Telangana History Struggles for Achievement of Separate Telangana State (1956-2014)
History witnessed two agitations for separate Telangana state, the first one in 1969 and the second one in 2012. The struggle in 2012 bore fruits and the long cherished dream of the Telanganites fulfiled. In between the two periods, members of discontent over the exploitation of the locals by the Andhras in employment and educational opportunities kept burning.
The States Reorganization Commission was appointed to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines in December 1953. The commission, due to public demand, recommended disintegration of Hyderabad state and to merge Marathi speaking region with Bombay state and Kannada speaking region with Mysore state. The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) discussed the pros and cons of a merger between Telugu speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad state and Andhra state. Pera 374 of the SRC report said “The creation of Visalandhra is an ideal to which numerous individuals and public bodies, both in Andhra and Telangana, have been passionately attached over a long period of time, and unless there are strong reasons to the contrary, this sentiment is entitled to consideration”.Discussing the case of Telangana, pera 378 of the SRC report said “One of the principal causes of opposition of Visalandhra also seems to be the apprehension felt by the educationally backward people of Telangana that they may be swamped and exploited by the more advanced people of the coastal areas.” In its final analysis SRC recommended against the imme-diate merger. In pera 386 it said “After taking all these factors into consideration we have come to the conclusions that it will be in the interests of Andhra as well as Telangana, if for the present, the Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as the Hyderabad State with provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961, if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the residuary Hyderabad State expresses itself in favour of such unification.”
After going through the recommendations of the SRC, the then Central Government led by Jawaharlal Nehru decided to merge Andhra state and Telangana to form Andhra Pradesh state on 1 November 1956 after providing safeguards to Telangana in the form of Gentlemen agreement.
Nehru commented on the merger that it was a marriage between a mischievous bridegroom and an innocent bride and separation can be considered if the couple fell apart.