Telangana History Sources of Telangana History
- 1 Telangana History Sources of Telangana History
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Ruins
- 1.3 Inscriptions
- 1.4 Copper Inscriptions
- 1.5 Sources of Royal Dynasties that Ruled the Telangana Region
- 1.5.1 Proto Satavahanas
- 1.5.2 Satavahanas
- 1.5.3 Ikshvahus
- 1.5.4 Vakatayas
- 1.5.5 Vishnukundinas
- 1.5.6 Badami Chalukyas
- 1.5.7 Rashtrahutas
- 1.5.8 Vemulawada Chalukyas
- 1.5.9 Kalyani Chalukyas
- 1.5.10 Mudigonda Chalukyas
- 1.5.11 Kanduri Cholas
- 1.5.12 Nengonda dynasty
- 1.5.13 Musunuri Nayshas
- 1.5.14 Recharla Padmanayahas
- 1.5.15 Kahatiyas
- 1.6 Coins
- 1.7 Literature
- 1.8 Foreign Literature
- 1.9 Inscription and Coins that Revealed the History
- 1.10 Muslim Historians
- 1.11 Bit Bank
- 1.12 Objective Bits
Historical sources or evidences are necessary to write the history of any region or country. The standard and authority of those sources determine the standard of historical books. The history of Telangana is being written along with the history of The Andhradesa for the last 70-80 years. Many studies were conducted, new information, date and evidences were gathered and are still being collected about the Telangana region but thie history of the region is still not comprehensive. The history of Telangana before the Satavahana period was not clear because of lack of proper sources and evidences. Though there was a lot of information about the kingdoms that ruled Telangana, including the Vishnukundina dynasty, the origins of those dynasties and kingdoms was very vague.
Not only that, though a number of studies were done about the history of Kakatiyas, Rachakonda Padmanayakas, Qutub Shahis and Asafjahis, the comprehensive geographical, political and cultural history of Telangana has not been compiled. A lot more research and studies needed to be done to fill the gaps and compile the complete, comprehensive history of Telangana.
All the historic evidences found until now are divided into two categories. They are Archaeological and Literary. Literary evidences are again divided into two types. They are Domestic and foreign. A lot of the history of Telangana is connected with the history of South India. So not only the evidences found in the Telangana region, but also of the historical Vijeta Competitions evidences of the border states should be studies and considered to compile the history of Telangana.We have to depend only on Archaeological evidences to study the ancient history of Telangana. They are the first category evidences. Archaeological excavations and research are being conducted for that; The evidences of pottery, tools, tombs and coins are collected; Carbon dating and Dendro chronology methods are being used to determine the time period of those evidences and the history and culture of the those by gone eras is being reconstructed evidences are divided into 3 classes to study them properly. They are ruins, inscriptions and Coins.
To know the history of ancient Telangana, we have to depend upon the old ruins almost completely. Important among them are Megalithic tomb structures or Rakshasa Gullu. They are also called as Kairuses. They were discovered in very large numbers in many places of Telangana region like Narketpally, Begumpet, Nalgonda and etc. They help us to know about the very early stages of human beings and Non-aryan races. After ‘ the megalithic structures, the most helpful evidences are the tools or implements used by the early proto historic people.
After tools come the sites of Buddhist religions spots. They were found in Kotilingala, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri, Nelakondapally, Nagaijuna konda, Kondapur and many other places. They prove that Buddhism was widely practiced in the Telangana region in the ancient time’s. Also ruins of the structures that belonged to Jainism were found in large numbers at many places like Vemulawada, Kolanupaka, Vardhamanapuram, Hanumakonda, Pudur, Ujjili, Pathancheru and others. They show that Jainism also flourished in Telangana in the ancient era. They also help to know the civilisation, vastu and other things about the bygone period.Many temples, pavilions, towers, places and statues were built by the ancient dynasties and rulers at Nagarjuna konda, Indrapalanagaram. (Tummalagudem), Orugallu and several other places which .help us to reconstruct the history of those periods. The temples of Palampet, Alampur and Orugallu revdhl not only the artistry of the ancient people but also their interest of fine arts like music and dance. They help us to estimate the social, religious and financial conditions of the society then. The stupas, statues in temples, paintings and sculpture. They all reveal the nature of cloths worn by those people, the jewellery they wore and their weapons, hair styles, entertainments and games, musical instruments and their life styles in general.
Inscriptions are very valuable for the writing of history. They play a very important role in the archaeological evidences. Like the history of India, the history of South India also starts from the stone inscriptions of king Ashoka. They are the first inscriptions of South India. They were written in Prakrit and Brahmi scripts. They were found in Yerragudi (Anantapur district), Rajula Mandagiri (Kumool district), Amaravati and Salihundam. The Nittur and Udegolam inscriptions in Karnataka, found recently and the Maski, Gujara inscriptions of Madhya Pradesh also contain the name of Ashoka. All the inscriptions including those of the South India. Ashoka’s name was written as ‘Devanam Priyah, Priyadarsi Raju”. During the reign of Maurya kings, the Nanaghat inscription of Naganika, Nasik inscription of Gautami Balasri, Guntupalli inscription of Kharavela, and the Hatigumpha inscription of South India brought to light the history of Telugu desa to the world.
The first Sanskrit inscription of this region was commissioned by the Ehubala Santamula (Ikshvaku dynasty) dining his 11th ruling year. This was the first Sanskrit inscription not only in the Andhradesa but also in South India. The first Telugu inscriptions written in Telugu in Andhradesa were commissioned by Renati Cholas. They being to 6-8 centuries A.D. Oldest of then are the Kalamalla inscriptions of Erukula Muthuraju Dhanunjaya and the Erragudipadu inscription of Punyakumara. Dhanunjaya Raja ruled between the end of 6th century A:D. and the beginning of 7th century A.D. His inscriptions were completely written in Telugu. The Pottadurti and Malepadu inscriptions of Telugu Chola dynasty rulers are also considered as the very first Telugu inscriptions. The next inscription was the Vipparla one, Commissioned by the Chalukya king, Jayasimha Vallabha, the first. Next comes the Addanki stone inscription of Panduranga. The very first copper inscription in Telugu language is the Madras Museum copper table commissioned by Ballaya chola.
People who migrated from Andhradesa to East and South-East Asian regions, found many Sanskrit and Telugu inscriptions. They reveal that Telugu empires flourished there also. Those inscriptions were mostly written in Sanskrit language in Brahmi and Vengi scripts.
The .inscriptions found in Andhra, Telangana regions are classified by scholars as stone inscriptions and copper inscriptions. Stone inscriptions were written from the period of Ashoka to Ikshvakus on boulders, in caves and on pillars. Later on, copper inscriptions came into vogue. When the rulers started to donate villages and regions to Brahmanas, they must have considered the copper inscriptions as permanent, and thus their number started to increase. Almost all the inscriptions of Vishnukundinas in Telangana are copper ones. Only their velpur inscription is a stone one. Later, stone inscriptions again became popular from the period of Eastern Chalukyas’ From then onwards, both stone and copper inscriptions were commissioned very frequently. The copper were given and were written in Sanskrit; The stone inscriptions’ were used to announce their great deeds, to declare judicial decisions and for administrative purposes.
Thousands of stone inscriptions of royal dynasties that ruled the Telangana region were found. Their number increased from 11th century A.D. onwards. From then, writings of Telugu, as well as other local languages and also in Sanskrit had become common. Usually stone inscriptions reveal the nature of donations and endowments made by kings and other prominent people. Sometimes leaders of different professions and srenins commissioned inscriptions to explain their rules and regulations and other activities related to their professions and srenis. A direct example of this type is the Pedda kadumur trading society (Vartaka Sangham) inscription of Telangana. This was commissioned during the reign of Kalyani Chalukyas (1183-84 A.D.), Some other inscriptions were commissioned to denote the borders of villages, judgements of courts and others on stone. Usually stone inscriptions are bilingual. They begin with a prayer to Gods in Sanskrit. Then in the introduction, the name of the then ruler, era, year (saka), month, thithi and the greatness of the king are written. That is why they help in deciding the time period of the particular king. If the inscriptions are about the donations given by royal officers, then their designation, valor and courage* and praise of other characteristics are written. The part written in local language gives the details of the donation / charity, names of donated villages, their area, jurisdiction, borders, revenue, tax exemptions and etc. that is why they brought to light the details of contemporary society, administration, finances and social details of those periods. Some stone inscriptions even gave details about the systems of education of that period fine arts and other things.
Thousands of copper inscriptions were found in the Telangana region. Usually these brought to light the details of the donations given by the kings to Brahmanas in the form of Agraharas and etc. Some also contain religions and other teachings. Not only copper plates, but brass, bronze, silver and golden plates were also used to write them. They are in one language only i.e. Sanskrit. Each copper inscription contains. The names of donars and receivers, the names of both of their ancestors (back to three generations), Reason and period of the donation, village or land donated and its border^. Some inscriptions also narrate the consequences or Curses of the protection or destruction of the donated land in verses of vyasa and other sages. In the beginning the copper inscriptions revealed only three generations of the donor. Later on they started to give the complete family tree and their ancient rishis and connections of the donor and also the then king’s details and his family tree and other things. They help us a lot today to write the history and chronology of those dynasties and families. At the same time they reveal the details of the lives, characteristics, education, knowledge and wisdom of the receivers. ‘
Sources of Royal Dynasties that Ruled the Telangana Region
The coins found at Kotilingala of Karimnagar district, reveals that after the Maurya reign Telangana was first ruled by local rulers such as Gobada, Narana, Kamayana, Sirivayana and Samagopa families, before the advent of Satavahanas. All the above dynasties ruled from Kotilingala. The last local ruler before the beginning of the reign of Satavahanas was Samagopa. Coins made during his rule were found in a large number and of many varieties, so it was concluded that he ruled for a long period,
Simukha, who is considered as the founder of the Satavahana dynasty minted a lot of coins, some of which were found at Kotilingala of Karimnagar district. The fact that they were found only in Kotilingala and no where else confirms the opinion that his rule started from Kotilingala. Coins of Gautamiputra Satakami. Vashistiputra Pulomavi. Third Sivasri Pulomavi and Yajnasri Satakami were also found at Kondapur of Medak district. So, it was concluded that Kondapur used to be the mint of Satavahana dynasty. The Nanaghat, Hatigumpha, Guntupally and Nasik inscriptions also tell us a lot about the history of Satavahanas. The Matsya, Vayu, Vishnu, Brahmanda and Bhagavata puranas, the above inscriptions, coins and Jain literature help us to know the history of Satavahanas in Telangana,
Not a single text of this period was found to know about the history of Ikshvakus. So the sources of their history are inscriptions, mostly by the royal women and people who donated to the Buddhist Aramas. They include the inscriptions of Santamula and those found in Gurajala, Nagaijuna konda, Jaggayyapet, Aluru and Uppugondur (commissioned by Veerapurusha datta), Donation inscriptions commissioned by women of his period, Bodhisiri inscription, Gummadidurru inscription in Krishna district, Vengi inscription and the Sanskrit inscription of Velasri. The state archaeological department conducted excavations in 2002-03 A.D. at Phanigiri village of Nalgonda district and found some inscriptions with the name of Santamula on them. The name ‘Maha talavara’ was also found on the same inscription, which proves that he ruled the Telangana region.
Evidences were found to say that they ruled the North Telangana districts contemporarily to Ikshvakus.
Their coins were found in Eleswaram, Dondapadu, Phanigiri, Bhuvanagiri, Indrapala nagaram, (Tummalagudem), Kondapuram in Medak district, Karimnagar district and Keesara gutta near Hyderabad, which proves that they ruled that whole of Telangana region. Along with them, the Tummalagudem inscription, the Prakrit inscription of Madhava Varma which was found at the banks of Musi in Chaitanyapuri of Hyderabad. Polamuru inscription of fourth Madhava Varma and Indrapalanagara inscription of Vikramendra Varma and Chikkulla inscription of Vikramendra Bhattaraka Varma tell us about the rule of Vishnukundinas. Among them, two inscriptions, found at Tummalagudem of Ramannapet Taluq of Nalgonda district helped the historians hugely in determining the time period of Vishnukundina dynasty. 7 more inscriptions of their subordinate kings and 2 of the Chalukyas a total of 17 inscriptions are being used as sources of vishnukundina history.
The fact that Badami Chalukyas also ruled the Telangana region came to light with the help of the inscriptions of Pulakesin-II, found at the borders of Kumool and Mahabubnagar districts; The inscription found at Eleswaram of Nalgonda district; which contained the word “Ranavikrama”, the title of Pulakesin-I; The Hyderabad inscriptions, commissioned by Pulakesin in 612 A.D, and the Gadwal Sanskrit inscription of 678 A.D.
The first Telugu prose inscription, called ‘Koravi’ inscription was commissioned by Rashtrakutas in 893 A.D. This was found in Warangal district. Along with this and also the Kondaparty inscription give evidence that they ruled the Telangana region.
6 stone inscriptions and 2 copper inscriptions were found which revealed their history. They are – Kuravagattu stone inscription, Arikesari-II inscription, Karimnagar and Vemulawada stone inscriptions, stone inscription in Karimnagar museum, Jinavallabha’s Kurkyala stone inscription, Chennur stone inscription of Arikesari-II. These 6 helped to reconstruct the family tree of Vemulawada Chalukya dynasty. The copper inscription of Kollipara by Arikesari-I and the copper inscription of Parbani by Arikesari-III also helped to know their history. The Karimnagar inscription and Khazipet Dargah inscription inform us about their rule in Telangana.
Along with them, Vikramarjuneeyam written by Pampa, Yasas Tilaka Champu Kavyam by Somadeva Suri; The Hindu and Jain temples built by Vemulawada Chalukyas at Vemulawada* Sanigaram, Naguluru, Repaka,. Korutla, Bommagutta and Kurkyala (All in Karimnagar district) bring to light the history of their period.
The ‘Koudhem inscription’ of Vikramaditya- V, thousand pillar temple’ inscription of Hanumakonda and the Mahabubnagar district Pedda kadumur traders guild inscription inform us about the reign of Kalyani Chalukyas in Telangana.
Among the Kalyani Chalukyas, Someswara-II, Vikramaditya-6 and Jagadeka malla were mentioned and praised in many inscriptions found in several places of Telangana. They all reveal that this dynasty gained huge popularity in the region.
Their rule and history in Telangana were revealed by the Koravi inscription, Moghul cheruvu inscription, Gudur inscription of Viriyala family Kriwaka or Kukkunoor inscription of Kusumayudha. Later on their kingdom was clubbed into the Kakatiya empire.
Kanduri Gholas had ruled the Nalgonda, Mahabubnagar districts and Nelakondapally region of Khammam districts for 250 years as subordinate kings and independent rulers. They belonged to a branch of Telugu chola family. Their rule in Telangana was described in Kolanupaka inscription, Nelakondapally inscriptions of Udayana, Panagallu inscription of Mylambika, Ollala inscription, Hanu- makonda, Perur, Parada, Sirikonda, Endabetta, Rachuru, Jedcherla, Krishnapuram, Lingala Achchampeta, Idampally, Padamatipally and Malle- pally inscriptions. Anumuru, Aga ^lotkur inscriptions of their period contain pure Telugu language.
They ruled with Polasa of Jagityal Taluq, Karimnagar district, as their capital. Their reign in Telangana is described in the Banajipet, Palampet and Govindapuram inscriptions.
The chief sources of Musunuri dynasty history and their reign in Telangana are the Vilasa copper inscription of Prolaya nayaka, Kaluvacheru inscription of Anitalli, Polavaram inscription of Kapaya nayaka and Pentapadu inscription of Choda Bhaktiraju.
Around 30 inscriptions were found which brought to light their history and reign in Telangana. Chief of them are – The Palempeta inscription of Rudrasenani, Pillalamarri inscription of Erukasani and Pillamarri inscription of Namireddy. The temples and ponds built by them, literature of that period and contemporary inscriptions of other rulers also reveal their history.
Malkapur and Bayyaram (Mylampur) inscriptions. Also, Mangallu inscription of Ammiraju-II, Kaluvacheru inscription of Anitalli, recently discovered Chandupatla inscription (related to the death of Rudramadevi) and stone carvings of verses, (which is called Siddhodwaha) brought to light then- history. In literature, Prataparudra charitra, Prataparudra yashobhushanam,. Ekasilanagara Vrittantam, Rreedabhiramam by Vinukonda Vallabharaya. Siddheswara Charitra by Kase Sarvappa, Velugoti vari Vamsavali, histories of Surabhi dynasty, local Kaifiyats, writings of Amir. Khusrau and Barauni and Italian traveller Marcopolo are important to know the history of Kakatiyas. They helped to determine the time period of their history and also revealed the political, social and financial conditions of their society.Thus, the inscriptions commissioned by many dynasties after Satavahanas, like Ikshvakus, Vishnukundinas, Badami Chalukyas, Rashtra kutas, Kakatiyas and their Subordinate kings like Recharla Padmanayakas, Cheruku Reddy, Malyala, Viriyala, Natawadi, Gona, Kayastha and Yadava dynasties; Mudigonda Chalukyas, Kanduri Cholas, Polavasa rulers, Musunuri Nayakas, Vemulawada Chalukyas, Kalyani Chalukyas and others reveal that they ruled the Telangana region. Also, Kalinga Gangas, Gajapatis and Vijayartagar kings ruled some of the Telangana regions for some time, according to other inscriptions. They all ruled the region from the 1st century A.D. until the 14th century (until the beginning of Nawab rule). There were no inscriptions after the Golconda Nawab rule started in Telangana
Many sources were found to know about the history of Kakatiyas. 50 or more inscriptions of their period were found. Most important of them are the thousand pillar temple inscription in Hanumakonda,Malkapur and Bayyaram (Mylampur) inscriptions. Also, Mangallu inscription of Ammiraju-II, Kaluvacheru inscription of Anitalli, recently discovered Chandupatla inscription (related to the death of Rudramadevi) and stone carvings of verses, (which is called Siddhodwaha) brought to light then- history. In literature, Prataparudra charitra, Prataparudra yashobhushanam,. Ekasilanagara Vrittantam, Rreedabhiramam by Vinukonda Vallabharaya. Siddheswara Charitra by Kase Sarvappa, Velugoti vari Vamsavali, histories of Surabhi dynasty, local Kaifiyats, writings of Amir. Khusrau and Barauni and Italian traveller Marcopolo are important to know the history of Kakatiyas. They helped to determine the time period of their history and also revealed the political, social and financial conditions of their society.Thus, the inscriptions commissioned by many dynasties after Satavahanas, like Ikshvakus, Vishnukundinas, Badami Chalukyas, Rashtra kutas, Kakatiyas and their Subordinate kings like Recharla Padmanayakas, Cheruku Reddy, Malyala, Viriyala, Natawadi, Gona, Kayastha and Yadava dynasties; Mudigonda Chalukyas, Kanduri Cholas, Polavasa rulers, Musunuri Nayakas, Vemulawada Chalukyas, Kalyani Chalukyas and others reveal that they ruled the Telangana region. Also, Kalinga Gangas, Gajapatis and Vijayartagar kings ruled some of the Telangana regions for some time, according to other inscriptions. They all ruled the region from the 1st century A.D. until the 14th century (until the beginning of Nawab rule). There were no inscriptions after the Golconda Nawab rule started in Telangana
The most standard sources of history after inscriptions are coins. Though they don’t give much information on history, the title they reveal is the most accurate information of that period, without any doubt. Usually coins contain the names, titles and picture of the contemporary king on one side and the royal symbol, their religious symbols or pictures of gods on the other side. The beliefs of the kings and characteristics of royal symbols are revealed by them. Also the metals of the coins inform us about the financial conditions of the period and the aesthetic sense of the kings. All the information on the coins can be used to determine the religious history of that period and they are almost always accurate.
Coins of many royal dynasties were found in Telangana. They belong to different periods, with different values and made with different metals. Most of them are made with gold, silver, copper, lead and photene metals. The first coins of Andhradesa were minted by traders. They belonged to the Mauryan period. Thousands of such type of silver coins were found recently in Amaravati.
The coins found in Teiangnnn next belonged to Satoyahnitas. But some other coins found recently belonged to the period just before Satavahanas and after the mOuryans, according to the script written upon them. They were found at Kotilingala of Karimnagar. The script written on them was ‘Rano Gobhadra’ and ‘Rano Samagopa’. They were made with photene metal and looked like symbol coins. Historians stated that the letters on these coins belonged to 3rd century B.C. They were written in Telugu language; they are the names of kings and some people still use such names in Telangana. For example, some names of Telangana people are Narana, Samaya, Gopaya and Badraya. This proves that Telugu language was being used in Telangana as early as 3rd century B.C. Also, there are a number of Telugu words found in Buddhist literature. That also proves that Telugu language was being used since before that period, until now, it is considered that the word ‘Nagabu’ was the first letter in Telugu language (found in an inscription. But actually, recently researchers proved that the Particular word was not ‘Nagabu’ and that it was ’Nagabuddhi’). So, the word found on the coins might be ‘Narana’ and it might have been the first Telugu word. (Anna was added to the words Narudu / Nara/ Naram/ Naara and it became Narana or Naarana). The first coins which contained the names of kings that were found in Andhra Pradesh are these coins. These coins inform us that those
kings ruled there before Satavahanas as independent rulers. Their coins were found in Nelakondapally also.
Most of the coins issued by Satavahana coins were found in archaeological excavations. They are made with an alloy called Photense and lead, Next most used metal was copper. On the coins issued by Gautamiputra Satakami, the symbol of Ujjain could be seen and pictures of ship could be seen on the coins issued by Yajnasri Satakami. They inform us about their sea trade. The name of the king was written in two languages on the inscription of Vasishtiputra Satakami. One language was prakrit and other was desi (local) language. DC sarkar commented that these desi words were the very early structure of Telugu language.
Coins called Sakasada, kumbha satakami, kama satakami, kausikaputra satakami, Rudra satakami and Sivamakasada were found in recent studies and excavations. Silver coins were also in circulation during that period according to an Ikshvaku inscription. It also stated that one suvar- na (silver coin) = 35 karshapanas. Also, silver and bronze coins called ‘phanas’ were also in circulation. Coins before the period of Gautamiputra Satakami were found only in a very small number. While coins after Pulomavi period were found in large numbers. Coins with the name ‘Simukha’ were found in 1976A.D. at Kotilingala of Karimnagar district and Kapparao pet. of Pedapally Taluq. They were coins issued by the first Satavahana king. Later on, Aswamedha coins issued by Satavahanas were also found. Usually the coins of Satavahanas contain Ujjain symbol on one side and any one of a bull, horse, elephant, kalpavriksha, mem mountain or ship symbol on the other side. The symbol of Mem mountain is being called as a Chaitya. Between these symbols, the names of the king in Prakrit language is also written. On their Silver coins, instead of the symbol of Ujjain the picture of their king is minted. The important coins that reveal the history of Satavahanas are Satakami’s Aswamedha coin, Pulomavi and Yajnasri’s ship symbol coins, re-issued coins of Nahapana by Gautamiputra Satakami (which belong to the Jogaltambi fund) and silver bilingual coins. The coins of Satavahanas were found from Malwa to Tamilnadu in large numbers. While the lead coins were found in thousands, only a small number of silver coins were found
Roman coins of contemporary period of Satavahanas and Ikshvakus were also found in several places in Telangana. Among them, very good quality gold coins were found in Suryapet and Eleswaram in the Telangana region. They reveal the fact that this region had good trade relations with the Roman empire. Coins called Dinars of Ikshvaku period were also found, to show good trade relations maintained with central Asian regions. Iron coins with copper coating were circulated during the Vishnukun dina period. They contain the symbols of lion or hull on one side and lamp post, conch and other symbols on the other side. The usage of iron coins says that their financial conditions were not healthy. Coins introduced by Chalukyas were called as Varahas. As they contained Varaha (pig), their royal symbol on one side, they were called as varahas the Kakatiyas called their coins as Madas, Gadyanas, Pagodas and Nishkas. The Khandavalli inscription revealed that their coins were also called as ‘Daya Gaja kesari’ or ‘Raya Gaja Kesari’. They issued gold and silver coins also, which were called as Kesari Gadyanas. The letters on their coins were in Devanagari script.
Later on, Bahamani, Golconda, English and Nizam dynasties ruled the region and issued their own coins. These coins are also mgst useful to compile the history of Telangana.
Literary sources that are useful for the writing of Telangana history are divided into two types. They are domestic and foreign. Books in Telugu language were not written until 11th century A.D. So, the first sources of Telangana history were the ancient prakrit and Sanskrit books, very first of them was the Aittereya Brahmanam of later to 1000 B.C. Telangana was also mentioned in the ancient Buddhist and Jainist religious scripts. Later on, Telugu people were mentioned in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Matsya, Vayu, Bhagavata, Brahmanda and other pur anas also. Prataparudra Yashobhushanam and Siddheswara Charitra written by Vidyanatha and Kreedabhiramam written by Vinukonda Vallabharaya narrate the history of Kakatiya era. Also Dwipada kavya by Kase Sarvappa, Pratapa Charitra, Somadeva Rajeeyam of Kuchimanchi Jagga kavi, Sakalaneeti Sammatam of Madiki Singanna, Sivayogam by Kolani Ganapatideva and Nirvachanottara Ramayana by Tikkana also narrate the history of Kakatiyas. Kreedabhiramam of Vallabharaya in Telugu tells us some of the stories of Bukkaraya-I and Harihara raya-II. Many more Kavyas, Dramas, Commentaries and criticisms help us to construct the history of Telangana.
The first among foreign travellers of India, to mention the Telugu people were Megasthenes, Pieney and ptolemy. The periplus of Erythrean sea; written in 80 A.D., mentions the early towns of Telangana, their trade, trade routes and trade goods. The book of ptolemy detailed about Pulomavi- II and Chashtana. This books was written in 2nd century A.D. Italian traveller Marcopolo visited Telangana during the Kakatiya era and documented the details of that period.
Inscription and Coins that Revealed the History
|Inscriptions and Coins that revealed the History of Telangana|
|Dynasty||Inscriptions||Place* where coins were found|
|Satavahanas||Nasik, Nanaghat, Junagadh, Kanheri, Hathigumpha, Guntupalli, China Ganjam and Myakadoni inscriptions||Kotilingala, Kondapur, Pedda Bankur, Pune, Warangal, Hyderabad, Kadambapur, Eleswaram and Suryapet|
|Ikshvakus||Nagarjuna konda, Kesanapally, Gurajala, Jaggayyapet, Vehgi, Ramireddy pally, Aluru, Gummadidurru, Uppugonduru and Phanigiri inscriptions||Phanigiri (Nalgonda district), Nelakondapally (Khammam district)|
|Vishnukundinas .||Tummalagudem, Hyderabad (found at the bank of Musi in Chaitanyapuri), Prakrit, Chikkulla, Indrapalanagara copper, Gorantla copper and Polamuru inscriptions||Dondapadu, Eleswaram, Phanigiri, Bhuvanagiri, Indrapalanagaram, Keesara gutta, Kondapur, Hyderabad, Karimnagar district|
|Badami Chalukyas||Eleswaram, Gadwal, Sanskrit, Hyderabad, Kumool, Mahabubnagar border inscriptions and Inscription with Telugu letters called Ranavikrama which was the title of Pulakesin-I||•|
|Rashtrakutas||Koravi (Warangal) – which was famous as the first prose inscriptions of Telangana and Kondaparty inscriptions|
|Kollipara, Kuruvagattu, (Nagara Kumool taluq), Parbhani, Vemulawada, Karimnagar, Chennur, Khazipet Dairgah and Kurkyala inscriptions. Last was . issued by Jinavallabha and there were poems in it for the first time.|
|Kalyani Chalukyas||Peddakadumur trade society, Jagadekamalla-II (a large number were found), Hanumakonda and Koudhem ‘|
|Mudigonda Chalukyas||Koravi, Moghul Cheruvu, Viriyala’s Gudur one and Kriwaka or Kukkunoor t inscriptions|
|Kanduru Chodas (Subordinate kings ofKakatiyas)||Anumula, Agamotkur, (pure Telugu is found in them) Kolanupaka, Ollala, Nelakondapally, Mylambika’s Palakollu inscriptions|
|Dynasty||Inscription* .||Places where coins were found|
|Recharla VelamaXPadm- anayakas (Subordinate kings of Kakatiyas)||Palampet, Erukasani’s Pillalamarri, Namireddy’s Pillalamarri, Vaadapalli, Sanvara, Elukurty and Manchapur inscriptions ‘|
|Polavasa Raja dynasty (Subordinate kings of Kakatiyas)||Govindapur (Narsampet Taluq), Banajipet, Palampet, Medapally, Padmakshi gutta (Hanumakonda), Nagunur pillar one, Venkatapuram and Hanumakonda inscriptions (Thousand pillar)|
|Kakatiyas||Bayyaram, Mangallu, Malkapuf, Chandupatla, Khandavalli, Hanumakonda, Palampet, Sanigaram, Khazipet, Padmakshi temple, Kaluvacheru, Kolanupaka, Panagallu and Eligedu inscriptions|
|Musunuri Nayakas (Subordinate kings of kakatiyas)||Vilasa copper one, Kaluvacheru, Polavaram, Pentapadu, Ganapeswaram, Pillalamarri inscriptions||.|
|Cheraku Reddy dynasty (Subordinate kings of Kakatiyas)||Jalalpuram, Velpur and Anirabad inscriptions|
|Malyala dynasty (Subordinates of Kakatiyas)||Budapura inscriptions|
|Gona dynasty (Subordinates of Kakatiyas)||Vardhamanapuram, Budapura and Kuppambika’s Gundeswara temple inscriptions|
|Yadava dynasty (Subordinates of Kakatiyas)||Panagallu and Patarlapadu inscriptions|
|Kayastha dynasty (Subordinates of Kakatiyas)||Chandupatla inscriptions|
|Naga dynasty (Subordinates of Kakatiyas)||Anantagiri inscriptions|
A number of Muslim historians narrated many historical books during the muslim era. Attacks and invasions from Allauddin Khilji period to Deccan Sultan era were mentioned in their South Indian history. They detailed the wars between Muslim rulers and Kakatiya, Hoyasala, Gangu, Gajapati and Vijayanagara rulers. Bahmani kingdom’s history, their 5 kingdoms, battle of Rakshasa Tangadi were all documented by them indetail. Invasions of Alla-uddin on the Kakatiya kingdom were written by Amir Khusrau in Parsi in a book titles Tariq-e-Alam in 1316 A.D. Isami wrote a book called Utufus-Skaten in 1350, in which the revolt on Mohammed Bin Tugluq and Telangana independence movement (Revolt by Prolaya nayaka) were narrated. ‘Shaus’ written by Zia-Uddin- Barauni in 1358 A.D., ‘Tariq-e-Feroz Shahi’ written by EG Raj and Barauni, Aphrosh separately; Tariq-e-Perishta’ written by Perishta; Tabaqat-e- Akbari written by Nizamuddin Bakshi; Moroccan Ibn Batuta’s book in 17th century; Rihlasayyad Ali Tabatab’s book-Burman Imasir; ‘Tazakirat-ud- Mulk’ written by Rafi-Uddin Shiraz in 1591-96; ‘Busathin Ussalatin Mohammed nama’ written by Ibrahim Jahnar; and ‘Tariq^e-Mohammad Quli qutub Shah’ by unknown author and all these books detail the history of Telangana during the Muslim era. Not only these, the travelogues written by many foreign travellers, their correspondence, records of the Zamindars of those periods, News papers, Records of Nizam rule – all these are very helpful in the narration of the history of Telangana.
1.The history of South India starts with the inscriptions of Ashoka
2.All inscriptions of Ashoka, including in South India, narrate his name as Devanam Priyah Priyadarsi
3.Which inscriptions explain about South India during the reign of Mourya emperors?
Nasik, Guntupalli, Nanaghat and Hathigumpha inscriptions
4.Which inscriptions is being considered as the first Sanskrit inscription in South India?
Inscriptions commissioned during the period of Ikshvaku Ehubala Santamula
5.First language in Andhradesa belong to this period . RenatiCholas
6.Oldest inscriptions of Andhradesa Kalamalla and Erragudipadu inscriptions were commissioned
by – Dhanunjaya
7.Who issued the Pottadurti and Malepadu inscriptions? Telugu-Chola dynasty
8.Inscription commissioned by Chalukya Jayasimha Vallabha-I Vipparla inscription
9.First copper inscriptions written in Telugu language. Madras museum copper inscription
10.Who first issued copper inscriptions in Telangana? Vishnukundinas
11.Which inscription brought new information on the history of Kakatiyas? (which was found recently)?
Bayyaram tank inscription issued by Mylamba
12.Which inscription states that the Kakatiyas were a branch of Rashtrakutas?
Mangallu inscription commissioned by Danarnava
13.Which inscription reveals the death information of Kakatiyas Rudramadevi (found recently)?
14.Which inscriptions reveal the history of Chalukyas?
Chalika Remmana’s Nagarjuna konda inscription by Jinavallabha
15.An inscription, found recently in excavations conducted in Telangana revealed new information about Ikshvaku dynasty. At which place was it found? Phanigiri of Nalgonda district
16.Which language is most common in the copper inscriptions found in Telangana? Sanskrit
17.Which metals were used to issue copper inscriptions? Copper, Bronze, Brass, Silver and Gold
18.The inscriptions which were issued after 14th century by Vijayanagara rulers in Telangana were written in this script. Nagarika script
19.Where in Telangana were the coins, considered to be of a prior period to Satavahanas found?
Kotilingala of Karimnagar district
20.What was written on the coins found at Kotilingala? Ranogobhadra and Rano samagopa
21.Coins of Satavahanas, found in Telangana were mostly made with these metals
An alloy made with lead and photene
22.Coins with the name ‘Simukha’ on them (of Satavahana period) were found in 1976 in Telangana at this place – Kopparaopet village, Peddapally Taluq, Karimnagar district
23.Roman coins which revealed that the Satavahanas had trade relations with Roman empire were found at this place in Telangana – Eleswaram and Suryapet
24.Inscription which gave information on Ikshvakus was found at this place in Telangana
– Phanigiri of Nalgonda district
25.Place where the inscriptions of Vishnukundina period were found in Telangana
– Hyderabad, Indrapala nagara (copper) and Polamuru
26.Where were coins of Vishnukundina period found in Telangana?
– Eleswaram, Dondapadu, Phanigiri, Keesara gutta, Bhuvanagiri and Hyderabad
27.Which inscriptions mentioned the title Ranavikrama (Title of Pulakesin-I)?
– Eleswaram inscription
28.Sanskrit inscription of the period of Badami Chalukyas on which Telugu words were written was found at this place in Telangana.
– Gadwal sanskpt inscription
29.Ancient inscriptions of which dynasty were found at the borders of Kumool, Mahabubnagar districts?
– Badami Chalukyas
30.Which Rashtrakuta period inscription is famous as the first telugu inscription in prose, found in Telangana? – Koravi inscription (Warangal district)
31.Where in Telangana were coins of Ikshvaku period found?
– Phanigiri (Nalgonda district) and Nelakondapally (Khammam district)
32.Which inscriptions reveal the information that Ikshvakus ruled in Telangana region?
Nagarjuna konda, Phanigiri and Jaggayyapet inscriptions
33.In which inscription were verses (poems) found for the first time in Telangana?
34.At which places in Telangana were inscriptions of Vemulawada Chalukya period found?
Kollipara, Kuruvagattu, Parbhani, Chennur, Khazipet Dargah and Kurkyala
35.Name of the coins introduced by Chalukyas – Varahas
36.Coins of Kakatiyas – Gadyanas, Madas, Pagodas and Nishkas
37.Which inscription reveals that the coins of Kakatiyas also had ainother name Raya gaja kesari’?
– Khandavalli inscription of Prataparudra-H
38.First literary work of 1000 B.C. which helps of Telangana region….. – Aittereya Brahmanam
39.Which ancient texts help Us to understand the Satavahana era culture in Telangana?
Brihatkatha, Gadhasaptasati, Vatsyayana, Kamasutras, and Apasthambha sutras of Katyayana
40.Which books detail the conflicts between Veiigi Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas?
Gadaa Yudham by Pampakavi and Vikramarjuneeyam
41.Which books detail the Kakatiya era happenings in Telangana? – Prataparudra Yashobhu- shanam, Kreedabhiramam, Sidhe swara Charitra, Nirvachanothara Ramayanam and Somadeva Rajeeyam
42.Which literary work of Kakatiya period reveals parts of the histories of Bukkaraya-I and Harihara raya-I of Vijayanagara empire? Kreedabhiramam
43.Documents that detail the histories of villages in the middle age – Kaifiyats or Kaviles or Kadithes
44.Name the Surveyor General of British East India Company who collected the Kaifiyats and made copies of them – CoLMckenzie (between 1799-1800A.D.)
45.Who helped col.Mckenzie in collecting and making copies of Kaifiyats?
Kavali Venkata Borrayya brothers
46.Name the king who issued several inscriptions during Kalyani Chalukya period in Telangana.
47.Which inscriptions give information about the rule of Kalyani Chalukya dynasty in.Telangana?
Pedda Kadumur trade society, Hanumakonda and Koudhem inscriptions
48.Inscription issued by Jinayallabha of vemulawa- da Chalukya dynasty . – Kurkyala inscription
49.Foreign Chronicles which mentioned Telugu peo- pie – ‘India’ of Megasthenes, ‘Geography’ of ptolemy and books of Pleney
50.Which book informs us about the trade-routes and trade goods of Satavahana during 2nd century A.D.? – Periplus of Erythrean.
51.Name the Italian traveller who visited Telangana region dining Kakatiya era and documented the details? • Marcopolo
52.Which inscriptions detail the reign of Mudigonda Chalukyas in Telangana?
Moghul cheruvu, Gudur, Kriwaka and Koravi inscriptions
53.Pure Telilgu language was found in these inscriptions discovered in Telangana
Anumula and Aga Motkur inscriptions
54.Which inscriptions tell us about Kanduri Chola dynasty reign in Telangana?
Panagallu, Nelakondapally, Anumula and Aga Motkur inscriptions
55.Which book narrates the invasions of Alla-uddin on Kakatiya kingdom?
– Tariq-e-Alam (Qy Amir Khusrau)
56.Which book narrates the history of Telangana during Muslim era? – Tariq-e-Mohammed
57.Which inscriptions reveal the reign of Recharla Velma / Padmanayaka dynasties in Telangana?
Palampet, Elukurty, Vadapalli, Erukasani’s Pillalamarri, Namireddy’s, Pillalamarri, Somavaram and Manchapur inscriptions
58.Which inscriptions tell us the history of Telangana during Polavasa (Nengonda) dynasty rule? Govindapur, Medapally, Padmakshi gutta (Hanumakonda), Nagunur pillar, Banajipet and Thousand pillar temple inscriptions.
59.Kakatiya era inscriptions in Telangana
Bayyaram, Palmpet, Hanumakonda, Khazipet, Mangallu, Khandavalli and Chandupatla inscriptions
60.An inscription which revealed the period of death of Rudramadevi was found recently at this place in Telangana? – Chandupatla
1.Which dynasty issued copper inscriptions in Telangana?
3.Vishnukundinas 4. Kakatiyas
2.Which among the following was the first inscription that told us about the origins of Kakatiyas?
1.Mangallu 2. Chandupatla
3.Khandavalli 4. Hanumakonda
3.Which among the following inscriptions detail the great deeds done by Prolaya nayaka?
3.Kuruvagattu 4. Vilasa
4.Telugu was the official and administrative language during the reign of this dynasty
1.Rashtrakutas 2.Renati Cholas
3.Kakatiyas 4. Ikshvakus
5.Which among the following inscriptions was related to the Vishnukundinas?
1.Gorantla copper inscription
3.Tummalagudem inscription .
4.All the above
6.At which among the following place were the coins of Satavahana era found?
1.Kotilingala .2. Kondapur
3.Pedda-Bankur 4. All the above
7.An inscription written in prakrit language, issued by a royal dynasty which ruled the Telangana region was found recently at Chaitanyapuri, on the banks of river Musi in Hyderabad. Which dynasty issued it?
3.Vishnukundinas 4. Kakatiyas
8.Koravi inscription, famous as the first Telugu inscription in prose in Telangana was issued by this dynasty?
9.Telugu words were found tin this Sanskrit inscription* found in Teiangana.
1.Gadwal 2. Palmpet
3.Pariagallu 4. Kaluvacheru
10.Who first collected the ancient local histories called Kaifiyats.
1.Col.Mckenzie 2. Lord Ripon
3.Lord Mayo 4. CP. Brown
11.Which among the following literary works tells us about the Kakatiya era in Teiangana?
4.All the above
12.Which among the following inscriptions was issued by Ganapatideva to protect sea trade? .
1.Bayyaram 2. Pillalamarri
3.Chandupatla 4. Motupalli
13.Which among the following inscriptions was issued by Vemulawada Chalukyas?
1.Parbhani 2. Knrkyala
3.Chennur 4. All the above
14 Which among the following inscriptions was issued by Recharla Padmanayakas?
1.Vadapally 2. Somavaram
3.Pillalamarri 4. All the above
15.Which among the following books details the invasions of Allauddin Khilji on Kakatiya kingdom?
1.Tariq-e-Khilji 2. Tariq-e-Ahmed
2.Tariq-e-Alam 4. Tariq-e-Babari
16.Which among the following inscriptions contains pure Telugu language?
1.Aga Motkur 2. Phanigiri
3.Palmpet 4. VilaSa
17.Moghul Cheruvu inscription, found in Teiangana details the reign of this dynasty
2. Kalyani Chalukyas
3. Badami Chalukyas
4. Mudigonda Chalukyas
18.Which among the following literary works helps us to know about the Satavahana culture?1.Brihatkatha 2. Gadha Saptasati
3.Vatsayana Kamasutras 4. All the above
19.Who among the following were the subordinate kings of Kakatiyas, according to inscriptions?
3.Recharla Padmanayaka dynasty
4.All the above
20.It is considered that the Madras Museum copper table inscription was the first copper inscription in Telugu. Who issued it?
1.Ballaya Chola 2. Udayana Chola 3. Karikala Chola 4. Kulottunga Chola
21.Which among the following is the chief source of the history of Musunuri dynasty?
1.Vilasa copper inscription
4.All the above
22.Who among the following were the sujbor-dinate kings of Kakatiyas?
1.Cheraku reddy dynasty .
4.All the above
23.Which among the following inscriptions was issued by Kayastha Ambaya deva about the death of Rudramadevi?
4.All the above ‘
24.Which among the following inscriptions is related the title of ‘Ranavikrama’?
1.Eleswaram 2. Koravi
2.Govindapur 4. Panagallu
25.Which among the following inscriptions details the reign of Mudigonda Chalukyas in Teiangana?
1.Kukkunoor 2. Koravi
3.Gudur 4. All the above