General Awareness Science and Technology |Questions & Answers | Notes
Science and Technology
|Aeroplane||1903||Orville and Wilbur Wright||U.S.A|
|Bail-point pen||1888||John J. Loud||U.S.A.|
|Bicycle tyre (air)||1888||J.B.Dunlop||Britain|
|Calculating Machine||1642||Blaise Pascal||France|
|Centigrade Scale||1742||A. Celsius||France|
|Cinema||1895||A.L. and J. Lumiere||France|
|Circulation of blood||1628||William Harvey||England|
|Clock (mechanical)||1725||Hsing and Ling-Tsan||China|
|Clock (pendulum)||1657||Christian Huygens||Holland|
|Diesel Engine||1892||Rudolf Diesel||Germany|
|Electric iron||1882||H.W. Seeley||U.S.A|
|Electric lamp||1879||Thomas Alva Edison||U.S.A|
|Electric motor||1834||Moritz Jacobi|
|Evolution, Theory of||1858||Charles Darwin||England|
|Fountain pen||1884||L.E. Waterman||U.S.A|
|Glider||1853||Sir Gerorge Cayley||England|
|Gramophone||1878||Thomas Alva Edison||U.S.A|
|Insulin||1923||Sir Grederick Banting||Canada|
|Jet engine||1937||Sir Frank Whittle||England|
|Lightening conductor||1752||Benjamin Franklin||U.S.A|
|Locomotive, steam||1804||Richard Trevithic||England|
|Machine gun||1861||Richard Gatling||U.S.A|
|Motor car, petrol||Karl Benz||Germany|
|Penicillin||1928||Sir Alexander Fleming||England|
|Photography (film)||1888||Hohn Carbutt||U.S.A|
|Radar||1922||Dr. A.H. Taylor and L.C.Young||U.S.A|
|Radium||1898||Marie and Pierre Curie||France|
|Rubber (vulcanised)||1841||Charles Goodyear||U.S.A|
|Safety lamp||1816||Sir Humphry Davy||England|
|Safety pin||1849||William Hurst||U.S.A|
|Steam engine||1639||Thomas Savery||Britain|
|Telegraph code||1837||Samuel F.B. Morse||U.S.A|
|Television||1926||John Logie Baird||Scotland|
Elements Found in Normal Human Body
Acoustics : Study of sound (or science of sound)
Aerodynamics : Branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and other gases.
Aeronautics : Science or art of flight.
Agronomy : Science of soil management and the production of field crops.
Agrostolgy : Study of grasses.
Anatomy : Science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.
Anthropology : Science dealing with the origins, physical and cultural development of mankind.
Archaeology : Study of antiquities.
Astrology : Ancient art of predicting the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.
Astronautics : Science of Space travel.
Astronomy : Study of heavenly bodies.
Astrophysics : Branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.
Bacteriology : Study of Bacteria.
Biochemistry : Study of chemical processes of living things.
Biology : Study of living things.
Biometry : Application of mathematics to the study of living things.
Bionics : Study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living world and application of this knowledge to the world of machines.
Bionomics : Study of the relation of an organism to its environment.
Botany : A study of plants.
Ceramics : Art and technology of making objects from clay, etc.
Chemistry : Study of elements and their laws of combination and behaviour.
Chemotherapy : Treatment of diseases by using chemical substances.
Conchology : Branch of zoology dealing with the shells of molluscs.
Cosmology : Study of universe as a whole and of its form, nature etc.
Cryptography : Study of Ciphers (secret writings)
Crystallography : Study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.
Cryogenics : Science dealing with the production, control and application of very low temperatures.
Cytology : Study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.
Dactylography : Study of finger prints for the purpose of identification.
Ecology : Study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.
Economics : Science dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
Embryology : Study of development of embryos.
Entomology : Study of insects.
Epidemiology : Branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.
Epigraphy : Study of inscriptions.
Ethnology : Branch of anthropology dealing with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.
Ethology : Study of animal behaviour.
Eugenics : Study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents.
Genealogy : Study of family origins and history.
Genesiology : The science of generation.
Genetics : Branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it..
Geography : Development of science of the earth’s surface, physical features, climate, population etc.
Geology: Science that deals with the physical history of the earth.
Geomorphology : Study of the characteristics, origin and development of landforms.
Gerontology : Study of old age, its phenomena, diseases, etc.
Histology : Study of tissues.
Horticulture : Cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.
Hydrology : Study of water with reference to its occurrence, and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Metallurgy : Process of extracting metals from their ores.
Meteorology : Science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.
Metrology : Scientific study of weights and measures.
Microbiology : Study of minute living organisms, including bacteria, moulds, and pathogenic protozoa.
Mycology : Study of fungi and fungus diseases.
Neurology: Study of the nervous system, its functions and its disorders.
Numerology : Study of numbers.
Odontology : Scientific study of the teeth.
Optics : Study of nature and properties of light.
Ornithology : Study of birds.
Osteology : Study of bones.
Paleobotany : Study of fossil plants.
Paleontology : Study of fossils.
Pathology : Study of diseases.
Phonetics : Study of speech sounds and the production, transmission, reception, etc.
Phrenology : Study of the faculties and qualities of minds from the shape of the skull.
Phthisiology : Scientific study of tuberculosis.
Phycology : Study of Algae.
Physics : Study of the properties of matter.
Physiology : Study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.
Pomology : Science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.
Psychology: Study of human and animal behaviour.
Radiology : Study of X-rays and radioactivity.
Rheology: Study of the deformation and flow of matter.
Scientology : Study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.
Sericulture: Raising of silkworms for the production of raw silk.
Sociology : Study of human society.
Telepathy : Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.
Therapeutics : Art and science of healing.
Topography: A special description of a part or region.
Virology : Study of viruses.
Zoology : Study of animal life.
Lowest melting point
Since Mercury melts at — 38.8°C ( -38° F), it is liquid at room temperature. Mercury is used in thermometers because it expands as it is heated.
Highest melting point
The temperature must be 3,652°C (6,606° F) before carbon will melt. Two-third as hot as the Sun’s surface.
Astatine is the rarest element on Earth. Rhodium is the scarcest metal in the world just 3 tones
are mined every year.
A 33-cm3 (13-in3) cube of osmium weighs 640 kgs.
Acid and Alkalis
The acid or alkali (or base) content of a substance is measured in pH (potential Hydrogen) on a scale of 0 – 14. Acids dissolve in water to form sharp-tasting solutions, like lemon juice. Alkalis dissolve in water to form soapy solutions.
|Car battery Acid||1.0|
|Pure water (Neutral)||7.0|
|Caustic Soda (Alkali)||14.0|
Three systems of temperature measurement are
- Celsius scale
It was worked out by the Swedish physicist and astronomer Anders Celsius in 1742. It appears to have been revised by another Swedish physcist J.P.Christen. This scale was originally known as the Centigrade. It was renamed Celsius scale in honour of its inventor Celsius.
- Fahrenheit scale
It was devised by the German – bom physicist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686 -1736) around 1715.
- Kelvin scale
It was pioneered by the British physicist William Thompson Kelvin (1824 -1907), later Lord Kelvin.
International System of units (SI)
It recognises the Celsius and Kelvin scales. The Kelvin scale is derived from thermodynamics and is of special importance to scientists.
It is the point at which molecules have no heat energy. At this point all motions stops. Even atomic particles slow down.
Celsius to Kelvin : K = C + 273.16
Fahrenheit to Celsius : C = (F-32) 0.555 Celsius to Fahrenheit: F = C . 1.8 + 32
Common benchmarks for comparison of temperature scales
|Freezing point of water||32||0||273.15|
|Normal human body temperature||98.6||37||310.15|
|Boiling point of water||212||100||373.15|
Ampere : Unit of electric current. It is approximately equal to the flow of 6 x 1018 electrons per second.
Atomic weight : Weight of an atom of hydrogen is taken as the standard; the respective weights of the atoms of all other substances are expressed in terms of it.
Angstrom : Unit of wavelength of light is Angstrom.
1 Angstrom = 10-8 cm.
Bar : It is the unit of atmospheric pressure.
One bar = 106 dynes per sq.cm pressure.
Calorie : It is the unit of heat. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water through 1°C.
Horse power :It is the practical unit of power.
It is equal to power of an agent which can work at the rate of 550 foot-pounds per second or 33,000 footpounds per minute.
1HP = 746 watts
Joule : It is the unit of work or energy.
It is equal to 107 ergs.
It is the energy consumed in one second in an electrical circuit through which a current energy of one ampere is flaming against a potential difference of one volt.
Knot: It is the measurement of the speed of a ship.
Light year : It is the distance light travels in one mean solar year, at a speed of 1,86,000 miles per second. It is equal to 5,880,000,000,000 unit for measuring stellar distances.
Nautical mile : It is a unit of distance used in navigation; one minute of longitude measured along the Equator. A nautical Mile is approximately equal to 6,080 feet.
Pressure: It is expressed in pounds weight per sq. cm. Pressure of the atmosphere is expressed in millibars.
One Millibar = 1 dyne per sq.cm.
If pressures are very high, they are expressed in multiples of atmospheric pressure.
Quintal: It is a metric measure of weight.
100 kilograms is equal to 1 quintal.
Volt: Iti IS tllB ulllti of potential difference.
It is the potential difference produced in an electrical conductor of resistance one ohm, when amount of energy consumed in the circuit in one second is one joule.
Watt: It is unit of power.
It is rate of work done in joules per second.
It is the energy expended per second by an unvarying electric current of 1 ampere.
Scientific Instruments and Appliances
Altimeter : It is a special type of aneroid barometer, used in measuring altitudes.
Ammeter : It is an instrument used to measure strength of an electric current.
Anemometer : It is an instrument used to measure velocity and find direction of the wind.
Audiometer : It is an instrument used to measure difference in hearing.
Barometer : It is used for measuring atmospheric pressure.
Calorimeter: It is an instrument used for measuring quantities of heat.
Chronometer: It is a clock to determine longitude of a vessel at sea.
Clinical Thermometer : It is a thermometer for measuring temperature of human body.
Colorimeter: It is an instrument used for comparing intensities of colour.
Commutator : It is an instrument used to change or reverse the direction of an electric current.
Computer : It is a technical device designed to find instantaneous solutions of huge and complex calculations based on the information already fed.
Crescograph: It is an instrument used for measuring growth of plants. This was invented by an Indian, Mr. J.C.Bose, a renowned botanist.
Dictaphone: It is a machine, which first records what is spoken into it and then, reproduces it in type.
Dynamo: It is a device used for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. ; ’
Dynamometer : It, is an instrument used for measuring electrical power.
Electrocardiograph :ll is an instrument used for detection of electric pulses of the heart. It gives a graphic picture of heartbeats.
Electroencephalograph (EEG): It is an instrument used for recording of change in electric potential in various area of the brain by means of electrode on the scalp or in the brain itself.
Electrometer : It is an instrument used for measuring electricity.
Electroscope : It is an instrument used for detecting presence of electric charge.
Galvanometer : It is an instrument used for measuring electric current.
Hydrometer: It is an instrument used for measuring the relative density of liquids.
Hydroscope : It is an optical instrument used for seeing objects below the surface of water.
Hygrometer: It is an instrument used for measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere.
Hygroscope : It is an instrument used to show the changes in atmospheric humidity.
Hypsometer : It is an instrument used to measure height above sea level. It is an apparatus used for detecting boiling point of liquid. Since boiling points of liquids have a direct relationship with atmospheric pressure and atrqospheric pressure with altitude, therefore instrument may be used for determination of altitude above sea level. This instrument is generally used by mountaineers.
Lactometer : Lactometer is an instrument for measuring the relative density of milk.
Manometer : Manometer is an instrument to measure the pressure of gases.
Mariners’s Compass : It is an apparatus for determining direction, graduated to indicate 33 directions. The “N” point on the dial indicate North pole and the “S” point, South pole.
Magnetometer: It is an instrument used to compare magnetic moments and fields. ,
Megaphone : It is an instrument used for carrying sound to long distances.
Microphone : It is an instrument used for converting sound waves into electrical energy which is transmitted through wires and then recovered into sound in a magnified intensity.
Microscope : It is an instrument used for magnified view of very small objects.
Periscope : It is an apparatus used for viewing objects lying above the eye level of the observer and whose direct vision is obstructed. It consists of a tube bent twice at right angles and having plane mirrors at these bends inclined at angles of 45° to the tube.
Photometer: It is an instrument used for comparing luminous intensity of the sources of light.
Pyknometer : It is an instrument used to measure the density and coefficient of expansion of liquid.
Pyrheliometer : It is an instrument used for measuring solar radiations.
Pyrometers : These are the thermometers used to measure high temperature.
Radar : It is used for detecting and finding range of moving objects by transmitting beams of radio waves.
Radio micrometer: It is an instrument for measuring heat radiations.
Rain gauge : It is an instrument used for measuring rainfall.
Refractometer: It is an instrument used to measure refractive index of a substance.
Resistance thermometer: It is used for determining electrical resistance of conductor.
Salinometer : It is a type of hydrometer used to determine concentration of salt solutions by measuring their densities.
Seismograph: It is an instrument used for recording intensity and origin of earthquake shocks.
Sextant: It is an instrument used for measurement of angular distances between two objects.
Sphygmomanometer : It is an apparatus used for measuring blood pressure.
Stereoscope : It is an optical device used to see two dimensional pictures as having depth and solidity.
Stethoscope : It is a medical instrument used for hearing and analysing the sound of heart and lungs.
Tape recorder : It is an apparatus which records and reproduces sound by using magnetic tapes.
Telephone : It is an apparatus used for transmission of sound.
Teleprinter : It is a communication medium for automatic sending, receiving and printing of telegraphic messages from distant places.
Telescope: It is an instrument used for viewing distant objects as magnified.
Television: It is an instrument used for transmitting visible moving images by means of wireless makes.
Thermometer : It is an instrument used to measure the temperature.
Thermostat : It is an automatic device used for regulating constant temperatures.
Transistor: It is a small device which may be used to amplify current and perform other functions usually performed by a thermionic value.
Viscometer : It is an instrument used for measuring viscosity i.e., property of resistance of a fluid to relative motion within itself.
Voltmeter : It is an instrument used to measure potential difference between two points.