Telangana History Recharla Velama/ Padmanayaka Dynasty
• Recharla Padmanayakas had come into political prominence during the Kakatiya era. Velamas were also there in the Nayaka leaders who protest¬. • ed against the despotic rule of Muslims and declared independence after the fall of Kakatiya kingdom.Recharla Padmanayakas are also called as Velama nayakas. They ruled the Telangana region in two branches with Rachakonda and Devarakonda as their capitals.
The founders of Padmanayaka dynasty were the Reddys of Recharla. Bhetala reddy, nephew of Recharla Nami reddy was the founding father of Padmanayaka dynasty. According to histori¬ans, his descendants later on followed Vaishnavism; went the reformist way; became velamas and later Recharla Padmanayakas. Recharla Padma nayakas were the most loyal subordinate rulers of Kakatiyas, who helped them until their fall. They ruled the Pillalamarri and Nagulapadu regions of Nalgonda district as grand subordinate rulers. Their native place was Amangallu of Miryalaguda taluq. i Padmanayakas, in fact were the offspring of the female children of Recharla Reddys. Before them, Amanagallu was the capital of Recharla Reddy and Kandur cholas. Founder of this dynasty, Bethala reddy was appointed as the ruler of Amanagallu by Kakatiya Ganapatideva.
Bethala Reddy/ Nayaka had 4 sons- Eldest two- Damanaidu and Prasaditya naidu were chiefs of army of Rudramadevi and were held in high place in the Kakatiya kingdom. Prasaditya nayaka, who helped Rudramadevi to became the ruler of Kakaityas, was given the titles of Kakatiya Sthapanacharya and Rayapita Mahanka. (when Rudramadevi ascended the throne, her rela¬tives on one side and Yadava kings on the other, who could not agree to the notion of a woman becoming the ruler, attacked Orugallu. Prasaditya nayaka defeated them and consolidated her rule.) According to Velugoti Vamsavali, the credit for establishing the ‘Nayankara system’ to protect the Kakatiya empire goes to Prasaditya nayaka. Vennama naya¬ka, son of Prasaditya nayaka was famous as the chief of army of Prataparudra. Later, his son Eradacha nayaka and Naladacha nayaka, son of sabbinayaka (another son of Prasaditya nayaka) also had worked as chiefs of Prataparudra’s armies.
During the Kakatiyas battles with Pandya and Hoyasala dynasties, Eradacha nayaka played a key role. Prataparudra, who was impressed by his valor, gave him two titles of ‘Pancha Pandyadala Vibhala’ and ‘Pandya Gajakesari’, Eradacha nayaka had’three sons- namely Singama nayaka-I, Vennama nayaka and Echama nayaka. (Naladacha nayaka had 2 sons- named- Madhava nayaka and Damaneedu. Of them, Singama nayaka had became famous.
Singama nayaka-I (1326-1361 AD.)
After Warangal was captured by Muslim rulers, Musunuri Nayakas revolted against them at around 1335 A.D. During that time, Kapaya nayaka Musunuri dynasty was helped by Singama nayaka. Later Singama nayaka had became independent and extended his kingdom towards the south upto the coast of river Krishna. He had to fight with Kapaya nayaka later while he was trying to expand his kingdom towards the North, but failed in that. He attacked the ‘Jallipalli fort’ during his expan¬sion programmes and was killed in battle by the Soma dynasty Kshatriyas. Singama nayaka had two sons- Anavotha nayaka and Mada nayaka. Singama nayaka was known as the founder of Velama dynasty. He ruled with Amanagallu as his capital
Anavotha nayaka, son of Singama nayaka came to rule after his father and changed his capital from Amanagallu to Rachakonda. He, alongwith his brother Mada nayaka, fought several battles with the Kondaveeti Reddy rulers and Vijayanagara rulers. He also killed the Musunuri ruler Kapaya nayaka in 1368. He conquered the Warangal, Panagallu and Bhuvanagiri forts and took the title of “Tribhuvana Rayarao’. Anavotha nayaka attacked the Jallipalli fort, killed Soma dynasty rulers and took the title of ‘Somakula parasura- ma’. He divided his kingdom into Northern and Southern regions for ease of administration; made Rachakonda the capital of North and ruled it him¬self; made Devarakonda as the capital of South and appointed his younger brother Mada nayaka as its ruler. From then onwards, descendants of Anavotha nayaka ruled from Rachakonda and descendants of Mada nayaka ruled from Devarakonda. According to the ‘Simhachala inscriptions’ issued by him, Anavotha nayaka also invaded the Kalinga kingdom in 1356 and 1358 A.D.
Singama nayaka-II (1384-1399 AM.)
Singama nayaka-II, son of Anavotha nayaka succeeded his father and ruled with Bellamkonda as his capital. He had two titles- ‘Kumara singama’ and ‘Sarvajna singa bhupala’. As he conquered the Kalyan fort, he also got the title of ‘Kalyana Bhupathi’. He be friended to the Bahmani Sultans and defeated the Vijayanagara rulers, with their help, when they attacked the Telangana region. ‘Vijayanagara inscription of 1384 reveals his victory over the Vijayanagara rulers. He captured the ‘Bendapudi’ fort dining his invasion of Kalinga kingdom. He had 3 titles-‘Andhra Mandaladheeswara’, ‘Pratidanda Bhairava’ and ‘Bhattu narayana’.
Patron of Literature
Singama nayaka-II was a poet himself and he patronised a number of poets in his court. Two of them were Visweswara and Bommakanti Appayamatya. Visweswara wrote the ‘Chamat kara Chandrika’ and Appayamatya wrote commentary on ‘Amarakosam‘, a grammar book.
Singama nayaka himself wrote 2 books-‘Rasvama Sudhakaram’, and ‘Sangitha Sudha karam’ and a drama called ‘Ratna panchalika’ with the pen name of Kuvalayavali. Famous poet Srinatha once visited his court. He had 6 sons, of whom Immadi Anavotha nayaka succeeded him.
He was also called as Kumara Anavothaneedu and Pinna Annama nayakudu. The book, Velugoti Vamsavali’ reveals his victories. According to this book, he fought battles with Kondaveeti and Rajamahendravaram Reddy rulers and Vijayanagara rulers along with the Bahmani sul¬tans. But his friendship with the Bahmani sultans did not last long. When Vijayanagara rulers cap-tured the Panagallu region in 1417, they fought with the then Bahmani sultan Feroz Shah. During this war, the Velama nayakas helped the Vijayanagara rulers and Anavota nayaka died in battle.
Madanayaka (1421-1430 A.D.)
After the death of Anavotha nayaka-II, his younger brother Madanayaka had become the ruler.
After the battle of Panagallu, the Velama nayakas ‘ maintained enmity with the Bahmani Sultans and helped the Vijayanagara rulers in every way they could. During the battle between Ahmed Shah (Bahmani sultan) and Devaraya-II in 1424, Madanayaka helped the latter. Because of this, though Ahmed Shah made peace with Devaraya after the battle was over, he sent his deputy, Azam Khan to capture Warangal (kingdom of Mada naya- ka). In this battle, Azam Khan captured not only Warangal,but also many forts in Rachakonda and Devarakonda kingdoms. But later, when Ahmed Shah was ini battles with Gujarati kingdoms, the Velamg rulers of Rachakonda and Devarakonda defeated Azam Khan and recaptured their forts.
Mada nayaka was great scholar and follower of Vaishnavism. He was a disciple of Venkatacharya, son of Ramanujacharya. Mada nayaka wrote a commentary of Ramayana with the name of ‘Raghaveeyam’ and dedicated it to Lord Rama. He also donated the village of Torrur’ to Lord ‘Sri Ranganatha Swamy’ with the name of ‘Srirangapuram Agraharam’. His wife Nagambika built a tank called ‘nagasamudra’ near Rachakonda.
Singama nayaka-III (1430-1475 A.D.)
Singama nayaka-III was the son of Anavotha nayaka-IP and was the last ruler of his dynasty. He had a title- ‘SarvagnaSingabhupala’, (his grand¬father Kumara Singajna nayaka also had the same title). He ruled for around 45 years. The decline of this kingdom started during his reign. He had two more titles- Mummadi Singama nayaka and Sarvajna rao Singama nayaka.
The Velama nayakas of Warangal and Recharla made an accord with the Bahmani sultans in 1433. Ahmed Shah occupied the fort of Rayagiri. The region of Rachakonda was captured by Bahmani Sultans between 1433-35. Velama nayakas recaptured the fort of Devarakonda with the help of Kapileswara Gajapati and continued to reclaim all other forts under the Muslims. According to the inscription of Hariveeradeva, of 1461, the Recharla rulers regained the Warangal fort also. Hariveeradeva, who issued the above inscription was the son of Kapileswara Gajapati. The army of Gajapatis who helped the Velama nayakas was under his control.
Dharmanayudu, brother of Singama nayaka-III was appointed as the ruler of Warangal. He issued the ‘Shayampet inscription’ inl462 A.D. Later, Warangal remained under the ruler of Recharla nayakas for two decades. During the reign of Sultan Nizam Shah, the muslim rulers again tried to capture forts in Rachakonda and Devarakonda kingdoms but the armies of Kapileswara Gajapati, sent to help the Recharla rulers prevented this. But the Velama nayakas had became subordinate kings to Kapileswara Gajapati. After Singama nayaka, the Recharla Velama kingdom declined and their descen¬dants took shelter in the court of Vijayanagara rulers.
Recharla Velama nayakas were .veryjigood patrons of literature and arts. They gave equal importance to Sanskrit and Telugu. Kumara Singama nayaka, who had a title of ‘Sarvajna Chudamani’ wrote a grammar book called ‘Rasamava Sudhakaram’; a commentary called ‘Sangeeta Sudhakaram’ on Sarangadeva’s Sangeeta Ratnakara and also a drama called ‘Ratna Panchalika’. Bommakanti Appayamatya, who wrote a commentary for ‘Amarakosa’ and Visweswara, who wrote the ‘Chamatkara Chandrika’ were the court poets of Velama nayakas. Srinatha visited the court of Sarvajna Singabhupala and Bammera Pothana lived in the Rachakonda kingdom during Singamanayaka’s-II reign. Pothana was famous for his ‘Maha Bhagavata’ narration.
★ The main source for the history of Recharla Padmanayakas:Velugoti vaari vamsavali
★ Another name for Recharla Padmanayakas: – Velama Nayakulu
★ The famous dynasty among the feudatory king¬doms of Kakatiyas: – Recharla dynasty
★ The capitals of Recharla Padmanayakas: – Rachakonda, Devarakonda and Amanagallu
★ The region where the political base of Recharla Padmanayakas started: – Pillalamarri, Amangallu
★ To know the history of Recharla Padmanayaka dynasty how many Inscriptions are available? – Nearly 30 Inscriptions
★ After Musunuri Nayaka dynasty who occupied Warangal? – Recharla Padmanayakas
★ According to Velugoti Vamsavali, who is the pri¬mogeniture of Recharla dynasty? – Betala Reddy
★ The famous velama nayakas during Kakatiya Ganapati Deva: – Dama nayakudu, Prasaditya nayakudu, Rudra nayakudu
★ The titles of Prasaditya Nayaka: – Kakatiya Sthapanacharya and Rayapitaa mahaanka
★ The famous military generals in the court of Prataparudra II: – Erra Dacha nayaka and Singama nayaka
★ The title of Dacha nayaka, which assumed Padma nayakas hereditary: – Pancha Pandya dala vibhala
★ The ruling period of Recharla Padmanayakas: – about 150 years
★ The sons of Era dacha nayaka: • Singama nayaka 1, Vennama nayaka, echama nayaka
★ Who became famous as a feudatory of Velama kingdom? – Singama Nayaka
★ In which movement Singama nayaka participat¬ed against the muslim rulers: – Release of Prolaya nayaka
★ The capital of Singama nayaka: – Amanagallu
★ With his heroism and valour Singama nayaka received the blessings of Prataparudra. After that with which name Singama nayaka became famous? – Asitivarala Singama nayaka
★ In his effort to extend the kingdom, Singama nayaka died in the hard, at Somavamsa kings. At that time, on which fort Singama nayaka laid an attack? – Jallipalli fort (Warangal)
★ The ruling period of Singama nayaka: –1326-1361 AD
★ The sons of Singama nayaka: – Anavota nayaka and Madanayaka
★ After Singama nayaka,who came to the power? – Anavota nayakas
★ The capital of Anavota nayaka: – Racha Konda
★ Anavota nayaka, joined hands with Madanayaka and waged war against Soma vamsa kings of Jallipalli fort and killed these kings. For that achievement he received a title. What is the name of that title? – Somakula Parasurama
★ Anavota nayaka killed Kapayanayaka in Bhimavaram war and occupied Orugallu. This event happened in which year? –1368 AD.
★ The title assumed by Anavota nayaka for killing of kapayanayaka: – Andhra desadheeswara
★ Anavota nayaka divided the kingdom into two parts and appointed his brother Madanayaka as a king to one port. What is the name of that port? – Devarakonda
★ Anavota nayaka confiscated the forts of Warangal, Panagallu and Bhuvanagiri and assumed the title of: – Tribhuvana Rayaravu
★ Which inscription tells us that Anavota nayaka waged war against Kalinga in the years 1356 and 1358? –Simhachala Inscription
★ The ruling period of Anavota nayaka: –1361-1384 AD
★ After Anavota nayaka, who ascended the throne of Rachakonda: – Singama nayaka-II
★ Other names of Singama nayaka II: – Kumara Singama and Sarvajna Singa bhupala
★ The reason for assuming ‘Kalyana Bhupati’ title by Singama nayaka-II: – Victory over Kalyana fort
★ The inscription whose informs about the victory of Singama nayaka over Vijayanagara kings: – Vijayanagara inscriptions of 1384 AD.
★ The capital of Singama nayaka-II: – – First capital – Racha konda – Second capital: Bellam konda
★ The court poets of Singama nayaka-II: – Vishveshwara -II and Bommakanti Appayarya
★ The book of rhetoric science written by Singama nayaka-II: – Rasavama Sudhakaram
★ The book of musical science written by Singama nayaka-II: Sangeeta Sudhakaram
★ Singama nayaka-II wrote a drama called ‘Ratna Panchalika’with which name? – Kuvalayaavali
★ The book written by Vishweshwara, the-court poet of Singama nayaka-II: – Chamatkara Chandrika
★ Who wrote ‘Amarakosa vyakyanam’? – Bommakanti Appayamatya
★ The titles of Singama nayaka II: – Sarvajna Chakravarti, Sarvajna Chudamani, Pratidanda Bhairava, Khadga Narayana, Gaya govala
★ The ruling period of Singama nayaka: –1384-1399 AD
★ After Singama nayaka, who ruled the country? – Anavota nayaka-II
★ Other names of Anavota nayaka: – Kumara Anavotaneedu, Immadi Anavota nayaka, Pinna Anavota nayaka
★ The regime of Anavota nayaka II: –1399-1421 AD.
★ The boolt informing about the victories of Anavota nayaka II: – Velugoti Vamshavali
★ After Anavota nayaka II who ruled the country? – Madanayaka (brother of Anavota)
★ Madanayaka was the disciple of: – Venkatacharya (son of Ramanujacharya)
★ Madanayaka wrote a commentary to Ramayanam called ‘Raghaviyam’. He dedicated this work to: – Sri Rama Chandra
★ Which village was donated with the name of Sri rangapuram agraharam to Lord Sri Ranganatha by Mada nayaka? – Torruru
★ The tank constructed by Nagambika, wife of Madanayaka near Racha konda: – Nagasamudram
★ The ruling period of Madanayaka: 1421-1430 A.D.
★ Who is Singama nayaka-III? – Son of Anavota nayaka-II
★ After Mada nayaka, who contributed the rule? – Singama nayaka-III
★ The regime of Singama nayaka-TV: –1430-1475 A-D.
★ The titles of Singama nayaka-III: – Mummadi Singama nayaka, Sarvajna Singama nayaka
★ The court poets of Singama nayaka-III: – Gaurana, Koravi Goparaju
★ The title of Gaurana: – Sarasa Sahitya Lakshana Chakravarti
★ The famous writings of Gaurana: – Navanatha charitra and Harischandra charitra
★ The famous work of Koravi Goparaju: – Simhasana dvatrimsika
★ The poet who will be called as contemporary of Sarvajna Singabhupala: . Bammera Pothana
★ The famous works of Bammera Pothana: – Virabhadra vijayam, Bhogini dandakam, Narayana satakam and Bhagavatam (8 skandas)
★ The religion patronised by Sarvajna Singha bhu¬pala: – Vaishnavam
★ In the court of Padma nayakas, the dispute occurred between:. Sakalya Mallubhattu and Parasara bhattu
★ The works of Sakalya Mallubhattu: – Udara Raghavam Niroshtya Ramayana
★ The title of Sakalya Mallubhattu: – Chaturbhasha kavita pitamahudu
★ The telugu poet during the period of Anavota nayaka: – Naganatha
★ The works of Naganatha: –Vishnu puranam and Madana vilasa banam
★ Who established Vaishnavam in the court of Sarvajna Singha bhupala: – Nainacharya
★ The son of Madanayaka: – Peda Vedagiri
★ Who got the fame called ‘ekasila nagara samipa sakravaranya dahana davanala’? – Peda Vedagiri
★ Last one among Recharla Padmanayakas: . – Sarvajna Singa bhupala
★ Among Recharla Padmanayakas, who patronised the vaishnavam? – Singa bhupala
★ Who brought the terrible custom called ‘Rana mukudupu’ into vogue? – velama nayakas
★ Kavi sarvabhauma Srinatha visited the’court of: – Singama nayaka-II
1. The main source for the history of Recharla Padmanayakas:
1. Velugoti Vamshavali
2. Simhachala Inscription
3. Devarakonda .
4. Orugallu Inscription
2. The capital of Recharla Padmanayakas:
1. Rachakonda 2. Devarakonda
3. Amanagallu 4. All the above
3. The famous Velama nayakas who were the military generals during the period of Kakatiya Ganapati Deva:
1, Dama nayaka 2. Prasaditya nayaka 3. Rudra nayaka 4. all the above
4. Who got titles by Kakatiyas for the sup-pression of revolts that were raised during the period of Rudrama devj:
1. Dama nayaka 2. Prasaditya nayaka
3. Singama nayaka 4. Rudra nayaka
5. Who got the title ‘Andhra Desadheeswara’ after the occupation of Orugallu?
1. Dama nayaka 2. Singama nayaka 3. Anavota nayaka 4. Rudra nayaka
6. Who praised by the poets as ‘Sarvajna Chakravarti’ and ‘Sarvajna Chuda mani’?
1. Singama nayaka-II 2. Vedagiri Reddy
3. Rudrama nayaka 4. Anavota nayaka-II
7. Who defeated Sarvapalli Timma Reddy, the feudatory of Gajapati?
1. Rudra nayaka 2. Anavota nayaka-II 3. Singama nayaka 4. Dama nayaka
8. The name of wife of Mada nayaka, who constructed the tank called ‘Nagasamu dram’ near Rachakonda:
1. Nagambika 2. Mayavati
3. Mallamma 4. Nagini ,
9. Bammera Pothana lived during the period of:
1. Singama nayaka
2. Anavota nayaka-I
3. Sarvajna Singama nayaka
4. Anavota nayaka-II
10. Who granted Torruru villagfe to Lord Sri Ranganatha with the name ‘Sri Rangapuram agraharam’:
1. Mada nayaka 2. Prasaditya nayaka
3. Singama nayaka II 4. Anavota nayaka I
11 Vishveshwara kavi who wrote Chamat kara Chandrika was in the court of:
1. Singama nayaka 2. Singabhupala -II
3. Madanayaka-II 4. Anavota nayaka
12. According to *Velugoti Vamshavali’, who is the primogenitor as Recharla nayakas?
1. Prasaditya nayaka 2. Bhetala Reddy
3. Mada nayaka 4. Singama nayaka
13. The ruling period Recharla Padmanayakas:
1. nearly 500 years 2. nearly 100 years
3. nearly 150 years 4. nearly 200 years
14 Anavota nayaka assumed the title called ‘Tribhuvana Raya Rao’ after occupying the fort or forts?
1. Warangal 2. Panagallu
3. Bhuvanagiri 4. All the above
15. The title of Singama nayaka-II:
1. Sarvajna Chakravarti
2. Sarvajna Chudamani
3. Pratidanda Bhairava
4. All the above
16. During the regime of Recharla Padma nayakas, who patronised Vaishnavism?
1. Singa bhupala 2. Vedagiri
‘3. Naina charyulu 4. Madanayaka
17. The Recharla king, who were killed by Soma vamsa kings in an effort to extend the kingdom
1. Mada nayaka
2. Singama nayaka
3. Anavota nayaka I _
4. Anavota nayaka-II
18. The poet who lived during the period of Anavota nayaka I:
1. Naganatha 2. Visweswara
3. Potana 4. Appayamatya
19. The Velama nayaka who wrote the drama ‘Ratna panchalika’ with the name ‘Kuvalayavali’:
2. Anavota nayaka-I
3. Singama nayaka-II
4. Singama nayaka -III
20. Other names of Anavota nayaka-II:
1. Kumara Annapotaneedu
2. Immadi Anavota nayaka
3. Pinna Annama nayaka
4. All the above
21. The works of Singa bhupala II
1. Rasavama Sudhakaram
2. Sangeeta Sudhakaram
3. Ratna Panchalika ’ 4. All the above
22. The poets during the period of Recharla Padmanayakas:
1. Gaurana and Koravi Goparaju .
2. Vishveshwara and Bommakanti Appayamatya •
4. All the above
23. From , whose period, Recharla – Padmanayakas started fighting with Vijayanagara kings?
1, Rudra nayaka
2. Singama nayaka
3. Singama nayaka -II
4. Anavota nayaka
24. In which war, allied forces of Vijayanagaram, and Velama kings defeated Behmani sultans?
1. Panagallu . 2. Orugallu
3. Gulbarga 4. Kalyana durgam
25. The lost one among Recharla pad- manayakas
1. Mada nayaka
2. Singama nayaka -III
3. Rudra nayaka
4. Anavota nayaka-II