Campus Recruitment – Verbal Ability – Sentence Rearrangement
Sentence Rearrangement as the name itself advocates, consist of sentences not arranged in a logical sequence. A choice of arrangement of the sentences is given from which the candidate has to choose the most logical sequence which would be the most appropriate for conveying the message of the passage.
Type of Questions:
- Four Sentences: In this type, paragraph consists of four sentences which are jumbled and the student is supposed to choose the correct sequence.
- Five Sentences: This type is quite similar to the “four sentence” except instead of four sentences student has to rearrange five sentences.
- Six Sentences: This is a typical one of this chapter where six sentences are given in which first and sixth sentences are fixed. The student has to rearrange the four sentences in between the first and sixth.
Tips to Solve:
Read as they are: It is a kind of reading which gives an overall concept to the reader. In this step student has to tick or write the crucial words to make his remembrance more effective. He has to have an idea of passage by this squashed reading technique’.
Finding either starting or concluding sentences Finding either starting or concluding sentences is also necessary to get the answer properly. In this finding procedure students have to keep an eye in the options too. Therefore finding either starting or concluding sentences can be derived as technical method of logical answer.
Linking sentences: This is a technique of mastering
in jumbled paragraph. In order to get proper linking j sentences students have to identify the main or supplementary ideas which constitute the message j being conveyed by the paragraph. If a clear picture of 1 the main paragraph is found, then the link of the | sentences will be come out automatically. Once the link is found, then obviously the given options will direct the correct answer.
Here is the list of words which are used as linking I devices:
also, again, as well as, as a rule, besides, furthermore, generally, in addition, likewise, moreover, consequently, similarly, to sum up, hence, otherwise, subsequently, later, therefore, thus, for example, for instance, to illustrate, much like, such as, above all, besides, even though, although, despite, probably, due to, unless, whether, until, yet, first of all, to begin with, consequently, considering, I mean, in other words, as a result, last of all, in summary, in conclusion.
Abbreviations or Acronyms: If full form and its abbreviation or acronym are present in two different sentences, then the sentence containing the full form will come before the sentence containing abbreviation or acronym.
Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns: If a sentence contains a personal or demonstrative pronouns (i.e. you, your, he, she, it, they, this, that, these, those etc) without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence.
Checking vocabulary inventiveness For this process a candidate has to look into the starting and the concluding words of the sentences that may have an apparent link. In addition to this students have to concentrate in some particular conjunction words that may appear either ending or starting of the sentences, namely, so, therefore, moreover, meanwhile, nevertheless, notwithstanding etc.
Rearrange the following sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph, then answer the questions given below them.
1) A. In formal speech, syllables are likely to be more deliberately sounded than in informal speech
B. Yet dictionary editors have no choice but to deal with each word as an individual entity.
C. The pronunciation of words is influenced by the situation.
D. Further, the pronunciation of a word is affected by its position in the sentence and by the meaning it carries.
Explanation: First of all, try to identify the starting and ending/ concluding sentences. Sentences B, D can not be the first sentence as they have the linking words like ‘yet’, ‘another’ which generally indicates continuation to its previous sentences. Sentence-A is speaking about two kinds of pronunciation. But sentence-C has an introduction about pronunciation. Hence, it forms the first sentence. Sentence-A, D are continuation for C as they explain about how the pronunciation is affected.
2) A. It was a fascinating, tempting green, like the hue of the great green grasshopper.
B. Her teeth were very white and her voice had a cruel and at the same time a coaxing sound.
C. While she was uncorking the bottle I noticed how green her eyeballs were.
D. And also how small her hands were, which showed that she did not use them much.
Explanation: Here sentence-A, B and D says about what the author has observed while the lady was uncorking the Bottle. Hence, sentence-C forms the initial sentence. And A, B, D follows sentence-C.
3) A set of six sentences is given, in which the first and the sixth sentences are fixed at their respective positions. The four sentences that falls between the first and the sixth sentences are presented in a jumbled form. You are asked to choose the logical order of sentences from the choices.
1. Intensity of competition in an industry is neither a matter of coincidence nor bad luck.
A. The collective strength of these forces determines the ultimate profit potential in the industry where profit potential is measured in terms of long run returns on invested capital.
B. Rather; competition in an industry is rooted in its underlying economic structure and goes well beyond the behavior of current competitors.
C. Not all industries have the same potential.
D. The state of competition in an industry depends on five basic competitive forces.
6. They differ fundamentally in their ultimate profit potential as the collective strength of the forces differ,
Explanation: Here sentence-B has a direct impact on the meaning of sentence-1. Sentence-A describes about the ‘collective strength of the forces’ which is in continuation to sentence-D. And sentence-C keeps concluding task. Hence, the correct sequence is BDAC.
4) 1. Amount of published information available varies widely by industry.
A. Unfortunately for the researcher, many industries do not meet these criteria, and there may be little published information available.
B. Generally, the problem the researcher will face in using published data for analyzing an economically
meaningful industry is that they are too broad or too arranged to fit the industry.
C. However, it is always possible to gain some important information about an industry from published sources and these sources should be aggressively pursued.
D. Larger the industry, the older it is, and the slower the rate of technological change, better is the available published information.
6. If a researcher starts searching for data with this reality in mind, the usefulness of broad data will be better recognized and the tendency to give up will be avoided.
Explanation: Sentence-A tells about the quantity (i.e. amount of published information). The logical sequence of sentence-1 is in sentence-D. Because it starts with ‘larger the industry’ which is logically continuing sentence-1. There is only one option that starts with D. Moreover sentence-B has a coherent link to sentence-6.
Rearrange the following sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph, then answer the questions given below them.
1) A. Then think of by how much our advertising could increase the sales level.
B. Advertising effectiveness can be best grasped intuitively on a per capital basis.
C. Overall effectiveness is easily calculated by considering the number of buyers and the cost of advertising
D. Think of how much of our brand the average individual is buying now
2) A. Past research has uncovered the fact that cognitive age is inversely related to life satisfaction among the elderly
B. A person may feel young or old irrespective of chronological age.
C. That is, the ’younger1 an elderly person feels; the more likely she or he is to be satisfied with life in general.
D. Cognitive age is a psychological construct that refers to one’s subjective assessment of one’s age.
3) A. And that the pursuit of money by whatever design within the law is always benign.
B. And it holds broadly that the greater the amount of money, the greater the intelligence.
C. This is the institutional truth of Wall Street, this you will be required to believe.
D. Institutional truth of the financial world holds that association with money implies intelligence.
4) A. By intelligence we mean a style of life, a way of behaving in various situations, and particularly in new, strange and perplexing situations.
B. When we talk about intelligence, we do not mean the ability to get a good score on a certain kind of test, or even the ability to do well at school.
C. The true test of intelligence is not how to do, but how we behave when we don’t know what to do.
D. These are at best only indicators of something large, deeper and far more important
5) A. The age. of pragmatism is here, whether we like it or not.
B. The staple rhetoric that was for so long dished out also belongs to the bipolar world of yesterday.
C. The old equations, based on the cold war and on non-alignment no longer hold good.
D. But contrary to much of what is being said and written, it is a multipolar world that appears to be emerging out of recent events.
6) A. Trade protocols were signed, the dollar as the medium of exchange was ignored, trade was denominated in rupees and the exchange rate between the two countries was to be fixed outside the ambit of free markets.
B. A young India, some years after independence, fashioning her foreign policy of nonalignment, found it prudent to stay close to the former Soviet Union .
C. Once upon a time there was a superpower named Soviet Union that attracted nations apprehensive of the global aspirations of the other superpower, the USA.
D. One way of doing this was to evolve a bilateral relations in trade that could be called upon to provide a buffer against the arm twisting by the USA.
7) A. This is probably one of the reasons why the number of women and men remain roughly equal in most societies.
B. Fortunately or unfortunately, individual couples cannot really be concerned about this overall ‘error’.
C. Population growth then can be considered the error of this central process.
D. Purely at the human level, it appears that most couples like to have at least one living daughter and one living son when they are in their middle ages.
8) A. It is turning off the tap.
B. And with no consensus of the exit policy, the government is damned if it supports loss-making units and damned if it doesn’t.
C. The private sector did the same in the past because securing legal sanction for closure was virtually impossible.
D. After years of funding the losses of public sector companies, the government is doing the unthinkable
9) A. Against this background, the current target of 12.8 percent does not seem that high a figure.
B. A better vantage point to evaluate the 12.8 percent target for export growth is our performance in the ‘golden years’ between 1986-87 and 1990-91, during which time exports in dollar terms increased by 17.1 percent.
C. In fact, the rate of growth would have to increase still further if we are to achieve the eighth plan-target of export growth in value terms of 13.6 percent per annum.
D. Even in 1990-91 the year of the Gulf War, exports went up by 9 percent.
10) A. It was never denied and seemed to be integrated into the city life.
B. The poverty was there right in the open in all the streets.
C. But, somehow it did not depress me as much as I had feared.
D. Indian society is associated with great poverty, and indeed I saw a lot of poverty in Bombay.
11) A. I had heard that sort of thing before.
B. He said that his generation was the first to believe that it had no future.
C. A young American made earthling stopped by my house the other day to talk about some book of mine he had read.
D. He was the son of a Boston man who had died an alcoholic vagrant.
12) A. This has been going on now for nearly 200 years.
B. They haven’t even been noticed much by central, state, or local governments, no matter how insolent or blasphemous or treasonous those writers may be.
C. But writers of novels, plays, short stories or poems have never been hurt or hampered much.
D. Journalists and teachers are often bullied or fired in my country for saying this or that.
13) A. Their growing costs and a growing economy must be reckoned with realistically.
B. Central programs persist and in some cases grow.
C. As demand expands, programs expand.
D. It is extremely difficult to curtail them.
14) A. Realists believe that there is an objective reality “out there” independent of ourselves.
B. This reality exists solely by virtue of how the world is, and it is in principle discoverable by application of the methods of science.
C. They believe in the possibility of determining whether or not a theory is indeed really true or false.
D. I think it is fair to say that this is the position to which most working scientists subscribe.
15) A. There is a strong manufacturing base for a variety of products.
B. India has come a long way on the technology front.
C. But the technology adopted has been largely of foreign origin.
D. There are, however areas such as atomic energy, space, agriculture, and defense where significant strides have been made in evolving relevant technologies within the country.
16) A. In emission trading, the government fixes the total amount of pollution that is acceptable to maintain a desired level of air quality.
B. Economists argue this approach makes air pollution control more cost-effective than the current practice of fixing air pollution standards and expecting all companies to pollute below these standards.
C. USA uses emission trading to control air pollution.
D. It then distributes emission permits to all companies in the region, which add up to the overall acceptable level of emission.
17) A. The individual companies vary in size, from the comer grocery to the industrial giant.
B. Policies and management methods within firms range from formal, well-planned organization and controls to slipshod day-to-day operations.
C. Various industries offer a wide array of products or services through millions of firms largely independent of each other.
D. Variation in the form of ownership contributes to diversity in capital investment, volume of business, and financial structure.
18) A. All levels of demand, whether individual, aggregate, local, national, or international, are subject to change.
B. At the same time, science and technology add new dimensions to products, their uses, and the methods used to market them.
C. Aggregate demand fluctuates with changes in the level of business activity, GNP and national income.
D. The demand of individuals tends to vary with changing needs and rising income.
19) A. Secret persons shall strike with weapons, fire or poison.
B. Clans mutually supporting each other, shall be made to strike at the weak points.
C. He shall destroy their caravans, herds, forests and troop reinforcements.
D. The conqueror shall cause enemy kingdom to be destroyed by neighboring kings, jungle tribes, pretenders or unjustly treated princes.
1) From the given sentences we can say sentence-C and B can not be the starting sentences. Sentence-E speaks about some result or effect or consequence, so can not be the starting sentence. Hence, sentence-A is the starting sentence. Sentence-C follows sentence-B as they deal about calculating effectiveness. And sentences-D and A tell about what to do after calculating the overall effectiveness. Hence, the correct sequence is BCDA.
2) Sentence-D has a definition of cognitive age. Hence, it is the first sentence of the paragraph. Sentence-A follows sentence-D as it gives more information about cognitive age. Here we can ignore sentence-C as the starting sentence because it is not there in the given options. Likewise sentence-C has concluding sense because it gives an ending note of the talk. Similarly sentence-A follows sentence-C as a linking thread.
3) Sentence-A, B starts with conned mg words ‘and’. So they can not be the starting sentences. Sentence-C starts with demonstrative pronoun. So, it can not be the first sentence. Hence, sentence-D can be the starting sentence. Sentence-C follows D. Only one choice that satisfies this order is option-d, DCAB.
4) B is a starting sentence because it begins with an important matter about ‘intelligence’ leading by an initiative conjunction when ‘. Similarly C concludes the matter because it leaves a thought to the reader, where as D and A have link between them. So, the correct order of the sentences is BDAC.
5) Obviously ‘A’ initiates the paragraph because the passage is about ’pragmatism’. D follows C because without stating any matter we cannot use ’but contrary’ in one sentence which has a linking sense of another sentence. Hence, option-b is correct choice.
6) Sentence-C is well qualified to be the starting sentence with the phrase ’once upon a time’. The demonstrative pronoun ’this’ in sentence-D realtes to the ’fashioning of foreign policy of non-aligment’. So, sentence-D follows sentence-B. Sentence-A is the continuation for sentence-D. So, the correct order of sentences is CBDA.
7) The word ’this’ in sentence-A and B, ‘then can be’ in sentence-C says they are not well qualified for starting the passage. So, sentence- D is the first sentence. Sentence -D says ‘one daughter and one son’, which has a logical connection to sentence-A. Observe the phrase ’this overall error’ in sentence-B. It means already something has stated about the error’, which is there in sentence-C So,the correct order of the sentences is DACB
8) Here we can undoubtedly take D as a starting sentence. Because from the words, ’it’ in sentence – A, ’and’ in sentence – B, and ’did the same’ in sentence-C, we can understand something has already started before these sentences. Similarly concluding meaning of the topic ends at B. Likewise ’A’ comes after ‘D because here the subject ’if refers to ‘the government’ which is there in ‘D’. Hence, the correct order is DACB.
9) Here, ‘B’ is the starting sentence. D logically relates to ‘B’ by the figure T990-91′. ‘C has a concluding nature from the word ‘infact’. So, the correct order of the sentences is BDAC.
10) Sentence-A gives the complete theme or the paragraph. The phrase ‘city life’ in sentence-A points to ’Bombay’ w sentence-D. Sentence-D is an example, elaboration and continuation for sentence-A. The pronoun ‘it’ in sentence-C points to the word ‘the provcrty’ in sentence-B. So, the correct order is ADBC.
11) Sentenee-c starts the paragraph the pronoun ‘he’ in sentence -D refers to ’a young American’ in sentence-C sentence-D comes before sentence-B. Because D’ has introductory information about the person. Hence, the correct order of the sentences is CDBA.
12) From the given sentences, we can easily say sentence-D starts the paragraph. Sometimes the given options also helps arranging in the proper order from option-a and d, we can say ‘C is die second sentence. The pronoun ’they’ in sentence-B refers to ‘writers’ in ‘C. Hence, the correct order of the sentences is DCBA.
13) B is the key of this paragraph as it has the leading subject ’central programs’, the whole topic is based only on this . C follows B with the linking conjunction ’as’. D comes after C because it has an introductory subject ’it’ that refers to those previous sentences B, C. Hence the correct order is BCDA.
14) The whole talk is all about the discussion of the Realists regarding objective reality so it has an j initiative nature. B has a direct following nature of A because it tells about the existing nature of the reality that has a link with A. C follows B with subjective pronoun ‘they’. D remains last.
15) Here sentence-B initiates the paragraph because it starts the topic by the directive subject ‘India’. Then A prolongs the matter in a descriptive way expressing ’strong manufacturing base’. C points out the main figure so definitely comes after A. The word ‘however’ in D has a conclusing nature.
16) Observe the words ‘in emission trading’ in ‘A’, ‘this approach’ in ‘B’ and ‘it then’ in ‘C. They are not qualified to be the starting sentence. Hence, C is the initiative sentence. There is only one option that starts with’C’.
17) In C we find the prime matter of a topic. From the phrase ’various industries’, which is an important matter of this paragraph. So C is a starting sentence. A supports C categorizing the meaning. B has concluding meaning therefore B comes after D.
18) Sentence-A gives an introduction about all kinds of demands. Hence initiates the paragraph. ‘D’ links to ‘A’ as it states the detials about ‘the demand of individual’. ‘B’ has an apparent conclusive meaning to finish the topic with a phrase ‘at the same time’.
19) Here ’D’ starts the topic about ‘the conqueror’ so it initiates the paragraph. ‘C’ links with ‘D’ because of its subjective pronoun, ‘he’. ‘B’ is an explanation of ‘C’, so comes after ‘C’. ‘A’ concludes the topic with results like ‘secret person shall strike with weapons’.
The sentences given in each of these questions, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of the sentences from among the given options to construct a coherent paragraph.
1) A. As philosopher of science Karl popper has emphasized, a good theory is characterized by the fact that it makes a number of predictions that could be falsified by observation.
B. In practice what often happens is that a new theory is devised that is really an extension of the previous theory
C. Any physical theory is always provisional in the sense that is only a hypothesis.
D. Each time new experiments are observed to agree with the predictions the theory summarizes.
E. But if ever a new observation is found to disagree, we have to abandon or modify the theory.
2) A. Channel or transmission media are the fundamental requirements for communication.
B. Spectrum is premiums in the sense that it is limited or governed by the government laws.
C. The choice of the channel depends on the requirement specifics of the application.
D. There are different types of channels in use for different applications.
E. Today due to the use of various mobile devices, the trend is to go for wireless.
3) A. Essay titles and projects were posted on website and students completed thenj by hand or in word.
B. Each teacher had six weeks work from thirty children to correct.
C. In several countries in East Asia teachers delivered activities to their students over the internet.
D. The web was therefore a one delivery method – there was no facility for students to send work back to school.
E. So the final project in lower level classes was to make a folder for students to put all their work in to be delivered.
4) A. It all began with the information age when knowledge replaces physical assets such as machinery and property as the key determinant of an organization’s wealth.
B. The fact that it grew from nothing to do the world’s most dominant software company is testament to the shift towards the knowledge economy.
C. The war for talent has emerged as one of the biggest management issues of the day, so if you have the right quality you have the upper hand not the employed.
D. Look at Microsoft its continued success relies on the collective genius of its staff and nothing else.
E. Despite the demise of the dotcoms and recession in the USA and Europe, the war for talent is hotting up.
5) A. The advantage of brand loyalty is that it reduces the level of marketing you have to do to make you stand out from your peers.
B. Brand loyalty is all about how you are perceived by your peers, subordinates, bosses and clients.
C. Quite simply this is because they have a consistent experience in every dealing with you.
D. As with products, loyalty is a core dimension to your brand, as it determines whether people will come back to you for your input direction and advice.
E. Ultimately, trust depends on how well you achieve results, act with integrity and demonstrate concern.
6) A. This is very common in organizations where on function blames another, when a project, product or process fails.
B. As a result, we fail to learn from the experience or see the other functions or persons prospective.
C. The enemy is out there.
D. We become so embroiled in our narrowly focused roles that we fail to see the wider issue involved.
E. This is a by-product of “I am position” and is associated with blaming others when things go wrong,
7) A. It is the longer term multi-factor changes that reduce the shelf-life of the average employee, especially if they are not paying attention.
B. In general we are all pretty good at recognizing and responding to single issues and events.
C. What has also shifted is the nature of change itself.
D. But we tend to be poor at dealing with multiple factors simultaneously and understanding the implications of trends.
E. It has many more facets and is increasingly more complex and difficult to analyze.
8) A. Education’s main value does not lie in getting knowledge, much of which will be obsolete sooner or later.
B. The only real economic security lives within the person, in his competence and power to produce.
C. In fact in our rapidly changing world there is no ‘future’ no economic security in any job or situation.
D. There may open doors of opportunity but only real competence will keep them open.
E. It certainly doesn’t lie in credits earned or degrees conferred.
9) A. With the increasing use of technology within primary and secondary Industries, the requirements for low-skilled resources will continue to decline.
B. As we saw earlier, the number of people working in industries that require manual dexterity and brute force are already limited and continue to decline.
C. The shift from the industrial age to information age has transformed working life.
D. At the same time, the number of people who are employed in the knowledge industry will continue to rise.
E. It is unlikely that they will reduce to zero.
10) A. Understanding the difference between data, information and knowledge is essential as data can be consider the atoms of knowledge.
B. On their own they mean nothing, because we need to interpret and add meaning to them.
C. Information is more than the sum of the data because we will determine its importance bared upon our own views.
D. They are the bare facts that are see on balance sheets, in statistics, and in every day life.
E. The process of making sense of data allows us to convert it to information.
11) A. The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha may have been conceived by the founding fathers as houses of enlightened debate.
B. Recent empirical bindings lend support to common wisdom that there has been a steady erosion of public faith in politicians & political system.
C. Some would attribute the bedlam to the nature of India’s polity. But today the image of parliament that emerges from television is more to a boxing ring.
D. 76% of those who responded to a recent nation wide survey by outlook Magazine felt that politicians had given Indian democracy a bad name.
E. Strengthening such skepticism has been the sight of political leaders in form in the two houses of Parliament.
12) A. Downsizing has not helped either as many who survived the headcount Reductions found that their workload increased significantly.
B. longer working hours are the root of the problem for example, Americans Are working longer and harder than ever before – 25 millions now work more than 49 hours a week.
C. the increasing hours spent at the office is also reflected in the amount of work that is conducted outside of traditional working hours, mainly of home or on the commute home.
D. The same is true for the UK which has the longest working hours in Europe ,91 percent of British managers now work more than their contracted hours.
E. Another study of working couples showed that almost half of man and over a third of woman was working more hours than they wanted to.
13) A. Awareness of the importance of eye contact helps many people overcome the inhibition.
B. The ability to have good eye contact is essential for effective interpersonal communication in our society.
C. People who are uncomfortable with eye contact can develop the ability to communicate through the eyes.
D. Sometimes it cannot be used maximally because others are uncomfortable with it.
E. Often, however, it is one of the most effective of the listening skills.
14) A. Whether it be the manufacturing sector or the agriculture sector, the key is to ensuring results is an effective delivery system.
B. Commerciality and the principle of cannot and stick need to be inculcated in every government scheme and the bureaucracy must be held accountable for its actions.
C. it is here that quantum’ reforms need to take off.
D. While manufacturing sector can bank on the conceptual spirit of the private sector for most fact agriculture has to contend with Government delivery system.
E. This will prove to be one of the most difficult aspects of the reform journey over the next 15 years.
15) A. More recently, the rapid growth of the Internet has resulted in enthusiastic claims for technology’s ability to provide high-quality education for all.
B. In many cases the predictions for growth are accompanied by claims that technology will lead to revolutions in learning.
C. Over the last two decades there has been a steady roll out of new information technologies such as multimedia – capable computers.
D. This combination of factors has created a climate in which entrepreneurs have identified online learning as a major market area of the future.
E. Those revolutions are often attributed to the particular information and communication technology themselves.
| a) ACBED
16) A. Students may be required to work collaboratively in small groups and submit joint assignments.
B. At the simplest level, some courses, especially in curriculum areas where student access to IT is not high, offer optional online tutoring with a tutor.
C. Open University courses use networking to different degrees.
D. In addition, extra course resources are provided on a course web site.
E. Where access is high tutoring is offered online, and face-to-face tutorials are much reduced.
17) A. The Web’s learning environment creates a learners market.
B. In cases were learning and not degrees have the higher priority, learner can gain knowledge without going through the educational intermediary.
C. In today’s technology rich educational environment learning might take place not only at the institution via distance education program but also this learners own met resources.
D. In addition to their own university, alternative learning resources are becoming more available and more combative.
E. The same course might be offered online from several vendors.
18) A. Long term trends are not used to focus skill and knowledge need.
B. With the pace of work speeding up and our obsession with getting things done at an ever faster rate, we often fail to see the long-term changes.
C. But without strategies it can be very difficult to gauge the – result of action and learn from the experience.
D. Indeed we often dismiss them as irrelevant. This is causing organizations and individuals alike to dismiss the benefits of strategy & planning.
19) A. The breadth of lifelong learning is almost endless.
B. At the roof of lifelong learning is establishing some self-awareness about the process of learning so that we can develop our own learning style.
C. But the best starting place is understanding how we learn.
D. In this way it is possible to get for more out of the learning process and reduce the stress associated with lifelong learning.
E. Although as children we learn things naturally as we get older we have to develop and retain the skills of learning.
20) A. The professional qualities of the mentors varied enormously.
B. On the other hand, one experienced mentor consistently suggested alternative ways of doing things to his mentee during the feedback.
teach because being a native speaker mentee he could explain new words in Arabic.
D. One experienced mentors main concern was with how many paged the mentee would cover in one lesson.
E. His mentee reported receiving quite a lot of help with methodology from this mentor.
21) A. How should the non English speaking world react?
B. This is a worrying phenomenon.
C. The term ‘the globalization of English’ can be interpreted in at least three ways.
D. Not only does it threaten to wipe out local languages or cultures, but it also skews the socioeconomic order in favor of those who are proficient in English.
E. It can refer to the increasing intrusion of the English language into the lives of town and city dwellers all over the world.
22) A. Since teachers attitudes to course books. Are likely to have an impact on how they use them it seems vital to seek to understand what these altitudes are.
B. They will tend to dictate what is taught in what order and to some extent, now as well as what learners learn!
C. Course books are a central element in teaching
learning- encounters, not only in school settings but frequently also in tertiary level service English contexts. ‘
D. While one factor iij their effectiveness will be their inherent suitability for the context, another will be the attitude of teachers and learners.
E. This objective prompted the study of teachers attitude to course books reported in this paper.
23) A. Explicit knowledge: there are the things that you know.
B. In essence they are the forefront of your mind.
C. You can discuss them in detail and you are comfortable in their application.
D. There are probably the things you are known for in your work.
E. It is easy for you to write these down and explain them to other people.
1) The paragraph is about the practice of the scientists. The proper of initiation of the paragraph is in sentence- 13 (in practice what often happens). ‘C follows ‘B’ because it excels the following meaning. Similarly ‘A’ comes after ‘C’ as it gives a lot of explanation of the scientists. ‘D’ and ‘E’ have interlinked between them.
2) Both ‘A’ and ‘B’ are confusing with regard to the starting sentence. But ‘A’ starts the topic of the paragraph. ‘D’ follows ’A’ since ‘D’ excels the meaning of ‘A’. ‘D’ starts the topic about ‘channel or transmission media’ and D excels its explanation of ‘different types of channels’. C’ tells about the depend of channel choice so comes after ‘D’. ‘E’ molds the present topic in a second variation including subordinate clause ‘today due to the use of various mobile devices’.
3) Here the topic starts about the delivery activities of teachers in East Asia, so it is categorized only in ‘R’. ‘P’ accentuates ‘R’ with its pleasant explanation about the activities of teachers. ‘P’ and ‘S’ have interlinked regarding sequence. T’ finally ends the topic with reference to a conclusive statement.
4) Here sentence initiation goes to ‘C’. ‘E’ explains the meaning of ‘C’. Hence ‘E’ comes after C’. ‘A’ supports ‘E’ because ‘A’ explains about the ‘information age’ which is related to how talent has emerged. ’D’ and ‘B’ have interlinked with a conclusive meaning. Therefore the correct sequence is CEADB.
5) ‘B’ starts a thematic concern about ‘brand loyalty’. ‘D’ supports ‘B’ by a linking phrase ‘as with products’. ‘C’ explains about why ‘loyalty’ is quite simple. So, ‘C’ comes after ‘D’. Undoubtedly ‘E’ has concluding theme with a linking word ‘ultimately’. Hence, the correct sequence is BDCAE.
6) The paragraph is about certain problems in organizations. ‘C’ categorically leads the theme. ‘E’ explains about what is ‘enemy’ referred to in ‘C. So, ‘E’ follows ‘C’. ‘A’ explains about the nature and place of occurrence. So, ‘A’ comes after ‘E’. ‘B’ has concluding nature from the phrase ‘as a result’.
7) B’ starts the paragraph as it tells about the quality of the people. ‘D’ accentuates the regular point of ‘B’ about the dealing and multiple factors. Hence ‘D’ comes after ‘B’. ‘A’ supports ‘D’ by giving special power of the present topic. ‘C’ and ‘E’ are linked to eachother by showing different facets. Therefore, we have the sequence BDACE.
8) A is a starting sentence. E is correctly supporting A so E comes after A. D has only the right sense to come after E because the whole topic is about ‘the education and its value’. D rightly shows the link with E stressing about ‘open door of opportunity’. There is only one option where we can find this sequence.
9) The topic accentuates the theme of shifting the industrial age to information age. So, C has righteously the initiative. B explains about C with some examples so comes after C. E tells about how it can come to zero A is showing example. So A comes after E. Obviously D is a concluding sentence because of its conclusive phrase at the same time’.
10) The topic is about the understanding of data. So, A starts the passage. D tells about the problems of understanding the data so D comes after A. B is the continuation for D. E has a solution of this talk because E shows one idea how to make sense of the data. So, E comes after B. C concludes whole talk.
11) The main theme of the topic is about the negative side of politicians and political system. B starts the paragraph because it has the supporting statement for the argument about politicians and political system. E is strengthening the point which is brought by B so E follows B. A follows E because E is finishing with the two house of parliament which A has described. C should be the next statement becaq.se it is trying to bring some examples for the main theme. Clearly D is concluding the paragraph with the evidence from the survey.
12) If we observe carefully, the main topic in the discussion is on ‘longer working hours’. B starts the paragraph because it is initiating the problem. D is another example for the problem in the B so D follows
B. E is bringing a new study on the same ‘problem explained in B so E should be next. Here is the interesting twist A brings the solution of the problem and continues explaining how the problem has stilLnot reduced but increased significantly, now C should follow A because C continues in explaining about the increased problem.
13) The topic is all about effective interpersonal communication and the essentials of good eye contact so B can only start the paragraph. Out of three options (2,3,4) B is given as initiator therefore it is to be concerned about finding the right choice so we should get the link sequence. Only D is fit to come after B because D has a supportive pronoun ‘it’ that is the theme of B. E comes after D because E shows the connection with D referring ‘often, however’. E again states about the effectiveness of interpersonal communication with reference to listening skills by ‘it’ a supportive pronoun. C excels the development of the previous talk. A anyway concludes the theme.
14) A has a key role to start the topic as it is depicted in the meaning of ‘ensuring results in an effective delivery system’. Then D excels the meaning with ‘conceptual spirit of the private sector’. C explains about ‘quantum’ reforms needed to take off with a supportive pronoun ‘it’ that refers to D. E has conclusive manner of the topic proving the most difficult aspects of the reform journey.
15) C starts the topic about ‘roll out of new information technology’ and A supports C by telling rapid growth of the internet and its consequence. D combines the two factors. B points out the predictions revealed in A and D. E concludes the theme of the paragraph expressing the view of the revolution that can be often attributed.
16) Here C starts the theme of the topic expressing about ‘open university7 courses and its networking systems’ and B supports A telling the simplest level of networking systems. E comes after B because E tells about what is to be reduced to access high tutoring. A obviously supports E because it is a result of E.
17) In this paragraph we should not be confused to find the starting sentence though our confusion may go between A and C. Our right choice must be C because it depicts on the technology of rich educational environment learning and that is presented in a starting format. Then A comes to excel the topic. D is an addition to this talk. E explains the same sequence.
18) B has the starting nature of the present topic because it spells out the work of speeding up which is the prime factor of the paragraph. D supports B in a linking word ‘indeed’. E reacts about the cause so this is a sequence BDE. C points out another strategy with a link of A.
19) Here A has starting nature of die paragraph as it tells about the theme regarding ‘the breadth of lifelong learning’. Out of three options (a, c, d) the right choice goes to 3 as it has the proper sequence of the remaining sentences too. C and E are direct linking sentences of A as they excel the thematic concern of A. D obviously concludes the theme of the paragraph.
20) Here A starts the topic as it says about the theme of the paragraph ‘the professional qualities’. D supports A with an explanation about ‘One experienced mentor’s main concern’ so D comes after A. C has a supportive pronoun ‘he’ so comes after D with relevant meaning. B excels the meaning in another point of view one experienced mentor consistently suggested alternative ways’ with a relevant phrase ‘On the other hand’.
21) The term the globalization of English’ is the key of the paragraph so C is the starting sentence. E comes after C with a supportive pronoun ’it’ that directly shows the relevant meaning of C. B is the result of C and E so B comes after E. A is concluding question to the reader.
22) C starts the theme as it says about ’course book’ the related matter of the paragraph. B comes after C with supportive pronoun ‘they’ directly referring to C. D points out the fact of ‘ their effectiveness will be their inherent suitability for the context’ so comes after B. A tells about ’teachers attitudes to course books’
So comes after D.
23) A starts the paragraph with the theme ’explicit knowledge’. C points the fact in supportive pronouns ’they’ and ’them’ so comes after A. E eases the fact in a direct link to C. B states die essence of the theme.
A set of six sentences is given, in which the first and the sixth sentences are fixed at their respective positions. The four sentences that falls between the first and the sixth sentences are presented in a jumbled form. You are asked to choose the logical order of sentences from the choices.
1) 1. The main source of power in industrial undertakings is electricity.
A. Electricity from water also requires enormous river valley projects involving huge expenditure.
B. In contrast, electricity from atomic power stations will result in a tremendous saving in expenditure.
C. Besides, the mineral resources of the world required for generation of electricity are being rapidly depleted.
D. But the production of electricity needs huge quantities of coal.
6. The installation of atomic plants will help in meeting the shortage of these resources.
2) 1. It will be foolish to deny that the countryside has many attractions to offer.
A. One soon gets tired of the same old scenes and creatures day in and day out.
B. But there is another side of the picture.
C. The honesty and frankness of the country-folk, too, is a refreshing change from the dishonesty and selfishness we find in so many urban people.
D There is the lovely scenery, the interesting and varied wildlife, the long rambles through the woods and fields and the clean, healthy air.
6. The loneliness and monotony in the countryside soon begin to make themselves felt and we long for the familiar sidewalks and street comers of the town
3) 1. Human experience tends to show that the more we mix with a man, the more we come to dislike him.
A. When the acquaintance with him ripens into intimacy, we are likely to become very keenly aware of his defects and imperfections.
B. In the beginning, we may feel greatly attracted by someone because of certain qualities that we find in him.
C. But on closer acquaintance we will begin to perceive his faults and shortcomings.
D. The truth is that nobody is free from faults and weaknesses. .
6. But while a man makes a show of his strong points and his good qualities, he generally tries to conceal or cover his faults and defects
4) 1. A welfare state in the attainment of its objective must avoid coercion and violence.
A. But communism attains its ends through compulsion, coercion and even bloodshed.
B. Communism implies the loss of freedom of expression and action and introduces a regimentation of life.
C. These are all serious disadvantages which perhaps outweigh the economic gains.
D. Communism aims at the welfare state and perhaps the completest form of the welfare state in most respects
6. A true welfare state can develop only by following the path of peace and democracy.
5) 1. The general enemy of mankind, as people have discovered, is not science, but war.
A. It is found that when there is peace, science is constructive; when there is war science is perverted to destructive ends.
B. Science merely reflects the social forces by which it is surrounded.
C. Until now, they have brought us to the doorstep of doom.
D. The weapons which science gives us do not necessarily create war; these make war increasingly more terrible.
6. Our main problem, therefore, is not to curb science, but to stop war, to substitute law for force and international governments for anarchy in the relations between nations.
6) 1. What does the state do in a country where tax morality is very low?
A. It tries to spy upon the tax-payers.
B. It investigates income sources and spending patterns.
C. Exactly what the tax authority tries to do now even if inconsistently.
D. It could also encourage people to denounce to the tax authorities any conspicuously prosperous neighbors who may be suspected of not paying their taxes properly.
6. The ultimate solution would be an Orwellian System
7) 1. The fragile Yugoslav State has uncertain future.
A. Thus, there will surely be chaos and uncertainly if the people fail to settle their differences.
B. Sharp ideological differences already exist in the country.
C. Ethnic, regional, linguistic and material disparities are profound.
D. The country will also lose the excellent reputation it enjoyed in the international arena.
6. At worst, it will once more become vulnerable to international conspiracy and intrigue.
8) 1. India’s experience of industrialization is characteristic of the difficulties faced by a newly independent developing country.
A. In 1947, India was undoubtedly an under-developed country with one of the lowest per capital incomes in the world.
B. Indian industrialization was the result of a conscious deliberate policy of growth by an indigenous political elite.
C. Today India ranks fourth in the international comity of nations if measured in terms of purchasing power.
D. Even today however, the benefits of Indian industrialization since independence have not reached the masses.
6. In India has been a limited success; one more example of growth without development
9) 1. The New Economic Policy comprises the various policy measures and changes introduced since July 1991.
A. There is a common thread running through all these measures.
B. The objective is simple – to improve the efficiency of the system.
C. The regulator mechanisms involving multitude of controls has fragmented the capacity and reduced competition even in the private sector.
D. The thrust of the new policy is towards creating a more competitive environment as a means to improving the productivity and efficiency of the economy.
6. This is to be achieved by removing the barriers and restriction on the entry and growth of firms
10) 1. It is significant that one of the most common objections to competition is that it is blind.
A. This is important because in a system of free enterprise based on private property chances are not equal and there is indeed a strong case for reducing that inequality of opportunity.
B. Rather it is a choice between a system where it is the will or a few persons that decides who is to get what and one where it depends at least partly, on the ability and the enterprise of the people concerned.
C. Although competition and justice may have little else in common, it is as much a commendation of competition as of justice that it is no respecter of persons.
D. The choice today is not between a system in which everybody will get what he deserves according to some universal standard and one where individual shares are determined by chance or goodwill.
6. The fact that opportunities open to the poor in a competitive society are much more restricted than those open to the rich, does not make it less true that in such a society the poor are more free than a person commanding much greater material comfort in a different type of society.
11) 1. The necessity for regional integration in South ; Asia is underlined by the very history of the last 45
years since the liquidation of the British Empire in this part of the world.
A. After the partition of the Indian Subcontinent, Pakistan was formed in that very area which the imperial powers had always marked out as the potential base for operations against the Russian power in Central Asia.
B. Because of the disunity and ill-will among the South Asian neighbors, particular India and Pakistan, the great powers from outside the area could meddle into their affairs and thereby keep neighbors apart.
C. It needs to be added that it was the bountiful supply of sophisticated arms that emboldened Pakistan to go for warlike, bellicosity towards India .
D. As apart of the cold war strategy of the US, Pakistan was suckecd into Washington’s military alliance spreading over the years.
6. Internally too, it was the massive induction of American arms into Pakistan which empowered the military junta of that country to stuff out the civilian government and destroy democracy in Pakistan,
12) 1. Commercial energy consumption shows an increasing trend and poses a major challenge for the future.
A. The demand, for petroleum, during 1996-97 and 2006-07 is anticipated to be 81 million tonnes and 125 million tonnes respectively.
B. According to the projections of the 14th Power Survey Committee Report, the electricity generation requirements from utilities will be about 415 billion units by 1996-97 and 824 billion units by 2006-07.
C. The production of coal should reach 303 million tonnes by 1996-97 to achieve Plan targets and 460 million tonnes by 2006-07.
D. The demand for petroleum products has already outstripped indigenous production.
6. Electricity is going to play a major role in the development of infrastructural facilities
13) 1. The success of any unit in a competitive environment depends on prudent management sources.
A. In this context it would have been more appropriate if the concept of accelerated depreciation, together with additional incentives towards capital allowances for recouping a portion of the cost of replacements out of the current generations, had been accepted.
B. Added to this are the negligible retention of profits because of inadequate capital allowances and artificial dis allowances of genuine outflows.
C. One significant cause for poor generation of surpluses is the high cost of capital & its servicing cost.
D. The lack of a mechanism in Indian tax laws for quick recovery of capital costs has not received its due attention.
6. While this may apparently look costly from the point of view of the exchequer, the ultimate cost to the government and the community in the form of losses suffered through poor viability will be prohibitive
14) 1. Count Rumford is perhaps best known for his observations on the nature of heat.
A. He undertook several experiments in order to test the theories of the origin of Frictional heat.
B. According to the calorists, the heat was produced by the “caloric” squeezed out of the chips in the process of separating them from the larger pieces of metal.
C. Lavoisier had introduced the term “caloric” for the weightless substance heat, and had Included it among
the chemical elements, along with carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.
D. In the munitions factory in Munich, Rumford noticed that a considerable degree of heat developed in a brass gun while it was being bored.
6. Rumford could not believe that the amount of heat generated could have come from the small amount of dust created.
15) 1. The death of cinema has been predicted annually.
A. It hasn’t happened.
B. It was said that the television would kill it off – and indeed audiences plummeted, reaching a low in 1984.
C. Film has enjoyed a renaissance, and audiences are now roughly double of what they were a decade ago.
D. Then the home computer became the projected nemesis, followed by satellite television
6. Why? Probably because, even in the most atomized of societies, we human beings feel the need to share out fantasies and our excitement
16) 1. The idea of sea-floor spreading preceded the theory of plate tectonics.
A. The hypothesis was soon substantiated by the discovery that periodic reversals of the earth’s magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust.
B. In its original version, it described the creation and destruction-of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithosphere plates
C. An explanation of this process devised by F.J. Vine and D. H. Matthews of Princeton is now generally accepted.
D. The sea-floor spreading hypothesis was formulated chiefly by Harry H. Hess of Princeton University in the early 1960s’s
6. As magma rises under the mid-ocean ridge, ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field
17) 1. Visual recognition involves storing and retrieving of memories.
A. Psychologists of the Gestalt school maintain that objects are recognized as a whole in a parallel procedure
B. Neural activity, triggered by the eye, forms an image in the brain’s memory system that constitutes an internal representation of the viewed object.
C. Controversy surrounds the question of whether recognition is a single one-step procedure or a serial step-by-step one.
D. When an object is encountered again, it is matched with its internal recognition and thereby recognized.
6. The internal representation is matched with the retinal image in a single operation.
18. 1. The history of mammals dates back at least to Triassic time.
A. Miocene and Pliocene time was marked by culmination of several groups and continued approach towards modem characters.
B. Development was retarded, however, until the sudden acceleration of evolutional change that occurred in the oldest Paleocene.
C. In the Oligocene Epoch, there was further improve- -ment, with appearance of some new lines and extinction of theories.
D. This led in Eocene time to increase in average size, larger mental capacity, and special adaptations for different modes of life.
6. The peak of the career of mammals in variety and average large size was attained in this epoch
1) D is obviously a direct follower of the sentence 1 because D supports 1; it is a coherent link between them. Similarly B follows A because A has a statement that is explained in B. C remains as last option.
2) Here D has a vital meaning to become the follower of 1. Similarly C has the direct sense to be linked with D.B segregates the total meaning into another part where as A supports B. Again A makes a link with 6. Ignoring A to come between B and 6 the meaning of the conclusion part will be dismissed.
3) Here B follows 1 with its linking phrase ‘in the beginning’. C cuts the meaning into a secondary step hence it follows B. A restarts the topic in linking manner with C. Automatically D remains showing the link with 6. Moreover there is only one option that starts with B.
4) Here sentence 1 shows a direct link to D because the thematic concern is related between them. B again initiates the second part of the meaning in a coherent link with A. Similarly C has an apparent link with 6. Moreover there are two options start with D but C cannot be a follower of D because it directly explains another matter which is no way related to D.
5) Here thematic link depicts on B. A follows B because the one talk of ’science1 is encircled within these three sequence. Later D starts second talk with C that is a creative link to 6.
6) For the constructive method of the paragraph, as it is started by a question. Hence the answer is to be found out regarding answering mode of the sentence. B initiates a direct mode of answering with its directive subject ‘it investigates income sources’. Likewise A illustrates the meaning of B in a supportive phrase ‘tax¬payers’. C follows the continuity of the meaning initiating an adverb ‘ Exactly’ in the beginning.
7) Information in B is a vital part to be understood about the link with 1. ‘Sharp ideological differences’ has the reflective norm with ‘the fragile yugoslav state’. Similarly A creates a supportive link after B and C with the word ‘thus’.
8) The sequence of meaning is also important to find the link between sentences; it depicts sometimes framing of words in order to circulate the meaning in a systematic way. Here words of B ‘Indian industrialization’ & words of 1 ‘Indian experience of industrialization’ are having sequential meaning hence it is a link. Likewise A comes after B scattering a normal phrase with it’ in 1947′.
9) A should be initiator because of its composing meaning with 1. B supports A expressing ‘the objective is simple’. D has concluding nature to be linked with 6; ‘the thrust of new policy’ quoted in D is explained in 6 by ‘ this is to be achieved’.
10) Explanatory meaning of 1 is depicted in a straightforward way at C about the significance of the common objections ’ although competition and justice may have little else in common’. Similarly D explains the remaining thought of the meaning of C expressing ‘the choice’. B comes after D rendering another thought of choices.
11) Out of all three options BCD no one has linking quality with 1. A is rightly fit after 1 because the phrase ‘after the partition of the Indian subcontinent’ shows the link with 1 about the regional integration in South Asia and the liquidation of the British Empire. B explains the extension of the meaning about India, Pakistan. D holds the content of the total talk hence comes after B.
12) Here the first link is between ‘the demand for petroleum product’ of D with ‘commercial energy consumption’ of 1. Similarly A holds the continuity ‘the demand, for petroleum’ in same manner. C is a direct explanation of D & A. Even in the given answers there is only one option that starts with this sequence DAC
13) The whole matter of talk persuades the meaning of ‘the success of any unit in a competitive environment’ and there is a co-relative sentence that signifies ’cause for poor generation of surpluses’ it’s C and its added meaning covers at B. Again D excels ‘the lack of a mechanism in Indian tax Laws’ that directly relates to B
14) The present sentence 1 is based on ‘Count Rumford’ depicting link at A as ‘He’ initiates subjective pronoun. However second initiation of the topic starts at C expressing another personality and his work ‘Lavoisier’. So C comes after A. Again an apparent explanation of the starting sentence about ‘Rumford’ is clearly visible at D.
Similarly B maintains the remaining sequence.
15) A has a direct link with 1 because 1 expresses that the death of cinema and A states that never happened. Similarly B comes after A because B accentuates a meaning regarding the killing of cinema by the television. Then D supports B because D tells about home computer as its projecting nemesis.
16) In sentence rearrangement we need to arrange the sentences in a meaningful and a sequential order, only then the standard of language will be focused. Here if we take D first in our sequential sentence order then it can create an appreciable order of meaning undoubtedly. Sentence 1 is telling about ‘the idea of a sea-floor spreading’ and ‘the theory of plate tectonics’ that is directly relating with D, where D is telling the formulation of the sea-floor spreading hypothesis’.
Similarly C is supporting D with an explanation of the same process. B keeps the topic one step ahead with a subordinate clause ‘In its original version’.
17) Starting sentence-1 explains about ‘visual recognition’ and the circumstances of involvement and it has a direct link with C, because C points out the controversy surrounding the question of ‘visual recognition’ the prime matter of the sentence 1. Then A is supporting C because it is explaining about the step of the Psychologists regarding the said matter. Moreover 6 encompasses D to its circle because of its linking meaning ‘internal recognition’. Therefore we have the sequence CABD.
18) B explains about 1 because 1 is about the history of mammals and B explains it’s evolutional changes. D spells out the sequential explanation after B about ‘average size’, ‘larger mental capacity’. C excels the topic into a progressive way So C comes after D. Similarly A follows C.