English Grammar Parts of Speech – Conjunction | Exercises | Notes
A word that is used to join together words/phrases or sentences is called conjunction.
Conjunction joins together sentences and often makes them more compact. Thus Rahul and Himanshu are good bowlers is a short way of saying
Rahul is a good bowler and Himanshu is a good bowler.
So, the man is poor, but honest. It is contracted way of saying.
The man is poor, but he is honest.
Sometimes, the conjunction and joins words only. Two and two make four.
Rahul and Himanshu are brothers.
Rahul and Himanshu come home together.
Such sentences cannot be resolved in two sentences.
Conjunction must be carefully distinguished from relative pronouns, relative adverbs, and prepositions, which are also connecting words.
1. This is the house that jack built.
2. This is the place where he was murdered.
3. Take this and give that.
In sentence 1, the relative pronoun that refers to the noun house, and also joins the two parts of the sentence.
In sentence 2, the relative adverb where modifies the verb was murdered and also joins the two parts of the sentence.
In sentence 3, the conjunction and simply joins the two parts of the sentence, it does no other works.
• Relative pronouns and Relative adverbs also join; but they do more.
• Conjunctions merely join; they do no other work.
These conjunctions are used in pairs.
Either-or : Either take it or leave it.
Neither-nor : It is neither useful nor ornamental.
Both-and : We both love and honour him.
Though-yet : Though he is suffering much pain, yet he does not complain.
Whether-or : I do not care whether you go or stay
Not only-but also : Not only is he foolish, but also obstinate.
When conjunction are used as correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words to be connected.
e.g. He visited not only Agra, but also Delhi.
He not only visited Agra, but also Delhi.
We use many compound expressions as conjunctions; these are called compound, conjunctions.
In order that : The notice was published in order that all might know the facts.
On condition that: I will forgive you on condition that you do not repeat the offence.
Even if : Such an act would not be kind even if it were just.
So that : He saved some bread so that he should not go hungry on the morrow.
As well as : Rahul as well as Himanshu was present there.
As soon as :He took of his coat as soon as he entered the house
As if : He looks as if he were weary.
CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS
It joins together clauses of equal rank. The chief co-ordinating conjunctions are :
And, but, for, or, nor, also, either … or, neither … nor.
Co-ordinating conjunctions are of four types:
(i) Commulative or copulative : They merely add one statement to another.
e.g. We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone.
ii) Adversative : They express opposition or contrast between two statements.
e.g. He is slow, but he is sure.
I was annoyed, still I kept quiet.
(iii) Disjunctive or Alternative : They express a choice between two alternatives. e.g. rShe must weep, or she must die.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
(iv) Illative : They express an inference.
e.g. Something certainally fell in, for I heard a splash.
All precautions must have been neglected, for the plague spread rapidly.
(v) Any of the co-ordinating conjunctions, with the exceptions of or, nor may be omitted and its place taken by a comma, semi-colon, or colon.
e.g. Rahul went out to play; Himanshu stayed in to work.
A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning.
The chief subordinating conjunctions are : After, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, while.
(i) The word than is also a Subordinating conjunction.
e.g. He is taller than I.
His bark is worst that his bite.
(ii) Subordinating conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning, as follows :
I would die before I lied.
I returned home after he had gone.
2. Cause or Reason :
Since you wish it, it shall be done.
He may enter, as he is a friend.
3. Purpose :
We eat that we may live.
He held my hand lest I should fall.
4. Result or Consequence :
He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
5. Condition :
Rahul will go if Himanshu goes.
I will not see him, though he comes. Though he scolds me, yet I respect him.
7. Comparison :
He is stronger than Hari.
(iii) Some words are used both as preposition and conjunctions :
Stay till monday.
We shall stay here till you return.
He died for his country.
Some Conjunctions and Their Uses
(i) From and after the time when.
e.g. I have been in such a pickle since I saw you last.
I left school.
Note: Since when used as a conjunction in this sinse should be preceded by a verb in the present perfect tense and followed by a verb in the past indifinite tense.
(ii) Seeing that, in as much as.
e.g. Since you wish it
it shall be done
I shall excuse you
2.or is used
(a) To introduce an alternative.
e.g. Your purse or your life.
You must work or starve.
Note : There may be several aternatives each joined to the preceding one by ‘or’, presenting a choice between any two in the series.
(ii) To introduce an alternative name or synonym.
e.g. The violin or fiddle has become the leading instrument of the modern or- chestra.
(iii) To mean otherwise.
e.g. We must hasten or night will overtake us.
iv) As nearly equivalent to and
e.g. The troops were not wanting in strength or courage, but they were badly fed.
3. If is used to mean :
(i) On the condition or superposition that.
e.g. If he is there, I shall see him.
(ii) Admitting that.
e.g. If I am blunt, lam at least honest.
If I am poor, yet I am honest.
e.g. I asked him if he would help me.
I wonder if he will come.
If is also used to express wish or surprise. If I only knew !
That as a conjunction, retains much of its force
as a Demonstrative pronoun. Thus sentence I
am told that you are miserable
may transposed into
‘you are measurable; I am told that.
That is now used:
(i) To express a reason or cause, and is equivalent to because, for that, in that,
e.g. Not that I loved Purnea less, but that I loved Araria more.
(ii) To express a purpose and is equivalent to in order that.
e.g. We sow that we may reap. :
(iii) To express a consquence, result, or effect.
e.g. I am so tired that I cannot go on.
Than as a conjunction, follows adjective and adverbs in the comparative degree,
e.g. Wisdom is better than rubies.
Least is used as a subordinating conjunction expressing a negative purpose and is equivalent to in order that….not; for fear that.
e.g. Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty.
7. While is used to mean :
(i) During the time that, as long as.
e.g. While he was sleeping, an enemy sowed tares.
(ii) At the same time that.
e.g. The girls sang while the boys played.
(iii) Where as.
e.g. While I have no money to spend, you have nothing to spend on.
Only as a conjunction, means except that, but, were it no (that).
e.g. A very pretty woman, only she squints a little.
Except was once in good use as a conjunction.
e.g. Except a man is born again, we cannot see the kingdom of God.
The use of without as a conjunction meaning unless is now bad English.
e.g. I shall not go without you do.
11. Because, for, since
Of these three conjunctions, because denotes the closest causal conjunction, for the weakest, since comes between the two