General Awareness Indian polity |Questions & Answers | Notes
• According to the recommendations of the Cabinet Mission in 1946, the Constituent Assembly was elected indirectly by the Provincial Assemblies in July 1946.
• Constituent Assembly had 389 members including 93 representatives of the Princely states.
• Congress has 211 members and the Muslim League had 73 members.
• On 11th December 1946, the Assembly elected Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its President.
• After partition, the Constituent Assembly was left with only 299 members.
• On 29th August, 1947 it appointed a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
• Other members of the Drafting Committee were N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Alladikrishan Swami Ayyar, K.M. Munshi, Sayyid Md. Saadulla, N. Madhava Rao and D.P. Khaitan.
• Constitution was published in Feb. 1948 and received President’s signature on 26 Nov. 1949 and was declared as passed
• Constitution was officially implemented on 26th January 1950 (dated of commencement).
The Preamble as amended in 1976 reads
We the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic, and. to secure to all its citizens. Justice social, economic and political. “Liberty of thought expression, belief, faith and Worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all. Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the Unity & integrity of the Nation. “In our Constituent Assembly this twenty sixth day of November 1949 do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution”.
Meaning and Words in the Preamble
• We the People of India
It signifies that the constitution of India is ordinated
by the people of India through their representatives assembled in a sovereign Constitution Assembly. Thus it declares that the ultimate sovereignty lies with the people of India.
It means that the country is free or independent in its external and internal matters, there is no external subordination.
Inserted in the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act 1976 it intended to give a positive direction to the government in formulating its policies. It meant reducing in equality in society.
It was inserted by the 42nd Amendment Act 12>76. It means
(i) there is no official religion of India
(ii) the State will not favour or promote any particular region.
It envisages not only a democratic form of government but also a democratic society. As a form of government it envisages representative form of government.
It implies that head of the Indian state shall neither be hereditary nor dictator. He shall be elected by the people directly or indirectly.
It means freedom of though, expression, belief, faith and worship.
It means making all discrimination illegal by state.
It means securing the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation
Presidents of India
|Name||Term of Office|
|Dr. Rajendra Prasad||1950 -1962|
|Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan||1962-1967|
|Dr. Zakir Husain||1967-1969|
|Varahagiri Venkata Giri||May-July 1969 (Acting)|
|Justice Mohammed Hidayatullah||July – Aug 1969 (Acting)|
|Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed||1974-1977|
|B.D.Jatti||Feb-July 1977 (Acting)|
|Neelam Sanjeev Reddy||1977-1982|
|Giani Zail Sing||1982-1987|
|Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma||1992-1997|
|A.P. J. Abdul Kalam||2002-2007|
|Pranab kumar Mukherjee||From 2012|
Vice Presidents of India
|Name||Term of Office|
|Dr. S. Radha Krishnan||1952-1962|
|Dr. Zakir Husain||1962-1967|
|Gopal Swarup Pathak||1969-1974|
|Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma||1987-1992|
|Bhairon Singh Shekhawat||2002-2007|
|Md. Hamid Ansari||From 2007|
Prime Ministers of India
|Name||Term of Office|
|Jawaharlal Nehru||Aug 15,3.947 – May 27,1964|
|Guljari Lai Nanda||May 27, 1964 – June 9, 1964|
|Lai Bahadur Shastri||June 9, 1964 – Jan 11,1966|
|Gulijari Lai Nanda||Jan 11,1966 – Jan 24,1966|
|Indira Gandhi||Jan 24,1966 – Mar 24,1977|
|Morarji Desai||Mar 24,1977 – July 28,1977|
|Charan Singh||July 28,1979-Jan 14,1980|
|Indira Gandhi||Jan 14,1980 – Oct 31,1984|
|Rajiv Gandhi||Oct 31,1984 – Dec 2,1989|
|V.P.Singh||Dec 2,1989 – Nov 9, 1990|
|Chandrasekar||Nov 10,1990 – June 21,1991|
|P.V. Narasimha Rao||June 21,1991 – May 15,1996|
|A.B. Vajpayee||May 16,1996 – May 31,1996|
|H.D. Deve Gowda||June 1,1996 – April 20,1997|
|I.KGujral||April 21,1997 – March 19,1998|
|Atal Bihari Vajpayee||March 19, 1998 -Oct. 13, 1999|
|Atal Bihari Vajpayee||Oct. 13,1999-May 2004|
|Dr. Manmohan Singh||May 22, 2004-May 2014|
|Narendra Modi||From May 26,2014|