Shortcuts in Reasoning for Competitive Exams – Analogy & Classification
The meaning of analogy is ‘similar properties’ or similarity. If an object or word or digit or activity shows any similarity with another object or word or digit or activity in terms of properties, type, shape, size, trait etc., then the particular similarity will be called analogy. The relationship of analogy can be established in two ways :
In word analogy, candidates have to find the relationship between given words in a pair.
1. Tool & Object Based Analogy
This establishes a relationship between a tool and the object in which it works.
Scissors : Cloth
2. Synonym Based Analogy
In such type of analogy two words have similar meaning.
Huge : Gigantic
3. Worker & Tool Based Analogy
This establishes a relationship between a particular tool and the person of that particular profession who uses that tool.
Writer : Pen
4. Worker & Product Based Analogy
This type of analogy gives a relationship between a person of particular profession and his/her creations.
Writer : Book
5. Causes & Effect Based Analogy
In such type of analogy 1st word acts and the 2nd word is the effect of that action.
Work : Tiredness
6. Opposite Relationship (Antonym) Based Analogy
In such type of analogy the two words of the question pair are opposite in meaning.
Poor : Rich
7. Gender Based Analogy
In such type of analogy, one word is masculine and another word is feminine of it or It is a ‘male and female’ or ‘sex’ relationship.
Man : Woman
8. Classification Based Analogy
This type of analogy is based on biological, physical, chemical or any other classification. In such problems the 1st word may be classified by the 2nd word and vice- versa.
Oxygen : Gas
9. Function Based Analogy
In such type of analogy. 2nd word describes the function of the O’ word.
Singer : Sings
10. Quantity and Unit Based Analogy
In such type of analogy 2nd word is the unit of the first word and vice- versa.
Distance : Mile
11. Finished Product & Raw Material Based Analogy
In such type of analogy the 1st word is the raw material and 2nd word is the end product of that raw material and vice-versa.
Yam : Fabric
12. Utility Based Analogy
In such type of analogy the 2nd word shows the purpose of the 1st word or vice-versa.
Pen : Writing
13. Symbolic Relationship Based Analogy
In such type of analogy, the 1st word is the symbol of the 2nd word and vice-versa.
White : Peace
14. Adult & Young One Based Analogy
In such type of analogy, the 1st word is the adult one and 2nd word is the young one of the 15: word or vice- versa.
Cow : Calf
15. Subject & Specialist Based Analogy
In such type of analogy the 2nd word is the specialist of 1st word (subject) or vice-versa.
Heart : Cardiologist
16. Habit Based Analogy
In this type of analogy 2nd word is the habit of 1st and vice-versa.
Cat : Omnivorous
17. Instrument and Measurement Based Analogy
We see in this type of analogy, the 1bi word is the instrument to measure the 2nd word and vice-versa:
Hygrometer : Humidity
18. Individual & Group Based Analogy
Second word is the group of 1st word (or vice-versa) in such type of analogy.
Cow : Herd
19. State & Capital Based Analogy
1st word is the state and 2nd word is the capital of that state (1st word) (or vice-versa) in the analogy like this.
Bihar : Patna
20. AnalogyBasedonlndividual & Dwelling Place
In such type of analogy 1st word is the individual & 2nd word is the dwelling place of that individual ( 1a word) and vice-versa.
Horse : Stable
21. Analogy Based on Worker andWorkingPlace
In this type of analogy the 1st word represents a person of particular profession and 2nd word represents the working place of that person (1st word) and vice-versa.
Doctor : Hospital
22. Analogy Based on Topic Study
1st word is the study of the 2nd word (or vice-versa) in the analogy like this.
Birds : Ornithology
In this, candidate has to find out the relationship between given letters or group of letters.
Analogy Based on Letters (or MeaninglessWords)
Case I : Forward alphabetical sequence
CD : FG : : PQ : UV
Here. CD and FG are in the natural alphabetical sequence. Similarly, PQ & UV are in the natural alphabetical sequence.
Case II: Backward or Opposite alphabetical sequence
DC : GF : : QP : VU In fact this case is opposite of case I
Case III: Vowel – Consonant relation
ATL : EVX : : IPR : ORS
Here, the 1 9 two words start with the 19 two vowels A & E and the next two words start with the next two vowels I & O. Last two letter of every word are consonants.
Case IV: Skip letter relation
ABC : FGH : : IJK : NOP Here, between ABC & FGH two letters skip and they are D & E. Similarly, between IJK & NOP two letters skip and they are L & M.
Case V : Jumbled Letter Relation
LAIN : NAIL :: EVOL : LOVE Here,the 1st term gets reversed to produce the 2nd term and similar relation is shown is between 3rd and 4th term.
1. While solving the problems based on alphabet, you must have in your mind the exact positions of every letters of alphabet in forward order as well as in backward or reverse order as given below:
Letters positions in forward alphabetical order:
Letters positions in backward or reverse alphabetical order:
2. Just keep in mind, the following positions ofthe letters in the English alphabet (forward order).
Analogy & Classification
In this, candidate has to find out the relationship the number or group of numbers.
- Even and Odd numbers
84:51:: 72:37 (Here, 84 & 72 are even and 51 & 37 are odd numbers respectively)
- Addition and subtraction of numbers.
(Here,2 + 3+4=9and 1+3 + 6= 10)
- Multiplication and Division of numbers
3 : 21 :: 5 : 35
(Here, 3 x 7 = 21 and5x 7 = 35)
- Squares & Cubes of numbers
4: 16: : 8 :64 (here, 4 power 2 = 16 and 8 power 8 = 64)
In this, candidate has to find out the relationship between the given group of letters and a number on one side.
AB: 12 :: CD:: 34
In classification we take out an element out of some given elements and the element to be taken out is different from the rest of the elements in terms of common properties, shapes, sizes, types, nature, colours, traits etc. In this way, the rest of the elements form a group and the element that has been taken out is not the member of that group as this single element does not possesses the common quality to be possessed by rest of the elements.
Types of Classification
- Letter/meaningless word based classification
- Meaningful word based classification
- Digit based classification
- General knowledge based classification
1. Letter/Meaningless Word Based Classification
Such classifications are based on letters of English alphabet. So many groups of letters are given in the question in which one group is different from remaining groups and hence the different group will be our answer.
2. Meaningful Words Based Classification
In such type of classification we have to take odd word out of the given group of meaningful words.
3. Digit Based Classification
In such type of classifications digits or numbers are given to find out one number that is not a part of the group of remaining numbers.
Solution. 199 is an odd number while all the other options are even numbers.
4. General Knowledge Based Classification
Such classification is done on the basis of our general knowledge. No doubts that this is a word based ¦ classification but without having general knowledge this type of questions can not be solved.
Solution. Octopus is the only animal out of given options which is a water animal. Rest of the options are land animals.
- Step I : See all the given options with a serious eye.
- Step II : Try to make relation of similarity among the given options.
- Step III : Find out the one word not having the common similarity like other. four options and that one word will be your answer.