and Ghatotkacha.
Chandragupta I (AD 319 – 350)
» First important king of Gupta Dynasty.
» Started the Gupta era in AD 319-320 .
» He established his authority over Magadha, Saketa and Prayaga.
Samudragupta (AD 350 – 375)
» The Gupta kingdom was enlarged enormously by Chandragupta’s son and successor Samudragupta.
» Samudragupta is called the ‘Napoleon’ of India by VA Smith.
» Meghavarman, the ruler of Sri Lanka sent a missionary to a Samudragupta for permission to built a Buddhist temple at Gaya.
Chandragupta II (AD 375 – 415)
» His court was adorned by celebrated nine gems (navratnas) including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Aryabhatta, Varahmihir, and Dhanvantri.
» Chinese pilgrim Fahien visited India at this time.
» Mehrauli Iron Pillar Inscription (Delhi) claims his authority over North-Western India and mostly Bengal.
Kumaragupta I (AD 415 – 455)
» Founded Nalanda University (a renowned university of ancient India).
Skandagupta (AD 455 – 467)
» Kumaragupta-I was followed by Skandagupta.
» After his death, the great days of the Guptas were over.
Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins, which were called dinaras in their inscriptions. Silver coins were called Rupayakas.
* Bhaga King’s share in the produce, to be paid by cultivators.
* Bali (Earlier a voluntary offering) An additional and oppressive tax during Gupta period.
* Bhoga Periodic supplies of fruits, firewoods etc, which the villagers had to furnish to the king
* Uparika An extra tax levied on all subjects.
The Coming of Muslims
He was a first muslim ruler to came in India in AD 712.This practically made him the ruler of the whole of Sindh. But his brilliant career came to a sad end when he was put to death by the caliph.
Mahmud of Ghazni
» He led 17 expeditions between 1001 and 1027. He plundered Thaneshwar, Mathura, Kannauj and Somnath.
» The plunder of Somnath temple (dedicated to Shiva) in 1025, situated on the sea coast of Kathiawar, was famous.
» In the 1st Battle of Tarain (119l) he received a severe defeat from the hand of Prithviraj Chauhan.
» But Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj in the II Battle of Tarain in 1192.
» Captured Delhi and Ajmer and thus laid the foundation of Muslim Rule in India.
» Died in 1206, gave Qutab-ud-Din Aibak the charge of the Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultanate
The Ilbari Dynasty of Slave Dynasty
Qutab-Ud-Din Aibak (AD 1206-1210]
» Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals.
» Laid the foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of famous Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutab-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki.
» Died of a horse fall at Lahore, while playing Chaugan (Similar to Polo)
» He started Iqta system in Delhi Sultanate.
lltutmish (AD 1210-1236)
» He formed Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress nobles).
» Divided his empire into IQTAS, an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distributed to his officers.
» He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – 2 basic coins of the Sultanate.
» For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Baksh.
Raziya (AD 1236-1240)
She was the first and the last Muslim woman ruler of medieval India.
Balban (AD 1266-1286)
» He declared Sultan as the representative of god on earth. He impressed upon the people that king was the deputy of God (niyabat-i-khudai) and the shadow of God (zil-i-ilahi). Introduced Sijdah or Paibos practice.
» He ordered the separation of military department from the finance department (diwan-i-wizarat).
The Khalji Dynasty
Jalaluddin Firoz Khalji (AD 1290 1296)
He was the first ruler to put forward the view that since a large majority of people in India are Hindus, the state in India could not be a total Islam state.
Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296-1316)
» First Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed – “Kingship knows no kinship.”
» First Sultan to have permanent army – paid soldiers in cash, imported horses, detailed description of each soldier (Chehra) and each horse (Dagh) was kept.(first time).
» Both Amir Khusrau and Mir Hasan Dehlvi enjoyed his patronage.
Market Economic Reforms
Alauddin controlled the market by some regulations.
1. Fix the cost of all commodities.
2. He set up three markets at Delhi.
3. All goods for sale were brought to the open market called Sarai-Adl.
The Tughlaq Dynasty
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (AD 1320-1325)
» Took keen interest in the construction of canals and formulated a famine policy.
» Built the fortified city of Tughlaqbad and made it his capital.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (AD 1325-1351)
» His early name was Jauna Khan.
» Regarded as the most controversial figure in Indian history, because some of his ambitious projects
(a) Taxation in Doab (1326)
(b) Transfer of capital to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in 1327
(c) Introduction of token currency (1329)
* A new department of agriculture Diwan-i-Kohi was set up. He built fortress of Adilabad and city of “Jahanpanah”.
* The famous Moroccon traveller Ibn-Batuta came to Delhi in 1334 and acted as the Quazi of the capital for 8 years. He recorded the contemporary Indian scene in his Safranamah (Rahela).
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (AD 1351-1388)
» He made iqtadaiy system hereditary. The principle of heredity was recognised not only in civil offices, but also in army.
» Built new towns of Fatehabad, Hissar, Jaunapur (in memory of Muhammad Tughlaq), Firozabad. During his Bengal campaign he renamed Ikdala as Azadpur and Pandua as Firozabad.
» He brought two pillars of Ashoka from Topara and Meerut, to Delhi, repaired Qutub-Minar when it was stuck by lightening.
» Barani, the historian was in his court. He wrote two well known works of history: Tarikh-i-Firozshahi & Fatwa-i-Jahandari.
Timur’s Invasion (1398)
» Timur the lame, who was a Great Mongol leader of Centra Asia ordered general massacre in Delhi and robbed people mercilessly.
» At that time, Nasiruddin Mahmud (a later Tughluq king) was the ruler.
The Sayyid Dynasty
» Khizr Khan (1414-21) founded the dynasty.
» Khizr Khan’s 3 successors – Mubarak Shah (1421-33), Muhammad Shah (1434-43) and Alauddin Alam Shah (1443-51)-were incapable leaders.
The Lodi Dynasty
They were Afghans by race (considered the first Afghan dynasty of India).
Bahlul Lodhi (AD 1451 -1489)
» Revived Sultanate to quite an extent.
» Never sat on throne, used to sit on carpets along with Amines.
Sikandar Lodhi (AD 1489-1517)
» His real name was Nizam Khan.
» In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
» He encouraged agriculture. For measurement of land, he introduced Gaj-i-Sikandari.
» Was a poet and wrote versus in Persian under the per-name of Gulrukhi.
Ibrahim Lodhi (AD 1517-1526)
Repressive ruler was defeated and killed by Babur in the 1st Battle of Panipat in 1526. With this the Sultanate of Delhi ended.
The Bhakti Movement
Ramanuja (12th century)
Earliest exponent of Bhakti Movement. He gave the concept of Vishishtadvaita.
Ramanand (15th century)
First great Bhakti saint of north India. Worshipper of Lord Vishnu. His followers were Ravidas, Kabir, Dhanna, Sena andPipa.
* Namadeva Tailor
* Ravidas Cobbler (His 30 hymns are in Guru Granth Sahib).
* Kabir Weaver
* Sena Barber
* Sadhana Butcher
» Of the Bhakti saints Nanak and Kabir were outstanding. Both emphasized the unity of God.
» Was a poet and wrote versus in Persian under the per-name of Gulrukhi.
» Nanak (1469-1539) was born in the village of Talwandi (now called Nankana).
Travelled throughout India and popularized Krishna cult. ‘Kirtan system’ was given by Chaitanya.
She was the follower of Lord Krishna. Wrote some poetic stanzas on Lord Krishna.
Surdas (Western UP)
wrote lyrical poems on Radha and Krishna. Wrote Sur-Sagar.
He was born in a brahmin family in 1532 in Varanasi. Wrote ’ Ram Charit Manas, Vinay Patrika, etc.
» Founded in 1336.
» The empire of Vijaynagar was founded by Harihara I and Bukka, two of the five sons of Sangama.
» Devaraya II (1423-46) was the greatest Sangama ruler.
» Sangama dynasty was replaced by Saluva dynasty, which lasted for 2 decades. Ultimately, a new dynasty called the Tuluva dynasty (1503-69) was founded by Vira Narsimha.
» Sadasiva (1543-76) was the last ruler of the dynasty.
» His period was known as Golden age of Telugu literature.
» Eight great poets (Ashta Diggaja) adorned his court.
» Krishnadeva Raya (1509-29) was their greatest ruler.
» His political ideas are contained in his Telugu Book ‘Amuktamalyada’ (also Jambavati Kalyanam in Sanskrit).
» In 1565, Battle of Talikota was fought between an alliance of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda and Bidar on one side and Sadasiva on the other side. Sadasiva was defeated. After that, Aravidu dynasty was found by Rama Raya’s brother, Thirumala.
» Founded in 1347 by Abul Muzaffar (Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah) during the reign of Mohd. Bin Tughlaq.
» By the first decade of the 16th century the Bahmani Kingdom was split into 4 independent units
(a) Bijapur (1490) Adil Shahi dynasty.
(b) Ahmednagar (1490) Nizam Shahi dynasty.
(c) Berar (1490) Imad Shahi dynasty.
(d) Golconda (1512) Qutab Shahi dynasty.
The Mughal Empire
Babur (AD 1526 -1530)
» Originally reuled over Eerghana (Afghanistan).
» Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established the Mughal empire
» His memoir, is Tuzuk-i-Baburi (in Turki language).
» Babur died in AD 1630 and was buried at Arambagh in Agra, later this body was taken to Kabul and buried there.
Humayun (AD 1530 – 1556 )
» He was attacked by Sher Shah at Chausa (Battle of Chausa) in 1539, but escaped.
» But in the Batde of Kannauj (or Bilgrama) in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah and had to flee.
» Passed nearly 15 years (1540-1555 ) in exile.
» Recaptured the throne in 1555. Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him.
» Died in 1556, due to a fall from stairs (Sher Mandal, Delhi) seven months after he captured Delhi.
» Gulbadan Begum, his half-sister, wrote Humayun-nama.
The Afghan Interlude
Sher Shah Suri ( 1540-1545 )
» Became the master of Delhi after the exit of Humayun.
» Introduced the silver ‘Rupaya’ and the copper ‘Dam’.
» He restored the old imperial road called Grand Trunk road.
» Malik Mohammad Jaysi composed Padmavat (in Hindi) during his reign.
» He died on 26th May, 1545 and buried at Sararam.
The Mughal Empire (Contd.)
Akbar (AD 1556 – 1605 )
» Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu Bggam. He was born at Amarkot in 1542.
» Coronated in Kalanaur when he was 14 years old.
» Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Batde of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya. Hemu was defeated.
» Between 1556-1560, Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan’s regency.
» Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.
» Fought Batde of Haldighad with Mewar forces on 18 June, 1576.Formulated an order called Din-i-Ilahi or Tauhind-i-Ilahi in 1582. Birbal, Abul Fazal and Faizi joined the order.
» His Land Revenue System was known as Todar Mai Bandobast or Zabti System.
Jahangir (AD 1605-16273
» Captain Hawkins (1608-11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619) visited his court.
» Painting reached its zenith during his reign.
» The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on Mehr-un-Nisa (wife of Jahangir).
» His autobiography Tuzuk-a-Jahangiri in Persian language.
Shahjahan (AD 1628 – 1658 )
» He born in 1592, real name was Khurram.
» His reign is considered the ‘Golden Age’ of the Mughal Empire.
» Last years of his life were very painful.
» He was made the prisoner in the Agra Fort, being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in 1666.
» Two French traveller Bernier and Travemier and the Italian traveller Nicolo Manucci visited during his reign.
Aurangzeb Alamgir (AD 1658 – 1707 )
» He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
» In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur.
» He was called a ‘Darvesh’ or a ‘Zinda Pir’.
» He built ‘Bibi Ka Maqbara’ similar to Taj Mahal in Aurangabad.
» Belong to a religious sect founded by Guru Nanak.
» After his death, Guru Angad became his successor. He invented the Gurumukhi script for the Punjabi Language.
» 10th and last gum Gobind Singh organised Sikhs as a community of warriors and called them as Khalsa (Baisakhi day, 1699).
» Rose to prominence under Shivaji.
» He was born to Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai in 1627 at fortress of Shivner in Poona.
» He was highly impressed by his mother, Dadaji Kondadeo (his guardian) and Guru Ramdas, a Bhakti saint.
» He was crowned in 1674 at Raigarh and assumed the title of Chhatrapati.
» Mysore emerged as a powerful throne under Haider Ali who became the king in 1761.
» In the I Anglo-Mysore war (1767-1769), Haider Ali faced the triple alliance of the English, the Nizam and the Marathas.
» Hyder Ali died in 1782 during the II Anglo-Mysore war. His son Tipu Sultan carried on the war.
» In the III Anglp-Mysore war (1789-1792), he was defeated by the triple alliance of British, Nizam and the Marathas and had to sign the Treaty of Srirangapatnam.
» He was defeated and killed in the IV Anglo-Mysore war (1799) by Lord Wellesley.
The Advent of Europeans
» Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on May 17,1498. Atthat time Calicut was ruled by a King named Zamorin.
» The first Governor of Portuguese in India was Francisco Almeida.
» Alfonso-de-Albuqurque introduced the policy of imperialism in India. He became Governer in 1509 and captured Goa (1510) from the ruler of Bjapur.
» The Dutch East India Company established factories in India at Masulipatnam in 1605, Pulicat (1610), Surat (1616), Bimlipatam (1641), Karaikal (1645), Chinsura, Kasimbazar, Patna, Balasore, Nagapatam and Cochin.
» They replaced the Portuguese as the most dominant power in European trade with East.
» The Dutch conceded to British after their defeat in the Battle of Sedera in 1759.
» The English East India Company was established in 1600. An imperial farman allowed the Company to set up a permanent factory at Surat.
» In 1611, the Company built its first factory in the South in Masulipatnam.
» They established their first factory at Surat in 1668 and at Masulipatnam in 1669.
» The foundation of Pondicherry was laid in 1673, which* afterwards became its capital.
The British Conquest of Bengal
» Defeat of Siraj-ud-daulah (successor of Alivardi Khan) in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. In this battle major part of the Nawab’s army (led by Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh) didn’t take part. The Nawab was defeated and killed.
» The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764 between the British forces (led by Major Munro) on one side, and the triple alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam, on the other side.
The Revolt of 1857
Causes of the Revolt
(i) Soldiers were asked to use the Enfield Rifles with greased cartridges.
(ii) Indian soldiers were paid low salaries.
» On March 29, 1857, a soldier named Mangal Pandey attacked and fired at his senior at Barrackpur in Bengal (in 19th and 34th Native infantry).
» On May 10, there was a mutiny of sepoys at Meerut .(3rd native cavalry).
» Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II was proclaimed the Emperor of India.
Important Leaders Connected with the Revolt
» Bakht Khan (captured Delhi, was from the Barreily unit of the army).
» Nana Sahib alias Dhondhu Pant (from Kanpur, along with Tantia Tope and Azimullah)
» Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh (declared her son as the Nawab of Awadh).
» Rani Lakshmibai. the widowed queen of Raja Gangadhar Rao of jhansi (Tantia Tope joined her, and they defeated the Scindhia of Gwalior, but both were defeated by Sir Hugh Rose. She died on June 17,1858, while Tantia was later captured and executed).
» Kunwar Singh and Aniar Singh (Arrah, Bihar).
Social and Cultural Uprisings
» Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828.
» Vehementically opposed Sati Pratha, casteism and advocated widow remarriage.
» He was opposed to ancient system of education, because he thought it would, keep the country in darkness.
» Justice MG Ranade founded the Prarthana Sabha.
» His motto was ‘Go back to the Vedas’ & ‘India for the Indians’. He disregarded Puranas, idol worship, casteism and untouchability. He advocated widow remarriage.
» Dayanand’s views were published in his famous work, Satyarth Prakash.
» Founded by Vivekanand (earlier, Narendranath Dutta) (1863-1902) in 1897.
» Irish woman Margret Nobel (Known as sister Nivedita) popularized it.
Young Bengal Movement
» Founded by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (1809-31).
» He was a teacher in Hindu College in Calcutta.
» Founded by Westerners who drew inspiration from Indian thought and culture.
» Madam H P Blavatsky laid the foundation of the movement in US in 1875. Later, Col. M S Olcott of the US Army joined her.
» In 1882, it was shifted to India at Adyar (Tamil Nadu).
» Annie Besant was elected its President in 1907.
The Aligarh Movement
» Started by Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan. He encouraged Muslims to accept the virtues of western education.
» He founded the Aligarh school in 1875. The school was made into the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in 1877. The college grew into the Aligarh Muslim University.
Important National Activities
The Indian National Congress
» Formed in 1885 by A O Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant.
» First session in Bombay under WC Bannerjee in 1885 (72 delegates attended it).
Partition of Bengal
» By Lord Curzon on October 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal. A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition.
Swadeshi Movement (1905)
» Had its origin in the anti-partition movement of Bengal.
» Lai, Bal, Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh played important role.
» Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places.
Muslim League (1906)
» Setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.
» It was a communal and conservative political organization which supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement, demanded special safeguards to its community and a separate electorate for Muslims.
Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907)
» The INC split into two groups-The extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907.
» Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lai while the moderates by GK Gokhale.
Indian Councils Act or Minto-Morley Reforms (1909)
» Besides other constitutional measures, it envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims.
Home Rule Movement (1916)
» Started by BG Tilak (April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S. Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (September, 1916).
» Objective: Self-government for India in the British Empire.
Rowlatt Act (1919)
» This Act provisions (passed on March 13) unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects without trial.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919)
» General O’ Dyer fired at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar on April 13.
» It was a torning point in Indo-British relations.
» Gandhiji decided to fight against this act and he gave – a call for Satyagraha on 6 th April, 1919.
Khilafat Movement (1920)
» Two brothers, Mohd Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement.
» The objectives of the movement were as follows
(i) to maintain the Turkish caliphate,
(ii) to protect the holy places of the Muslims and
(iii) to maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.
Non-cooperation Movement (1920)
» It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.
» Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in September, 1920.
Swaraj Party (1923)
» Motilal Nehru, CR Das and NC Kelkar formed the Swaraj party on January 1, 1923.
» By this programme, its member would enter the Legislative Council and use moral pressure to compel the authorities to concede to the popular demand for self government.
Lahore Session (1929)
» On December 19, 1929, under the Presidentship of JL Nehru, the INC, at its Lahore session, declared Poorria s Swaraj (Complete Independence) as its ultimate goal.
» On December 31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and January 26, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year.
Bardoli Movement (1928) was a movement against the payment of land i tax, led by Vallabh Bhai Patel. He got the name ‘Sardar’ from here.
» In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of Kingford, the unpopular judge of Muzaffarpur. Khudiram, Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged. (Alipur Case).
» Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly on April 8, 1929. Thus Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged on March 23, 1931 ,at Lahore Jail (Lahore Conspiracy Case).
Dandi March (1930)
» Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12,1930 for the small village Dandi to break the salt law.
» He picked a handful of salt and launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
First Round Table Conference (1930)
» It was held on Nov 12, 1930 in London.
» In the first session of the conference which opened in London, all parties were present except the Congress, whose leaders were in jail due to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Gandhi-lrwin Pact (1931)
According to the pact the INC stopped the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference.
Second Round Table Conference (1931)
» Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British PM Ramsay Macdonald.
» Pandit Mohan Malviya and Sarojini Naidu also attended the conference.
The Communal Award (1932)
» Announced by Ramsay McDonald on August 16.
» Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and Backward classes.
Poona Pact (1932)
» After the announcement of Communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, Poona pact (signed on. Sept 25) was reached and Gandhiji broke his fast.
» It was held between Gandhiji and Ambedkar.
» First time Harijans word is used for depressed classes.
Third Round Table Conference (1932)
Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.
The Government of India Act (1935)
» Based on the Simon commission report.
» It extended all the existing features of the Indian constitution like as popular representation, dyarchy and ministerial responsibility, provincial autonomy, communal representation ’ etc.
Demand for Pakistan (1940)
» Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1933.
» Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940 (called Jinnah’s Two-Nation Theory).
The Cripps Mission (1942)
The British Govt with a view to getting co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to settle terms with the Indian leaders.
The Quit India Movement (1942)
The resolution was passed on August 8,1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or die’.
The Indian National Army (INA)
» The idea of the Indian National Army (INA) to liberate India was originally conceived by Rasbehari Bose.
» SC Bose secretly escaped from India in Jan.. 1941, and reached Berlin. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There, Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him.
» Two INA headquarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore).
The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
» Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and AV Alexander) visited India.
» Both Congress and Muslim. League accepted the proposals.
» The elections of the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. The Congress got 209 of the total 273 seats.
Formation of Interim Government (1946)
Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on September 2, 1946.
Formation of Constituent Assembly (1946)
The Constituent Assembly met on December 9, 1946 and Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president.
Mountbatten Plan (1947)
» On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem.
» August 15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.
Partition and Independence (1947)
» All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan. According to this plan India was divided in two parts : India and Pakistan on 14th August 1947.
» India became an independent state on 15 th August 1947.
» Due to the remarkable work of Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, by August 15, 1947, all the States, with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession.
1. Which of the following was the first Neolithic site to be noticed in India?
2. The greatest invention of man in Palaeolithic Age was
(b) potter’s wheel
(c) metal implements
(d) spinning of cloth
3. Which one among the following is not the characteristic feature of the Harappan Settlement?
(a) Doorways arid windows generally faced the side lanes and rarely opened onto the main streets
(b) Houses generally had separate bathing areas and toilets
(c) The citadel was walled but the lower town was not walled
(d) Drains and water chutes from the second storey were often built inside the wall
4. The main channels of our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization are
(c) palm and barch leaf manuscripts
(d) archaeological excavations
5. Match the following
A B C D
(a) 2 1 3 4
(b) 2 4 1 3
(c) 3 4 2 1
(d) 4 2 1 3
6. The Great Bath of the Indus Valley Civilization was discovered in
7. Which one of the following was a saiva sect in ancient India?
(d) Isana siva gurudeva paddhati
8. Which is the most important divinity of Rigveda?
9.Match the following
A B C D
(a) 4 2 1 3
(b) 3 2 4 1
(c) 4 1 2 3
(d) 2 3 1 4
10. The vedic deity Indra was the God of
(c) rain and thunder
11. With reference to the invaders in ancient India, which one of the following is the correct chronological order?
12. The ancient time state craft and polity is described in
13. The Painted Grey Ware (PGW) belongs to
(a) the Harappan civilisation
(b) the Vedic age
(c) the Neolithic age
(d) None of these
14. The early Vedic society was
1. a tribal society
2. was divided according to caste
4. based on monogamy
(a) 1 and 4
(b) 1,2 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) 1,2, 3 and 4
15. Match the following
A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 2 1 4 3
(c) 1 2 4 3
(d) 3 2 4 1
16. Which of the following features are common to Jainism and Buddhism?
1. Denial of the authority of Vedas
2. Condemnation of animal sacrifice
3. Pursuing severe ascetism
4. Existence of a soul
5. Rejection of existence of God
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 1,2, 3 and 5
(d) 1,4 and 5
17. With which religion is Kaivalya associated?
18.Gandhara school of art came into existence in
(a) Hinayana sect
(c) Vaishnava sect
(d) Shaiva sect
20.The Buddhist Councils were held to
(a) preach the Middle Path
(b) compile Buddhist canons and settle disputes
(c) send religious missions abroad
(d) None of the above
21.Who among the following took the title of Vikramaditya?
(a) Chandragupta I
(b) Chandragupta II
22.The last of the 4th Jain Tirthankar was
23.Which one of the following cities did not ever become the capital of the Guptas?
24.In early ancient India, the largest urban centre was
25.Who among the following is considered as the first national ruler of India?
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(c) Chandragupta I
26.In which century did Ashoka reign?
(a) Second century BC
(b) Third century BC
(c) Second century AD
(d) Third century AD
27.Fahien’s mission to India was to
(a) learn about the administrative system of the Gupta kings
(b) understand the social position of women during the Gupta period
(c) visit the Buddhist institutions and to collect copies of Buddhist manuscripts
(d) get full knowledge about the condition of peasants during the period of Gupta kings
28.Which one of the following Gupta kings had to face the first Huna invasion?
(a) Kumaragupta I
29.During the Neolithic age in India, the only metal known to the people was
30. The God with three heads and horns, surrounded by animals, represented on a seal from Mohenjo-daro is said to be
31. Buddhism split up into the Hinayana and Mahayana sects at the Buddhist Council held during the reign of
(d) Chandragupta Maurya
32. Which one of the following Maukhari Kings defeated the Huna ruler Toramana?
(a) Ishana Varman
(b) Sharva Varman
(c) Ishvra Varman
(d) Avanti Varman
33. The Silver coins issued by the Guptas were called
34. Who is the only king of the Chalukyas of Badami known to perform the Ashvamedha sacrifice?
(b) Pula Keshin I
(c) Pula Keshin II
35. Ashoka, the Great conquered Kalinga in the year
(a) 261 BC
(b) AD 58
(c) AD 261
(d) AD 78
36. The Greek ambassador in the court of Chandragupta Maurya was
(a) Hiuen Tsang
37. Which language was used in the literature of Sangam period?
38. Vikrama era started from
(a) 57 BC
(b) AD 78
(c) AD 57
(d) 78 BC
39. Kadambari was written by
40. Who among the following is considered to be the father of Ayurveda?
41. The pioneer in preaching Nirguna Bhakti in medieval India was
(d) Sri Chaitanya
42. Indians in ancient time learnt a lot from the Greeks . in the field of
43. Which of the following rulers died while playing ‘Chaugan?
(b) Sher Shah .
(d) Qutubuddin Aibak
44. Rana Kumbha of Mewar built the famous ‘Kirti Stconbh’ Tower of Victory to commemorate his victory against
45. The battle at Waihind in 1008-09 was fought between
(a) Mahmud of Ghazni and Anandapala
(b) Mahmud of Ghazni and Jayapala
(c) Mohammad Ghori and Prithviraj
(d) Mohammad Ghori and Jaichandra
46. The ‘Shahnama’ was written by
(c) Amir Khusrau
(d) Abul Fazal
47. Tahqiq-i-Hind’, a famous literary work, was written by
(b) Nizarmud-din Ahmad
48. Al Beruni came to India with
(a) Mahmud of Ghazni
49. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked India mainly
(a) to plunder the wealth of India
(b) to establish his empire in India
(c) to spread Islam in India
(d) to take the famous artisans of India to his court
50. The first Muslim ruler to formulate the theory of Kingship similar to the theory of divine right of King was
(a) Qutubuddin Aibak
(b) Alauddin Khalji
51. For his unbounded generosity,'”who amongst the following Sultans was titled by all writers of the time as ‘lakh baksh’ or giver of lakhs?
(c) Qutubuddin Aibak
52. Which of the following is the oldest monument?
(b) Qutab Minar
(c) Taj Mahal
53. Harihara and Bukka, the founders of the Vijayanagara kingdom shaped the course of their conduct on the advice of
54. In Krishnadeva Raya’s court, Ashtadiggajas were the
(a) eight great poets of his court
(b) eight great ministers in his court
(c) eight elephants placed at eight comers of his capital
(d) eight great scholars of his kingdom
55. Who was known as ‘Andhra Bhoja’?
(a) Deva Raya II
(c) Krishnadeva Raya
(d) Quli Qutb Shah
56. On the ruins of which Hindu kingdom was the kingdom of Golconda founded?
57. Match the following
A B C D
(a) 1 4 3 2
(b) 3 2 1 4
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 4 1 3 2
58. After consolidating his power, Balban assumed the grand title of
59. Match the following
A B C D
(a) 1 4 3 2
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 3 1 2 4
(d) 4 2 1 3
60. I. The battle of Khanua was of greater significance than that of Panipat.
II. It destroyed the Afghan resistance to Mughal rule.
(a) I and II are wrong
(b) I and II are correct and II explains I
(c) I is correct but II is incorrect
(d) I is wrong but II is correct
61. Among the following which Mughal Emperor introduced the policy of Sulh-i-kul?
62. When Akbar was young, his guardian was
(c) Abul Fazal
(d) Bairam Khan
63. Timur invaded India during the reign of
(a) Alauddin Khalji
(b) Bahlol Lodi
(c) Firoz Tughlaq
(d) Nasiruddin Mehmud
64. The Delhi Sultanate virtually ended due to the invasion of
(a) Chengiz Khan
(c) Nadir Shah
65. Who wrote Tughluqnamah?
(b) Amir Khusrau
(d) Malik Mohammad Jaisi
66. Which of the following was considered the ablest writer in Persian during Akbar’s period?
(c) Abul Fazl
(d) Afizi Sarhindi
67. The medieval ruler who was the first to establish a ministiy of agriculture was
(a) Alauddin Khalji
(b) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
(c) Sher Shah
68. Hampi is situated on the Northern bank of
69. The capital of Bahmani Kingdom was
70. The Bahmani Kingdom was founded by
(c) Malik Kafur
71. Nicolo Conti, the traveller, who visited Vijayanagara kingdom in AD 1420 was
(a) an Italian
(b) a Greek
(c) a Russian
(d) a Frenchman
72. Who built Char Minar?
(a) Ibrahim Qutb Shah
(b) Quli Qutb Shah
(c) Ali Adil Shah
(d) Ibrahim Adil Shah II
73. Tulsidas was a contemporary of
74. Which Mughal emperor gave land for the construction of the Golden Temple at Amritsar ?
76.The Moti Masjid in Delhi was built during the reign of
(b) Shah jahan
(d) Shah Alam II
77. The Mughal painting reached its zenith during the reign of
78. Which Indian king requested Napoleon for help to drive the British from India?
(a) Rani of Jhansi
(b) Jai Singh
(d) Tipu Sultan
79. Tne Maratha power reached its zenith during the Peshwaship of
(a) Narayan Rao
(b) Bajirao I
(c) Madhav Rao
(d) Balaji II
80. The Peshwa became the official head of Maratha administration in the year
(a) AD 1730
(b) AD 1736
(c) AD 1742
(d) AD 1748
81. The beginning of the British political sway over India can be traced to the battle of
82. The final defeat of the Maratha Confederacy came during the time of
83. The first Europeans to come to India were
84. Who succeeded Aurangzeb after his death in AD 1707?
(a) Bahadur Shah I
(b) Prince Kambaksh
(c) Prince Azam
(d) Akbar II
85. Which was the first newspaper to be published in India?
(a) Bombay Samachar
(b) Bengal Gazette
(c) Bengal Chronicle
(d) The Hindu
86. Who was the first Indian to get selected in ICS?
(a) Surendranath Bannerjee
(b) Sarojini Naidu
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) C.R. Das
87. The first Governor General of Bengal was
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Clive
(c) Lord Wellesley
(d) Warren Hastings
88. The moderate leaders left the Congress after Lucknow session of the Congress and founded a new party called the
(a) Indian Liberal Federation or Liberal Party
(b) National Party
(c) Congress Socialist Party
(d) Unionist Party
89. Who was the leader of Poona Sarvajanik Sabiha founded in 1870?
(a) SN Banneijee
(b) Justice Ranade
(c) KT Telang
90. Who among the following was responsible for the revival of Hinduism in the 19th century?
(a) Swami Dayananda
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Guru Shankaracharya
(d) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
91. The first Bengali political drama which presented the story of the brutality of English indigo planters was
(a) Rast Goftar
(b) Indian Social Reformer
(c) Neel Darpan
(d) Shome Prakash
92. The reform movement among the Muslims started by Sir Syed Khan is known as … Movement.
93. Who among the following was the first to emphasise the instruction in science and literature through the English language was necessary for building up modern India?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(c) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
(d) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
94. Who was the pioneer among the following social reformers?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Dayanand Saraswati
(c) Ramakrishna Paramhansa
(d) Swami Vivekanand
95. One cbuld not term as a‘Moderate’
(a) GK Gokhale
(b) Dadabhai Naoroji
(c) Pherozeshah Mehta
(d) Bipin Chandra Pal
96. The term ‘Congress’ was derived from
(a) the history of North America
(b) Irish history.
(c) British Commonwealth
(d) the name of the American Parliament (Congress)
97. The Governor General of Fort William became the Governor General of India under the Charter Act of
98. The Vernacular Press Act was passed by
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Lord Wellesley
(c) Lord Lytton
(d) Lord Hardinge
99. A Public Works Department was set up in India by
(a) Lord Rippon
(b) William Bentinck
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Warren Hastings
100. Which of the following Land tenure systems was introduced by Lord Cornwallis?
101. Who among the following was pot associated with the formation of UP Kisan Sabha in February, 1918?
(a) Indra Narain Dwivedi
(b) Gauri Shankar Mishra
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Madan Mohan Malaviya
102. Who said, “Good government was never a good substitute for self government”?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Swami Dayananda
(c) Ramakrishna Paramhansa
(d) Swami Vivekanand
103. During whose Viceroyalty, Queen Victoria was crowned with ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ in Delhi Durbar?
(d) Lord Minto
104. The 19th Century reawakening in India was confined to the
(a) priestly class
(b) upper middle class
(c) rich peasantry
(d) urban landlords
105. The first Indian leader to undergo imprisonment in 1882 was
(a) B G Tilak
(b) C Vijaraghavachari
(c) Ashwani Kumar Datta
(d) Bipin Chandra Pal
106. Which one of the following is considered to have sparked off the 1857 Revolt?
(a) Annexation of Awadh
(b) The introduction of greased cartridges for the new Enfield rifle
(c) The anti-sati legislation
(d) All of the above
107. The Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah II was exiled by British and sent to
(b) Andaman and Nicobar
108. The Europeans in India launched a vigorous campaign for the repeal of the Ilbert Bill for
1. monopolisation of higher judicial posts for Europeans.
2. exclusion of Indians for Viceroys Council
3. their exemption from the jurisdiction of Indian judges and magistrates.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) Only 3
(d) All of these
110. Which of the following Anglo-Mysore wars came to end by the treaty of Serirangapatnam?
(a) I Anglo-Mysore War
(b) II Anglo-Mysore War
(c) III Anglo-Mysore War
(d) TV Anglo-Mysore War
111. The earliest Surat factories were established by the
112. The first fort which India was the British constructed in
(a) Hooghly Fort
(b) St George Fort
(c) Agra Fort
(d) St David Fort
113. The first tribal leader who was inspired by Mahatma Gandh and his ideology was
(b) Rani Gaidinliu
(c) Alluri Sitaram Raju
(d) Thakkar Bapa
114. The first venture of Gandhi in All India Polictics was the
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement
(b) Rowlatt Satyagraha
(c) Champaran Movement
(d) Dandi March
115. The Asiatic Society was established in Calcutta by
(a) Warren Hastings
(b) Sir William Jones
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d) TB Macaulay
116. Who among the following started the first newspaper in India?
(a) Rabindaranath Tagore
(b) Dadabhai Naoroji
(c) James A. Hickey
(d) JC Maishman
117. Which of the following prominently fought for and got widow remarriage legalised?
(a) MG Ranade
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(c) Raja Rammohan Roy
(d) Annie Besant
118. Shuddhi movement (conversion of non-Hindus to Hinduism) was started by
(a) Swami Vivekananda
(b) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Raja Rammohan Roy
119. Who among the early nationalists worked in England to mobilize public opinion in favour of the Indian National Movement?
(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(b) D Wacha
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) Dadabhai Naoroji
120. Who said the following of the Indian National Congress. ‘A safety valve for the escape of great and growing forces generated by our own actions was urgently needed?
(a) Annie Besant
(b) AO Hume
(c) Lord Rippon
(d) Lord Curzon
121. Gandhi’s concept of Dharrna Raj was
(a) where everybody performs his duties .
(b) where every religion had equal opportunities and freedom
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) state systems based on universal morality
122. Who was responsible for the introduction of English as the official language in India?
(a) Lord William Bentinck
(b) Sir Charles Wood
(c) Marquess of Dalhousie
(d) Allan Octavian Hume
123. The Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Warren Hastings
(c) Lord Canning
(d) Lord Dalhousie
124. Who amongst the following is associated with the Local Self- Government Act?
(b) William Bentinck
125. Who among the following wrote the book ‘A nation in the making?
(a) Dinbandhu Mitra
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(c) Surendranath Bannerjee
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose