Telangana History Razakar Movement
Ithehadul Muslimeen Organisation
During the decade of 1920, when people of Hyderabad state were awakening politically, an organisation called the Majlis-Ithehadul Muslimeen was established in Hyderabad, with the objective of the cultural development of Muslims in the Nizam state. Later, due to political changes that occurred in the state, it turned into a political organ¬isation. In 1927, Muslims of Hyderabad held a meet¬ing at tohed Manjil in Hyderabad, which was presided over by Nawab Sadr Ali Jung, the then director of the department of religion of Hyderabad state. It was decided that there should be an organisation to encourage the development of Muslims, in that meeting and resolution was adapted to that effect. Following this, the Ithehadul Muslimeens was founded.
Freedom movement started in earnest in the state of Hyderabad in 1938. As a result, the Majlis turned into a political Organisation • and Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung had become its president in 1938. In the same year, the Majlis conducted another meeting under the leadership of Maulvi Abdul Khadir Siddique, a professor of Islamic ideology in the Osmania University. A resolution was adapted in the meeting saying that-the Nizam should always protect the cultural identity of Muslim communities in the Nizam state and also that the political identity of Muslims should continue in the state Permanently.
Siddique proposed the ‘Anal Malik’ theory in his speech. ‘Anal Malik’ means ‘lam the king/lord. He preached that every Muslim should feel like a king. Live like a king and for that the rule of Nizam should continue forever. From then onwards, the Ithehadul Muslimeen started to fight the attempts to introduce administrative reforms in the state. Nizam also indirectly helped and supported this organisation. By 1939, it grew to the stage where it could direct the actions of Nizam. In 1940, when the state congress asked the Nizam to introduce respon¬sible government in the state, Nawab Bahadur yaijung severely opposed it. He declared that the Ithehadul Muslimeen would lead all the Muslims of the Deccan region and started to propagate his Anal Malik’ theory. The Majlis believed that every Muslim is a ruler, the Muslim community is the rul¬ing class and the duty of Nizam is to wield power.
In 1940, the Ithehadul Muslimeen formed a vol-unteer force, following the suggestions of sayyad Mohammed Hasan. In urdu volunteer means Razakar. That is why this force came to be known as the Razakars or Razakar forces and the party was called as Razakar party. Yarjung officially formed razakar forces in 1940.
Structure of Razakar Force
A 30 member group was formed at the lowest level named-salar. It was controlled by a Taluq Level force, the chief of which was called as ‘Salar-e-Saghir’ It was intum controlled by a Zilla (district) chief, namely-‘Salar-e-kabar’. All the above three forces were controlled by the central force in Hyderabad. The chief of the central force was called as ‘Afsar-e-Alag’. The Afsar-e-Alag used to decide the volunteers that should get military training and they were given it. A special officer was appointed to impart military training. He was called as Mirkaj. He used to train the Razakars,disciplined, paraded and controlled them. The salar used to conduct paradas at the lower level. Razakars followed a special dress code. Every Razakar should wear a khaki coloured military vast/shirt and khaki pants and belt; and black hat/toupee. In addition to to these, the salars used to wear a khaki coloured coat, which was a symbol of their designation. Each Razakar should carry an identical sword. Only the Afsar-e-Alog used to carry a Muzzu loading gun and a narroow sword.
When Bahadur yarjung was the chief of the Majlis, he asked all the Muslims of the state to pay a tax called Zakat in the form of Baitulamal. Before that time a tax called Mash was collected on domes¬tic trade and paid to the Malate- Islamia.
Thus the Ithehadul Muslimeen got a military form during the time of Yaijung. Its executive body contained 7 members. Atleast 3 of them were from military department; either a Major or a captain or atleast a mechanical engineer in the military.
Qasim Razvi, who was a lawyer in latur, had become the chief of Ithehadul muslimeen in 1946.
He wanted to convert the Hyderabad state into a full fledged Muslim state and transformed the organisation completely into a military organ. He decided to impart complete military training to Razakars in 1947 July. He used to frighten people by parading them with full informs and weapons, in the streets of the city. In fact, it was against defence rules of (Rules 57, 58) Hyderabad state to conduct paradas wearing weaponry with non-soldiers. But, as the Nizam supported them, they could do anything they wished to the then police commissioner Nawab Deen yaijung also supported the Razakars.
As per government statistics, the number of Razakars by 3 November, 1947 was 50,000. Qasim Razvi invited many students and youngmens into the force asked them to submit written pledges that they would sacrifice their lives for the state of Hyderabad and would fight to establish Muslim state on the name of Allah. He also tried to form a women Razakar force. Ali yawar jung, in his book ‘Hyderabad-Introspection’ criticised the system of Razakars. In fact, some young people from Erukala, Yanadi, Mala, Madiga and other backward castes were also included in the Razakar forces so as to say that it was not a religious organisation.
The expenditure of Razakar force for a day was Rs.30,000 in those days. Forts, Dargah and other buildings were used to house them. There were 700 pathans in Bandenuz and Gesudaruz Dargahs in Gulbarga. The Pathans, Arabs and Afghans were also trained as Razakars. Qasim Razvi pledged to increase their number to 5 lakhs. He formed 52 mil¬itary centres in the Nizam state for Razakars. After operation polo’ in Hyderabad state in 1948, Razvi was arrested’ and sentenced to prison term in some cases. He was released in 1957 and went to Pakistan. There he died in Karachi on 15 January, 1970.
Qasim Razvi handed over the responsibility of Majlis Party to Abdul Wahid Owaisi, a famous lawyer in Hyderabad, before he went to Pakistan from him, Sultan Salauddin Owaisi took over the reigns of All India Majlis-Ithehadul Muslimeen Party in 1975. The party continued to win the Hyderabad Lok Sabha seat since 1984. At present it is represented in the Telangana Assembly with 7 seats (Hyderabad district) and one parliament seat.Present president is-Asaduddin Owaisi. Its Headquarters is located at Darussalam, Aghapura, Hyderabad, Telangana. It publishes a urdu daily newspaper named ‘Itemaad’ (urdu daily newspaper).
★ When did ‘Ithe-hadul-Muslimeen’ was formed under the chairmanship of Nawab Sadar Ah yawar Jung? – 12th November, 1927
★ In which year, Nawab Bahadur yar jung became a president of Ithe hadul muslimeen Party? -1938
★ What is meant by Anal Malik? – Every muslim is a king. All muslims have to live like a kings.
★ Razakar means – volunteer
★ Among the Razakars, how many members were there at lower level? – 30 members
★ What was the name of district troop leader? – Salar-i-kabar
★ The person who appointed for giving military training of Razakars – Mirkaj
★ The special uniform for Razakars – Khaki mili-tary shirt and Khaki pant
★ The special armoury for central head of Razakars – pistol and a small sword
★ Khasim Razvi became president in the year ‘ –1946
★ Who wrote the book called “Hyderabad intro¬spect” – Ali Yavar jung
★ The number of Razakars in Nizam government by 3rd November 1947? – 50 thousand
★ In which year, Nizam made an Agreement called states quo with India? – 29th November, 1947
★ Shoyabullah Khan was murdered by Razakars, because of his writings condemning the addressed of Razakars. He used to write the essays in – Imroj paper
★ ‘Anal Malik’ theory was developed in the year: –1938
★ The paper organised by M.I.M – Itemaad (unity)
★ Where is the central office of M.I.M? – Darussalam (Hyderabad)
★ Annual functions of majlis held in which city? – Warangal (1943)
★ In which year, Ithe-hadul-Muslimeen organisation was established? – 2 November, 1927
★ What is the profession of Khasim Razvi? ’ – lawyer
★ What was the name of the Radio station in Nizam state? – Deccan Radio
1. In which year Majlis-Ithe-hadul Musli meen was established?
1. 1925 2. 1927
3. 1928 4. 1929
2. In which year, Khasim Razvi, became a
president of Majlis-Ithe-hadul muslimeen?
1. 1944 2. 1945
3. 1946 4. 1947
3. Who wrote ‘Hyderabad introspect”
1. Ali Yavar Jung
2. Mir Layak Ali
3. Mir Osman Ali Khan
4. Shoyabullah Khan ,
4. What is the name of paper organised by M.I.M ?
1. Imroj 2. Rayyat
3. Itemaad 4. Golakonda
5. Majlis annual functions were held in 1943 in which city?
1. Warangal 2. Nalgonda
3. Hyderabad 4. Nizamabad
6. In which language volunteer means Razakar
1. Marathi 2. Urdu
3. Kannada 4. Telugu
7. Razakars killed Shoyabullah khan on 21st August, 1948. Shoyabullah khan was an editor of:
‘ 1. Rayyat 2. Imroj
3. Itemaad 4. Janavani
8. According to the calculations of Nizam government the number of Razakars were?
1. 30 thousand 2. 40 thousand
3. 50 thousand 4. 60 thousand
9. Who wrote ‘Tragedy of Hyderabad”?
1. Khasim Razvi
2. Mir Layak Ali
3. Shoyabullah Khan
4. Nawab Yar Jung
10. The special officer who appointed to train to Razakars in a military way?
1. mirkah 2. Salar
3. Afsar-i-Alag 4. Anal Malik
11. Among Razakars, the district troop com¬mander was addressed as
12. In which year, the theory called ‘Anal Malik’ was developed?
1. 1937 2. 1938
3. 1939 – 4. 1940
13. Where is the central office of M.I.M ?
14. The birth place of Khasim Razvi?
1. Aurangabad (MH) 2. Laturu (MH)
3. Hyderabad (TS) 4. Warangal(TS)
15. The profession of Khasim Razvi:
1. Doctor 2. lawyer
3. Farmer 4. Teacher
16. Khasim Razvi was released in the year :
1. 1955 ‘ 2. 1956 .
3. 1957 4. 1958
17. After the police action, Khasim Razvi ruinancy to which country after the release from jail?
1. Afghanistan 2. England
3. Pakistan 4. Russia
18. In ‘which year, Khasim Razvi was dead
1. 15th January, 1970
2. 15th January, 1960
3. 15th January, 1965
4. 15th January, 1964