Shortcuts in Reasoning for Competitive Exams – Series (NON-VERBAL REASONING)
The word “series” is defined as anything that follows or forms a specific pattern or is in continuation of a given pattern or sequence.
In this type of non-verbal test, two sets of figures pose the problem. The sets are called Problem Figures and Answer Figures. Each problem figure changes in design from the preceding one.
TYPES OF SERIES
A definite relationship between elements in given figures.
EXAMPLE 1 .
Study the problem figures marked (A), (B) and (C) carefully and try to establish the relationship between them. From the answer figures marked a, b, c and d, pick out the figure which most appropriately completes the series.
Solution . The direction of arrow which changes alternately. The dots are also changing alternately. Hence, we are looking for a figure in which the arrow points down and the dots and positioned as in figure (b).
TYPE II. Additions of Elements :
In these type of questions, each figure is obtained by either sustaining the element of preceding figure as it is or adding a part of element or one element or more than one element of the preceding figure in a systematic way.
EXAMPLE 2 .
Solution . Two line segments are added in A to obtain B and one line segment is added in B to obtain C. This process is repeated again to obtain D. Hence, answer figure (d) continues the series.
TYPE III. Increasing/Decreasing of Elements:
In these questions, the items in the diagrams either increase or decrease in number.
EXAMPLE 3 .
Solution . The small circles are decreasing consecutively and the black dots are increasing. So, figure (c) continues the series.
TYPE IV : Deletion of Elements :
In these type of questions, each figure is obtained by either sustaining the element of preceding figure as it is or deleting a part of an element or one element or more than one element of the preceding figure in a systematic way.
Solution . The qualitative characteristic of various elements in the diagrams change to complete the series. So, figure (a) continues the series.
TYPE V : Rotation Type :
The various elements in the diagrams move in a specific manner. They may rotate in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.