SSC CHSL Topic Wise Study Material – Essay Writing
How to Write an Excellent Essay?
‘Essay writing is an art. One may have thorough knowledge of a topic or a subject, but, to put one’s knowledge in a logical and coherent way requires logical skill, practice and subtle technique’.
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What is an Essay?
The word “essay” literary means an ‘attempt’. For an attempt to be crowned with success^ certain techniques, workable methods and perseverance is necessary. An essay is an organised” collection of ideas, facts and figures about the topic, nicely and elegantly presented.
In other words, the essay must be well organised and well planned and nicely presented in a way that the reader should himself develop interest in reading. It must look tidy and should consist of simple and easily understandable language. It must have interesting way of presentation. Above all, it must be based on logical ideas, facts and figures relevant to the subject.
An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same irrespective of the subject or the topic. You may be writing an essay to argue a particular point of view or to explain the steps necessary for the welfare of the society. Either way, your essay will have the same basic layout. If you follow a few simple steps, you will find that the essay is almost written. You ate required to apply your ideas, facts and figures, which are required to write an essay.
The following simple steps will guide you while writing an excellent essay
1. Select the topic.
2. Make an outline of your ideas
3. Write the introduction.
4. Write the body.
5. Write the main points
6. Write the subpoints
7. Elaborate the subpoints
8. Write the conclusion.
If your essay is poorly-written, you will be losing marks. And, in the outside world, you would be a failure. It is very important to write in a crisp, clear, style, with good sentence construction and proper punctuation. Needless to say, spelling mistakes also fail to impress your views.
1.From Brain Drain to Brain Gain
“The brain drain has been a curse for developing countries like India. Throughout the post World War II era, the best and brightest routinely left for search of better economic opportunities and higher standards of living in the West. Entire graduating classes from the elite Indian Institutes of Technology emigrated during the 1970s and 1980s”.
Every year, tens of thousands of highly specialized professionals and academics leave the developing world for what they believe to be a better quality of life in countries of the North. The majority of doctors, engineers; lecturers, researchers and senior managers as well as students are tempted by more attractive career opportunities, salaries and living conditions. A university- degree is also the safest passport out of an unstable political environment.
In this era of globalization, the high skilled workers are moving freely and trapping the global opportunities. This new dimension of international migration is passing through an experience of Brain Drain and then followed by Brain Circulation in many parts of the globe. In many parts of the world, brain drain is giving way to the process of brain Circulation as talented immigrants return to their homeland with technology, capital, managerial and institutional know-how, to harness promising opportunities. Such evidences are already- emerging in India.
From late 1960s, a strong wave of well-educated and professionally competent immigrants from India, started moving towards the industrially advanced countries. But now in every field of technology, retuning emigrant Indian technocrats and scientists are taking India into the forefronts of technological innovations, where brain loss is compensated by corresponding brain gain. For sustaining this process, we have to create opportunities in India and have to promote young talents to work in India, for making brain circulation a catalyst for India’s accelerating development.
As per the UNESCO report (1969), ’‘the brain drain could be defined as an abnormal form of scientific exchange between countries, characterized by a one way flow in favour of the most highly developed countries”. According to Part II of the World Economic and Social Survey (2004) on International Migration, large scale global migration took place after 1970. In 2000. there were 175 million persons (2.9% of total world population) living outside their country of birth where 20% of this were accounted in US only. It has been found that the overall economic impact of migration is beneficial for destination countries primarily through due to the supply of skilled labour. On the other side, economic benefits form out migration to the developing countries are ambiguous. These countries are suffering from brain drain, which includes inability to make use of migrant’s talents and wastage of resources spent on the migrant’s education. Experience of migration of skillful people differs spatially,i.e., country to country as well as temporally. So, every country has a unique experience of migration it can not be generalized.
In case of India, from 1950s, a strong wave of out migration of skilled workers is well marked which is still continuing with increasing magnitude. Technocrats and expert professionals moved towards the western countries such as USA, Canada, UK and Australia as permanent migrants largely. In the 1960s and 1970s, the flow of scientists, engineers and medical personnel from developing to industrialised nations was thought to have almost entirely negative consequences for the source countries, affecting their university staffing and availability of industrial personnel. Recently, however, there has been growing emphasis on reverse flows of knowledge and skills and of money the migrants send home. What was once termed brain drain is now seen as, brain circulation, but this has blurred important issues affecting most developing countries.
A little over two decades ago, when the then Prime . Minister Rajiv Gandhi during a visit to the United States to meet with President Ronald Reagan was asked about the flight of top professional talent from India to the US, he said it was not a ‘brain drain’ as it was being dubbed, but a ‘brain bank’ for India to draw upon whenever necessary. Indian Ambassador Meera Shankar was asked the.very same question by the members of The Indus Entrepreneurs, Washington DC chapter during an interaction.
She too, like the former Prime Minister said, it was not a brain drain, but rather brain circulation. “What goes around, comes around, and I have seen that movement of Indians to other countries has had a very positive impact back in India.” Expanding on this point Shankar said, “once Andhra Pradesh was one of the most backward States in India but now it is one of the most developed State, thanks to the engineers, technical experts and scientists who came to the US, gathered useful knowledge and then exported that to their home state.” Brain migration is not always carrying adverse effects even on the sending countries if there is exchange of scholars, researchers, engineers and technocrats, scientists, medical experts between developing and developed countries or within developing countries with the purpose of mutual benefits in the form of knowledge sharing. But in the reality, such type of brain circulation is not taking place until and unless the sending country itself become competitive enough to attract the talented mass with creating opportunities and favourable work environment for them to work.
For a long period, since Indian independence, India was fighting for creating basic infrastructure and for providing mere basic amenities to its inhabitants. India is still struggling for these at some level. During this period, our economy was not competitive, private sector was immature, research and development institutions were in infancy stage and because of inability to make use of migrant’s talents brain drain became an unavoidable process.
Developing countries with these bottlenecks can not offer modern professionals the economic rewards and desirable social conditions.
In the last few decades, India has improved upon these areas. Presently, India is emerging as a favourable destination for the young talents. In India, there is a remarkable progress in the development of basic infrastructure, Indian economy is sustaining in the global competition and playing effectively in the multilateral marketing structure, Indian research and development institutions are providing good research environment and giving high level research outcomes in many areas such as space technology, information technology etc., Indian multinationals have emerged as a global players in the last two decades.
Today, India having over 250 million middle class population with good paying capacity for maintaining their livening standard and providing better educational opportunities to their children. Nearly half of India’s population is in working age group of 15-59 years. In the coming decades, India is going to become a hub of technically sound human resource which will again strengthen the knowledge based economy of India and will transform the India’s image in world context. India is the fourth largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity, and expected to become third largest economy of the world in the first half of 21st ’ Century after USA and China.
India is moving forward in many areas such as , development of infrastructures, improving research and development in science and technology, world trade, competitiveness with sustained high economic growth. Much of economic success experienced by India during these decades can be attributed to her large base of human intellectual resource capabilities, knowledge industry and most importantly the continuous effort in the promotion and innovation of science and technology. India is now ready to attract its young talented mass to work in India, thus, it provides opportunity for brain circulation.
Nasscom, a trade group of Indian outsourcing companies, estimates that more than 30000 technology professionals have returned India during years 2004 & 2005. In Bengaluru, the high-tech city of India, thousands of overseas Indians (IT professionals) have set up their home. Besides Bengaluru, Hyderabad and National Capital region are the most preferred destination for these returnees. Here, they are getting Western style work environment, good remuneration and quick Career jumps.
It has been noticed that most of returnees are first-generation expatriates, along with this second-generation Indians living in US are also – returning. The year 2010 saw as many as 60000 Indian professionals who had settled in the USA, return to India. With the economic depression naming loss of jobs as the crucial factor for coming home, the fact remains that some of the best minds are back.
There is a remarkable increase in foreign investment in research and development in India over the last five years, is an indicator of India’s growing reputation as an intellectual powerhouse. Return skilled workers and researchers are working as catalysts in this boom.
Major developments in medical and information technology research along with many other scientific areas giving signs of brilliant future for India. In 2001, to slow down the emigration of Indian IIT pass outs and other engineers TIT Bombay set up an information technology incubator at the Kanwal Rekhi School of Information Technology (KReSIT).
This incubator has started building a culture of entrepreneurship in the areas of making intellectual property and products among IITians and encouraging them to work in India. Several government departments have stepped forward to support the initiative. On the line of this IIT Delhi, IIT Kanpur and IIT Madras have also started their own business incubators. The level of success-of these incubators in persuading IITians to take up entrepreneurship as a career option in India that can be judged after passage of time.
This is a reality that only a few countries have been successful in luring their talented emigrants back home. China, Korea, Ireland etc. countries got relative success in attracting return migration due to the opening of their economies and aggressive policies to foster domestic investments in innovation and R&D.
Developing countries with some infrastructure in R&D, like India, are likely to attract the returnees, as well as money and business contacts. Countries which are capable to create opportunities for research and development, innovation and entrepreneurship can stimulate return migration and capital flow. In many parts of the world, the brain drain is giving way to a process of brain circulation.
For this developing countries need to open their economies, formulate effective science and technology policies, develop world class institutional infrastructure, improve physical infrastructure, high grade social amenities and supportive work environment.
India in regularly progressing on these lines and a clear indication of initiation of brain circulation can be seen. For strengthening this process, India has to work more aggressively to fulfill its commitments towards implementation of these strategies. Indian policymakers now have opportunity to transform the brain drain from a curse into an asset.
1. tempt—to attract or appeal strongly, to entice or allure to do something often regarded as unwise, wrong or immoral;
2. harness—control, manage, utilize, exploit;
3. ambiguous—open to or having several possible meanings or interpretations;
4. amenities—comforts, conveniences, creature comforts;
5. remuneration— reward, pay;
6. expatriate—to banish (a person) from his or her native country;
7. innovation—something new or different introduced, creativity;
8. incubator—an apparatus in which eggs are hatched artificially.
“Capital Punishment is the legal infliction of death as a penalty for violating criminal law of the land. Since time immemorial people have been put to death for various forms of wrongdoing. Methods of execution have included such practices as crucifixion, stoning, drowning, burning at the stake, impaling and beheading. Today capital punishment is typically accomplished by lethal gas or injection, electrocution, hanging or shooting”.
In modern world, the death penalty is the most notorious severe practice. Other harsh, physical forms of criminal punishment also referred to as corporal punishment have generally been eliminated in modern times as ,unsophisticated and unnecessary. In the majority of countries, contemporary methods of punishment, such as imprisonment or fines, no longer involve the infliction of physical pain. Although imprisonment and fines are universally recognized as necessary to control the crime. The nations of the world are split on the issue of capital punishment. About 80 nations have abolished the death penalty and an almost equal number of nations retain it. An accepted principle of the society is that every person has an equal right to ‘life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.’ Within that framework, an argument for capital punishment can be formulated along the following lines, some acts are so vile and destructive for society that they invalidate the right of the committor even to life. The privilege of living and pursuing the good life in a society is not absolute. It may be negated by behaviour that undermines the nature of a moral community.
Living in a society expects that one honours the rightful claims of others. The utter and deliberate denial of life and opportunity to others, forfeits one’s own claim to continue in the society. The preservation of moral community demands that the shattering of the foundation of its existence must be taken with utmost seriousness. The preciousness of life in a moral society must be so highly honoured that those who do not honour the life of others bias their own right to membership ‘null and void’. Those who violate the rights of others, especially if this is done persistently as a habit must pay the ultimate penalty. This punishment must be inflicted for the sake of maintaining the law in the society. The point of contention is whether capital punishment even in such cases is justified or not?
An ideal society would be made up of citizens devoted to promote a balance between individual self-fulfillment and the advancement of the common good. Social life would be based on mutual love. Everyone would contribute to the best of ability and each would receive in accordance with legitimate claims to available resources.
What action should a community based on this kind of love take against those who commits brutal acts of terror, violence and murder? Taken in negatively, it would govern by the philosophy of “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, and a life for a life. ” Those who show no respect for other’s life would be restrained permanently, if necessary, so that they could not further pose a threat to endanger the lives of others. But the purpose of confinement would not be vengeance or punishment. Rather an ideal society would find out the reasons and circumstances that had made one to commit a crime and rectify matters, apart from mercy even to those who had shown no mercy. It would work as a treatment by good ‘ for evil. The aim of isolation is reconciliation and not revenge. It is ever hoped that even the worst among us can be redeemed so that one’s own potential contribution to others can be realized.
In brief, such are the arguments for and against capital punishment, that one is founded on justice and the nature of moral society, the other rests on love and the nature of an ideal spiritual society. If we stand back from this description and make an attempt at evaluation, one point is crucial. The love ethic requires a high degree of morals and maturity. It is more suitable for a small,closely-knit society in which all people love each other in depth. Forgiveness and reclamation flourish best where people participate in each others lives with love and affection. It becomes an ethic of non-resistance to evil, unqualified pacifism and self-sacrifice where self interest has totally gone by. The non-resisting Jesus on the cross who surrenders his life to save others is the epitome of the highest love and sacrifice.
Ethical love means ‘no condition’ and will reach out to others even when they lack merit. But, it will resist encroachment upon its own equal claim to fulfillment and will repel if possible any denial of one’s own right to be fully human in every respect. Against the pacifist, ethical love would justify killing in self-defence and killing enemies in a just war when non-lethal alternatives are not available. They are necessary and tragic emergency to stop present and ongoing violence.
Can unconditional love for the others that regards the welfare of the neighbour equal with one’s own, be the ideal expected of the citizens. Surely, that would be to hope for an ‘ impossible possibility.’
Nation states are not likely, even occasionally, to become ecstatic in their devotion to each other. Mutual, not even to mention sacrificial, love is hardly the guiding rule of relations between two corporates, nor does either have aspirations in that direction. A workable ethical standard for the state and the nation will appeal to the ideals defined by justice and the requirements of a moral society. To say it otherwise, ethical love expressed as social policy for large, impersonal societies takes the form of justice. What that norm involves for a secular, pluralistic societies which cannot be spelled out here.
Within this framework a strong but debatable case can be made for capital punishment. Pragmatically and politically, of course, one has to work within the framework of justice as defined by the secular society in which they have their citizenship and seek to transform it in the light of their own ideals.
The most compelling arguments against capital punishment can be made on the basis of its actual administration in the society.
Following reasons and arguments are assigned against the infliction of Capital Punishment
1. The possibility of error Sometimes an innocent person might be put to death. Sometimes the capital punishment is inflicted disproportionately on the poor and minorities as our judicial system is not transparent. It depends on witnesses only and that may be false or otherwise.
2. Weakness of the argument for deterrence The claim that the threat of capital punishment reduces violent crime is inconclusive, certainly not proven, extremely difficult to disprove, and morally suspect in any case. Many surveys reflects the weakness of such arguments.
3. The length of stay on death row If there was ever any validity to the deterrence argument, it is negated by the endless appeals, delays, technicalities and retrials that keep persons condemned to death waiting for execution for years.
One of the strongest arguments right now against capital punishment is that we are too incompetent to carry it out and that becomes another injustice.
4. Mitigating circumstances Persons who commit vicious crimes have often suffered from neglect, emotional trauma, violence, cruelty, abandonment, lack of love, and a host of destructive social conditions. These extenuating circumstances may have damaged their humanity to the point that it is unfair to hold them fully accountable for their wrongdoing.
In conclusion, the present practice of capital punishment is regarded by many a moral disgrace. The irony is that the societies that have the least right to inflict it are precisely most likely to do so. The compounding irony is that the economic malfunctions and cultural diseases in the society contribute to the violence that makes it necessary to unleash even more repression and brutality against its unruly citizens to preserve order and stave off chaos.
The society provides opportunities for all citizens to achieve a good life in a sensible culture, so it is reasonable to believe that the demand for capital punishment will be reduced or eliminated. It points to the shallowness of our dedication to solving the basic problems of poverty, moral decay, meaninglessness and social discord.
1. punishment—penalty, the act of punishing;
2. violating—breaching, despoiling;
3. immemorial—long past, beyond the limits of memory or tradition on.recorded history;
5. corporal—bodied, corporate, bodily;
6. imprisonment—captivity, internment;
7. deliberate—calculated, cogitate, intentional;
8. preciousness—invaluableness, valuableness;
9. fulfilment—a feeling of satisfaction at having achieved your desires;
10. reconciliation—balancing, rapprochement;
11. spiritual—apparitional, relating to thoughts and beliefs;
12. pacifism—passivism, the doctrine that all violence is unjustifiable;
13. pragmatically—in a realistic manner;
14. malfunctions—misfunctions, a failure to function normally;
15. brutality—barbarism, ferociousness, viciousness;
16. meaninglessness—nonsense, nonsensicality;
17. violent—crimson, fierce, vehement.
3.Election Reforms Vs Indian Democracy
“Though Election Reforms are must for the survival of our democracy, yet it is the awareness among public to vote in favour of sincere, dedicated and honest political leaders which can put a check on all evils of the system.”
The election process in our country is the progenitor of political corruption. Politicians today have a moniaim to capture power, by hook or by crook, with no consideration for moral or ethical values. The erstwhile Chief Election Commissioner, TN Sheshan considered the election process to be the root cause of corruption and the corrupt influences in our political system. In his peculiar style, he endeavoured to the best of his capability, to purge the electoral system of the baneful influences of money power, muscle power, politicians, dominance and bureaucratic favouritism. In the history of Indian democracy, it was Mr TN Sheshan, who took the cudgels alone to fight the hitherto unchallengeable politicians and showed them the authority of the office of the Election Commission. The indefatigable Sheshan, made it crystal clear that unless the political system, from top to bottom, was freed from the evil of corruption, there could be no permanent solution of this cancerous evil.
In the path of reform in election process, the judgment of Supreme Court delivered on 13th March, 2003, has a far reaching positive and resultant impact. With this judgment, it has become mandatory for candidates to declare their criminal antecedents, wealth, educational qualifications etc. A three judge bench said that a “voter has a fundamental right to know the antecedents of a candidate and this right was independent of the statutory right under the election law”. The judges declared that a voter is first a citizen of this country and apart from statutory rights, he has fundamental rights conferred by the Constitution. A member of the Bench,Mr Justice MB Shah observed that the “right to vote would be meaningless unless citizens are well informed about the antecedents of a candidate”. The judge said that exposure to public gaze and scrutiny was one of the surest means to change our democratic governing system and have a competent legislature. Mr Justice Dharmadhikari observed that an improved electoral system was required to make the election process transparent and accountable so that the influence of tainted money and physical force of criminals did not make democracy a farce.
Fair and free election is the necessity of democracy, wherein every representative of the people whether MLA or MP has to observe the laws of the nation in true spirit. It is no secret that money and muscle power play very crucial role in the elections and whosoever can make more investment in terms of money and muscle power has a better chance of winning. Politics has become a most lucrative business in which one time investment of money and muscle power, can generate revenue sufficient for many generations. Today politicians have but one aim to clinch the power by any means, fair or unfair.
It is paradoxical that everyone including the Election Commission knows that the ceiling of expenditure fixed, is just enough to cover up the small proportion of the actual expenses, but the Election Commission has no way to check expenditure done by the politicians. A suggestion was also made earlier, that the election expenses be funded by the government, to check the misuse of black money in the elections, but due to lack of ‘will’ on the part of political leaders and many other practical problems in its implementation it was not taken sincerely.
A very crucial milestone achieved by the government in the process of election reforms, was the 97th Amendment in the Constitution which disqualifies all elected legislators who violate party whip irrespective of the size of defecting faction. The earlier provision recognised a split of one-third of the membership a valid defection, now this provision has been repealed . The scourge of defection has literally scarred the face of Indian democracy. The most blightful outcome has been to negate the verdict of the people, as defecting legislators scamper across parties with abandon in search of greener pastures, ignoring the party on whose ticket they were elected. The gross political corruption was mostly accompanied by lucrative horse trading by our political leaders, keeping away all moral and ethical values. So shocking have become such defection processes, that Lok Sabha had no difficulty in unanimously passing the’ 97th Constitution Amendment Bill. It is hoped that this amendment will stop the prevailing sordid practice of defections by the political leaders. Some raised a point against this amendment that this law will shut out the inner party dissent and may bring about utter bossism in the party system. The bill has also limited the number of ministers, that could not be more than 15% of the strength of legislatures. The provision will check those ambitious self-centred politicians who defect from the original party to become ministers in the government. There was no limit earlier, though guidelines of the Administrative Reforms Committee had placed the norm at 10%. This provision will also have a check on extravagant expenditure on ministers at the cost of the innocent public through taxation.
The Election Commission exercises full discretionary and disciplinary powers during the election period. It was with the efforts of Election Commission that a consensus among the political parties was built up on the implementation of model code of conduct. The Election Commission has accomplished a vital task of introduction of photo identity cards for all voters in the country. The identity cards not only eliminate the evil of impersonation but are also useful in various fields. The commission has made it mandatory for voters to identify themselves either by the voter identity cards or any other authorised document. The introduction of electronic voting machines is also a step forward in election reforms, which make the booth capturing almost impossible unless the presiding officer and other staff are also involved.
Lately, the EC had proposed that in the ballot paper or , on the ballot unit of the Electronic Voting Machine, there . should be a column ‘None of the above’ after the name of the last candidate. EC had said it would enable a voter to reject all candidates, if he chooses so. The proposal does not even required a big legislative intervention. All that is needed is an amendment to rules 22 and 49B of 1 the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961.
At present, rule 490 of the Conduct of Election Rules provides that an elector may refuse to vote after he has been identified and necessary entries in the register of elections are made. But, EC had argued that this process did not protect the secrecy of voting as polling officials and polling agents get to know the voter’s decision.
Senior advocate, Prashant Bhushan said Indian Against Corruption was yet to formalize its views but personally he thought the right to recall/reject was a great idea. ‘It’s in practice in many countries. 5 to 10% of electorate can sign up and demand that their representative be recalled as he had failed to deliver.’ Social reformer Anna Hazare has said that he will next campaign for electoral reforms and we completely agree that election financing is at the ,core of corruption in India.
With all the above reforms it is still to be seen how successful will be our political system to fight the evil of corruption in our democratic setup. The use of money and muscle power in elections cannot be set aside by these reforms. More stringent rules are required and more powers are necessary to be given to the Election Commission.To fight the devil of corruption a strong will power, determined efforts and a dedicated approach is required from the political leaders.
If ethics and morality is expected from the political leaders, the voting to a fair and honest leaders is expected from the general public, without having any consideration to caste, creed or other affiliation of the candidate. In democracy, the public is the most powerful entity. If the public do not vote in favour of criminals, dishonest and corrupt politicians who wish to purchase their votes by money or muscle powers, every thing shall be all right.
1. Reforms—reformation, betterment, amelioration;
2. progenitor—forebear, begetter, ancestor;
3. ethical—humane, moral, upright;
4. erstwhile—former, past, recent;
5. peculiar—strange, wonderful, singular;
6. endeavoured—set in motion, begun, launched;
7. purge—abstersion, clarification, expurgation;
8. baneful—fatal, lethal, murderous, mortal;
9. dominancy—a dominating, or being dominant, control, authority;
10. cudgels—stick, bat, bludgeon;
11. indefatigable—inexhaustible, unwearied;
12. stalwarts—sturdy, robust, vigorous;
13. mandatory—compulsory, forced, obligatory;
14. gaze—stare, eye, contemplate, gape;
15. scrutiny—analysis, investigation, inspection;
16. reverend—revered, respected, venerated;
17. stringent—acrimonious, rigorous.
4.Human Rights Violations
“It is the obligation of the state to ensure everyone the right to adequate food, education and enjoyment of highest attainable standards of physical and mental health. These rights have to be respected and made available to the citizens by the state”.
Human Rights Violations have become very common now a days. The newspapers and TV tell us that every day and at every moment, somewhere in the world, Human Rights are being violated. Broadly speaking ‘Human Right’ means right to life, liberty, equality, and the dignity of an individual irrespective of caste, creed or sex. These Human Rights are natural rights, required to be protected for peaceful existence of a person. Our Constitution safeguards the Human Rights, but inspite of all such provisions, the violation of these rights is very frequently taking place. The protection and preservation of Human Rights is a great challenge to every country in the world. Cases of violence, murder, torture, rape, child
abuse, death due to starvation, death due to dowry, sexual harassment, custodial deaths, etc., have become rampant in the society. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has been able touch the tip of the iceberg of the problem of Human Rights Violation. But, NHRC can’t be blamed, when the entire society is culpable in respect of Human Rights violations in one way or the other, it is not possible for the (NHRC) to keep vigil on every human being in the country.
The former chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission, Dr Justice AS Anand has emphasized that it is the obligation of the state to ensure that everyone has the right to adequate food, education and enjoyment of highest attainable standards of physical and mental health. These rights have to be respected and made available to the citizens by the state, said Justice Anand while inaugurating the two-day capacity building workshop on “Economic, Social and cultural rights” jointly organized by the National Human Rights Commission and the Indian Institute of Public Administration.
Under the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights a state party is obliged to use all steps to achieve progressively full realization of the rights recognized in the covenant. Justice Anand said these include adoption of legislative means, to be exercised on a non-discriminatory basis. “India, being a signatory to universal declaration of Human Rights, international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights and other international instruments, is legally as well as morally committed to ensure basic human rights to all its citizens and enact laws accordingly”, Justice Anand said. With every passing year, conviction has grown in the commission that for right to live with human dignity, it is essential to focus in equal measures on economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights. The indivisibility and interrelated nature of these rights is a reality and there is a symbiosis between them. Those in the field must, therefore, ensure that the concern and anxiety, which they show for political and social rights, are also manifested in economic, social and cultural rights as well.
The abject poverty prevailing in the country, denies basic Human Rights to millions of poor in our country. Poverty is the major cause of various Human Rights violations. Child labour, Bonded labour and illiteracy are various vulnerable points of Human Rights violations. The Human Rights of women are violated from birth to death. Even the Right of females to be born is taken away by sex determination tests, with termination of female fetus. Female infanticide is common in many parts of the country even on date. Sexual abuse of female children, dowry deaths, flourishing flesh trade, rape cases, pitiable conditions of widows living in Vrindawan and Varanasi are some flagrant examples of violations of the rights of the fair sex. Ours is a male dominated society, where women are being treated as their subordinates. Most of the women in real terms, do not enjoy any rights at all. They just live first as per the wishes of their parents and after marriage as per the whims of their husband and in the old age, as per the convenience of their sons and daughters-in-law.
The NHRC, has tried to check the human rights violations in a wide range of spheres. The commission has asked the States and Union Territories in April 2000, to compulsorily video film the post-mortem examination in all cases of custodial deaths. There had been a large number of custodial deaths, with Bihar at the top. The commission asked the State Governments to sensitise the police and jail officials. The NHRC also took up the cases of victimised women. It also recommended that the maintenance allowance for divorced women be increased from Rs 500 to Rs 5000 per month. Cases of violation of children’s rights, like trafficking in children, imprisonment of juveniles, child marriage, have also been taken up by the NHRC. The NHRC also took up cases of rapes, deaths and detentions without trials, vehemently. The NHRC had taken up the case of Best Bakery in Gujarat and moved an application in the Supreme Court. The Apex Court heard the matter and found that the state carried out the investigation and prosecution in a manner which ruled out conviction.
The founding fathers of the Indian Constitution, had a vision of the Indian society, which they wanted to realize through the Constitution. That vision was primarily reflected in the Preamble, the chapters on Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy. In a way, the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy is the product of human rights movement in the country. It is the duty of the State to ensure compliance of what is said in the Constitution. But the shocking evidence that the state itself is the culprit. According to Mr JS Verma, the former chairman of the NHRC. “It is often the state which is violator of Human Rights in maximum cases in the country. But the maximum responsibility to protect and safeguard the rights of its citizens also lies with the state”.
The former chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission, Dr Justice AS Anand stressed the need for making Human Rights the focal point of good governance. He called for greater role for National Human Rights Commissions in the work of United Nations, its treaty bodies and specialized agencies, stressing the need to further develop co-operation between them. He emphasized that the protection of Human Rights not only requires vigilance by various agencies but also sustained co-operation at regional and international levels.
No commission or police station can police every nook and corner of the country. No NGO, or any other agency can be present every where to protect the human rights. It is we the people, it,is the duty of every civilised person to rise to the occasion. This can be brought about only through general awakening which makes everyone understand the eternal values of life and dignity of an individual irrespective of caste, creed or sex. Swami Vivekanand said “Self in you is the Self everywhere. ”
1. adequate—appropriate, proper;
2. starvation— deprivation, hunger, need, want;
3. rampant—uncontrolled, growing without check;
4. culpable—blameworthy, punishable, blamable;
5. obligation—necessity, commitment, burden, debt;
6. enact—decree, sanction, ordain, order, dictate;
7. symbiosis—interdefendence, animate existence;
8. manifested—clear, evident, visible, unmistakable;
9. infanticide—child-murder, puericide, abortion;
10. flagrant—glaring,, blatant, notorious;
11. whims— notions, vagaries, caprice;
12. sensitize—stimulate, refine, sharpen;
“Nationalism is a sacred passion, a great moral and ethical belief, a social expression on a national plane, immense love for the country. It is an in-frangible notion to treat loyalty to one’s nation superior to all other loyalties”.
A true nationalist is one who regards his country as the cause of his existence and ready to abandon his own interests for its welfare. An avowed nationalist never minds sacrificing everything including his life for the cause of the nation. People adore and glorify him as an incarnation of a super being. Poets compose verses in honour of his deeds and everyone prays for his immortality. After death he is treated as an eternal fountain of inspiration, an ideal to be followed by all, a beacon light which shows right path even after his departure.
Nationalism can’t be treated as a passive thing or inconspicuous way of leading life. It is such an active and self motivated, inner emotion which urges one to do and dare any thing for the cause of nation. They die so that others may live. There are many instances even in the history of our freedom struggle where for the cause of motherland, many suffered unimaginable hardships and many sacrificed their lives for the cause of nation.
Shaheed Bhaget Singh, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Subhash Chandra Bose, Bipin Chandra Pal, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Mahatma Gandhi and so many, who had never cared for their own comfort and they lived for the cause of the motherland and died for her. They were the true nationalists.
Since time immemorial, in all the histories of civilization, nationalism has remained and regarded a subject of ‘ eloquent praise on the lips of everybody. The love and attachment to one’s motherland is not unnatural. Its root lies in the affection one receives since one is born in that land. Everyone has the feeling of nationalism, love for one’s country.
An unknown poet has beautifully composed the following lines, that shows the feeling of immense love for the motherland “O for a glimpse of my motherland so fair! O for a breath of its sweet scented air! There let me live and oh, there let me die! There is sweet silence my dead body shall lie”.
Evils of Nationalism
Nothing is wrong in loving one’s country, nothing is wrong in having loyalty to one’s country, but if the love and loyalty becomes so strong, that it result into hatred for all other countries, and other nations it becomes an evil. Blind nationalism dwarfs the mind just as Chinese woman’s unnatural shoes compress and distort her feet. Nationalism, when it outruns its reasonable limits, becomes organized hypocrisy and creates hatred for other nations.
Extreme nationalism glorifies war. Nationalism when diverted from the path of reason and common good, quite often loses its sacred instincts and degenerates into aggressive attitude of nationalism. A nationalist without high moral and ethical considerations, adores his country blindly and treats all other people of the Earth as downright barbarians.
Cecil Rhodes wrote in his will, “I contend that the British race is the finest which history has yet produced.” Victor Hugo said, “O France, it is the need of the universe that thou shouldest live. I repeat it France is necessary for the human race”. It was never felt by these men that other faces and people are also created by the same Almighty and were not less than their countrymen.
Many European nations carried out the mission of their dominance and tried to implant the same by force over other countries. Nationalism, if mixed with the unworthy motives, and self-centred greed for power and imperialistic motives, becomes the worst cause to destroy and destruct the existence of civilization in the world. The foolishness of an irrational nationalism can well be seen in the writings of Rupert Brooke who wrote that when he died he wished to go to an English Heaven. Owing to such parochial feelings, some of the eminent philanthropists and enlightened thinkers of present time have advocated the idea of cosmopolitanism that means the whole world is the nation of everyone. The theory of cosmopolitanism discards the boundaries of countries and everyone is the citizen of,the world.
It says that in the present age of globalization, scientific inventions, space research has brought the world closer wonderfully, so it shall be a folly to talk of nationalism. The ideal of nationalism is nothing but; an orthodoxical narrow thinking concept, which has no relevance in this world of scientific and technological advancement. If we honestly look at the things in the present perspective, lakh of Indians are living well in various countries throughout the world. They have their allegiance with the respective country though emotionally attached with India, their motherland. Lacs of foreign nationals are visiting India, some settle here.
Many foreign companies and their employees are. earning from our country and our companies have their employees and offices settled in foreign countries and the boundaries among the nations have just remained the boundaries for the sake of getting passport and visas. In such a situation, talking of nationalism looks redundant. Now people have started thinking of good for all the human race, for all the civilisation of the Earth. The idea of cosmopolitanism, which started, slowly and gradually is getting recognition and-acceptance now-a-days.
Despite various evils of nationalism, or extreme nationalism, it is a natural feeling acquired not by any technical means, but by birth and is a virtue by itself. As loving one’s mother, father, can’t be something bad, likewise loving one’s country is also not bad, but hatred of other nations is indeed the worst form of nationalism. Nationalism, if spiritualized with higher moral and ethical values, and if in apposition to the motto of Abraham Lincon, ‘With malice towards none, with charity for all’, becomes one of the most sacred emotions, worthy of utmost praise.
The nationalism of Hitler and Musolini are the worst shape of nationalism. We need nationalism with love for our country as well as love and affection towards all.
1. sacred—concerned with religion or religious purposes
2. passion—strong feeling or emotion;
3. immense—unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope;
4. infrangible—difficult or impossible to break or separate into parts;
5. avowed—admit openly and bluntly; -make no bones about;
6. eternal—lasting for an indefinitely long period of time;
7. inspiration—arousing to a particular emotion or action;
8. abandon—forsake, leave behind;
9. immemorial—long past; beyond the limits of memory or tradition or recorded history;
10. inconspicuous—not prominent or readily noticeable;
11. parochial—narrowly restricted in outlook or scope;
12. philanthropists—someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being;
The Supreme Court defined ragging as “Any disorderly conduct whether by words spoken or written or by an act which has the effect of teasing, treating or handling with rudeness any other student indulging in rowdy or indisciplined activities which causes or likely to cause annoyance, hardship or psychological harm or to raise fear of apprehension thereof in a fresher or a junior student or asking the students to do any act or perform something which such students will not do in the ordinary course and which has the effect of causing or generating a sense of shame or embarrassment so as to adversely affect the physique or psyche of a fresher or a junior student.”
The apex court has taken into consideration, while defining ragging, all kinds of acts faced by a fresher or a junior while being subjected to ragging by the seniors. Ragging has become a menace, cause of fear and shock, not only for a fresher but to his parents too, who are sending the loved ones for pursuing higher education by investing a lot of hard earned money. Several intellectual youths have become the victims of ragging. Some have suffered a nervous breakdown, some left the institutes after being of ragged, some have committed suicide and some were murdered by the seniors on the pretext of ragging.
The court, the authorities, the principal and all concerned, have described the ragging as a heinous practice, but what very paradoxical situation is, it still persists in spite of all the rules, regulations and ‘ directives of courts, and authorities. None could claim to have stopped it 100%. The most gruesome incidence of ragging came into light in November 1986, when Navarasu a 17 year old first year medical student of Annamalai University, Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu, was brutally, murdered by a senior named ‘David’ who was said to be a Karate expert. He killed Navarasu because he refused to submit to his whims of ragging. In August 2003, an engineering student of Engineering College Jalpaiguri in Paschim Banga was admitted to hospital after he was subjected to night long brutal ragging by his seniors. The victim was beaten up with iron rods and cycle chains for refusing to strip before the seniors. In August 2003, itself, IIT Delhi expelled five senior students for they were found indulging in ragging of a fresher who left the college after being ragged by these seniors. In the same*month a student of Pune Institute quit, just a few days after joining it, in July due to the same reason of being subjected to inhuman ragging.
The Governments, Central as well as States, have taken positive steps again to stop this practice. In 1997, the HRD Minister, Mr S R Bommai, apprised the Rajya Sabha that steps were being taken to ensure that those found guilty of ragging can be treated as guilty of gross misconduct and subsequently, the penalty of rustication or removal from the rolls of the universities could be imposed on the offenders. He also informed the house that instructions have been issued to the Universities, and Institutions and the State Governments to take stern action to curb this menace and to invoke the .provisions of law if needed. A few years ago, the Governor of Kerala, promulgated the “Kerala Prohibition of Ragging Ordinance” seeking to prohibit ragging in educational institutions in the state. The ordinance, inter alia provides dismissal of a student from the educational institution, if found indulging in acts of ragging and that student is to be further debarred from taking admission in any other educational institution for five years from the date of order of such dismissal.
The Supreme Court while dealing with a public interest litigation in 2001 said that “failure to prevent ragging by the management would mean an act of negligence in maintaining discipline in the institution”. The Principal and other authorities concerned will be liable to face action in case a student is subjected to ragging. The Supreme Court further directed that “If an institution fails to curb ragging the UGC/ funding agency may consider stoppage of financial assistance to such an institution till such time it implements the anti ragging norms”. A University , may consider disaffiliating a college or institution that fails to curb ragging, the court administered a clear warning; Though, the Supreme Court has also issued very strict and stringent guidelines to curb the menace of ragging yet a point to ponder is,why the students resort to such heinous practice, after all these so called seniors are also from decent homes and belong to the intellectual group of students of the nation.
Why do a few nesort to such socially unacceptable behavior? Why the so called seniors do not understand the problems of their own juniors and subject them to such intolerable inhuman acts?
In brief, we find that our present education system is intended to create intelligentsia, but they are absolutely lacking the moral and ethical values. We do not teach our students philanthropic and moral values. There is no place for ethics in our education. We are just teaching
them about the materialistic side of things. How only the students are to blame, for such acts? Teachers and parents are also equally responsible for the mess. Academic qualification alone is of no value. If education does not teach students to share the problems of others, to love all and to serve all, it is meaningless.
It is relevant to quote the following words of a great thinker that
If money is lost, nothing is lost.
If health is lost, something is lost.
If character is lost , everything is lost.
To stop the menace of ragging it is hut necessary to inculcate among the students the importance of good character and importance of love and affection towards their juniors and fellow beings.
1. menace—caution, intimidation, foretelling;
2. pursuing—out for, out to, in pursuance of;
3. intellectual—mental, cerebral, intelligent;
4. Victim—sufferer, scapegoat;
5. committed—dedicated, devoted, pledged;
6. paradpxical—contradictory, incomprehensible;
7. persists—perseveres, continues, keeps on;
8. whims—unreasonable ideas;
9. strip—tape, slip;
10. indulged—granted, allowed;
11. apprised—informed, sensible of;
12. guilty—condemned, sentenced, criminal;
13. debarred—penalized, sentenced, reproved;
14. assistance—help, support, compensation;
15. disaffiliating—exclude from inheritance, disown;
16. heinous—atrocious, horrendous, monstrous;
17. curb—hindrance, chain, check;
18. philanthropic—charitable, humanitarian, altruistic.
7.Necessity of an Effective Cyber Law in India
The rapid growth of information technology and the increased usage of internet in all walks of life have led to the growth of new forms of transnational crime especially the internet related crimes. The technological development, specially in the field of Information Technology, has made the transition from paper to paperless transactions a reality.
The world is now creating new standards of speed, efficiency and accuracy in communication, which has become key tools for boosting innovations, creativity and increasing overall productivity. The fast progress in the field of information technology connects the world in even faster way and has become a vital and integral part of all the business activities.
The increasing use of internet, laptops and mobiles have surely eased our lives but have lead to problems like hacking, theft of data and attacks of viruses. Security breaches are on the rise and it is quite obvious that without government intervention on rules, responsibilities and formal procedures, an information security framework can not prove effective. The new advancements throwup unprecedented functionality risks of information security. At macro level, homeland security is critical to the overall security of the entire country. Recent terror attacks and other security concerns pertaining to domestic law and order situation have prompted the Central and State Governments to focus on the modernization and up gradation of the country’s security infrastructure particularly in the cyber sector.
In simple way we can say that cyber crime is unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both. Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000.
We can categorize cyber crimes in two ways
1. The Computer as a Target Using a computer to attack other computers, e.g., hacking, virus/worm attacks, DOS attack etc.
2. The Computer as a Weapon Using a computer to commit real world crimes, e.g., cyber terrorism, IPR violations, credit card frauds, EFT frauds, pornography etc.
Technological advancements have created new possibilities for criminal activities, in particular the criminal misuse of information technologies such as
(a) Unauthorized access and Hacking
(b) Trojan Attack
(c) Virus and Worm Attack
(d) E-mail and IRC related crimes These are very common crimes now-a-days
1. E-mail Spoofing E-mail spoofing refers to email that appears to have been originated from one source when it was actually sent from another source.
2. E-mail Spamming E-mail ‘spamming’ refers to sending e-mail to thousands and thousands of users-similar to a chain letter.
3. Sending Malicious Codes through E-mail E-mails are used to send viruses, Trojans etc through emails as an attachment or by sending a link of website, which on visiting, downloads malicious code.
4. E-mail Bombing E-mail ‘bombing’ is characterized by abusers repeatedly sending an identical email message to a particular address.
5. Sending threatening E-mails
6. Defamatory E-mails
7. E-mail Frauds
8. IRC Related
9. Denial of Service Attacks Flooding a computer resource with more requests than it can handle. This causes the resource to crash, thereby, denying access of service to authorized users. Hundreds or thousands of computer systems across the internet can be turned into ‘zombies’ and used to attack another system or website.
10. Pornography The literal mining of the term ‘Pornography’ is “describing or showing sexual acts in order to cause sexual excitement through books, films, etc.” This would include pornographic websites; pornographic material produced using computers and use of internet to download and transmit pornographic videos, pictures, photos, writings etc.
Cyber Law is seen as an essential component of criminal justice system all over the world. The same applies to cyber law of India as well. In the Indian context, the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000) is the cyber law of India.. It is the exclusive law in this regard and is under the process of amendments. India has done ‘ a good job by enacting a cyber law. It is the 12th country of the world having a cyber law. It covers areas like e-governance, e-commerce, cyber contraventions and cyber offences. However, some critics and cyber law experts have questioned the strength of IT Act, 2000.
Some experts opined that the IT Act, 2000 is not effective and lacks a number of necessary provisions. For instance, we need express provisions and specified procedures to deal with issues like Denial of Service (DOS), Distributed Denial of Services (DDOS), bot, botnets, trojans, backdoors, viruses and worms, sniffers, SQL injections, buffer overflows etc. These issues cannot be left on mere luck, implied provisions or traditional penal laws of India (IPC). Even issues like cyber war against India or cyber terrorism against India have not been incorporated into the IT Act, 2000 yet.
Some of these issues are also cross-linked with capacity building requirements of India in the field of cyber security in India and cyber forensics in India. A crucial truth that India failed to appreciate is that e-governance in India is useless till we are capable of securing it as well. Without the crucial capabilities in the fields of cyber security and cyber forensics, India is heading towards a big trouble. Even the basic ‘e-mail tracking’ procedures sometimes pose as a big challenge before the law enforcement agencies in India. Interestingly, some of the legal experts have shown their support for prosecuting owners of e-mail addresses and Internet Protocol addresses relying upon ‘common law principles’ not knowing exactly the nature of the internet. .
This situation is alarming as any element of distrust for internet may lead to people avoiding doing transactions with online sites thereby directly affecting e-Commerce growth. The misuse of internet as an excellent medium of communication may in some situations lead to direct damage to physical societies. Non-imposition of taxes on online transactions may have its destructive effect on the physical businesses anS also government revenues. Terrorists may also make use of web to create conspiracies and make violence in the society.
In conclusion, we can say that computer-related, crimes have become a realty now; and these must be dealt with strictly at the earliest and necessary effective laws must be enacted with all necessary provisions. Any delay can be dangerous.
1. efficiency—competence, capability;
2. accuracy—exactness, exactitude;
3. innovations—idea, deviation, shift, variation;
4. vital—important, indispensable;
5. integral—necessary, basic;
6. obvious—perceptible, exposed;
7. intervention—interruption, interference;
8. unprecedented—novel, original, anomalous;
9. modernisation—innovation, fashion .