**Campus Recruitment – Logical Reasoning – **Non Verbal Reasoning

**Concepts**

In this type of questions you will be given set of figures and asked you to identify next figure or odd figure. This chapter can be further classified into the following sections.

- Analogy
- Classification
- Series
- Addition
- Subtraction
- Addition and subtraction
- Rotation-clockwise
- Rotation-anti clockwise
- Horizontal
- Vertical
- Alternative-rotation
- Combination (clock wise rotation with addition/ subtraction)

**Analogy**: Analogy question contains three figures and it asks to find out the fourth figure, we have to identify the relation between first two figures then apply the same relation to third figure for finding the fourth figure.

**Example**: 1)

**Explanation**: From figure-1 to 2, the lines are rotated 90° clockwise and the circle, triangle, square are moved to its opposite side. The same rule is applied to figure-3 to obtain figure-4. The answer is option-b.

**Classification**: In classification question you will be given five figures from which you have to identify the odd one. i.e. four figures out of the five are connected to each other whereas one figure is no way connected. That figure is the answer for given question.

**Example**.

**Explanation**: In all above figures, each figure contain two arrows (↑) and one small line, those two arrows are in opposite direction to each other except figure-2.

**Series**: In this type of question you will be given three or four figures which are in series, i.e. all the given figures are related to each other in certain pattern. You’ll be asked to find out the next figure in the series. To find out the next figure you have to identify the hidden logic of the series. After tracing thelogic you have to apply it to the last figure to find the asked figure. The logic in series figures can be classified into following.

**Addition**: In this type of series an addition of component is happening to the figures incrementally. Subtraction: In this type of series subtraction of components is happening to the figure decrementally.

**Addition and Subtraction:** In this type of series, alternative addition and subtraction happens to the figure.

**Rotation-Clockwise:** In this type of series, figures are rotating in clockwise direction.

**Rotation-Anti clockwise:** In this series, figures are rotating anti clockwise.

**Horizontal:** In this type of series, figures move in horizontal direction.

**Vertical:** In this type of series, figures move in vertical direction.

**Alternative-Rotation:** In this type of series, figures move in horizontal and vertical direction alternatively.

**Combination**: In this type of series all the above mentioned actions can happen.

**Exercise-I**

Select a figure from the given options which will continue the same series as established by the four figures in the question.

**Explanations-I**

1) a; Here, the sides of the polygon are increased by 1. The next figure will have 7 sides.

2) c; Here, the alternative figures are related to each other (i.e. figures-1, 3, 5 and figure-2, 4 etc). So, the next figure will have one horizontal line.

3) d; From figure-1 to figure-2, the middle line has j moved 45° in clockwise. And every time, number of lines in the new symbol are decreasing by 1 (i.e. 6, 5, 4, 3 etc). Hence, the next figure will be option-d.

4) b; One side of the pentagon is removed and it is placed at the bottom in its opposite place. The next figure will be option-b.

5) d; Here the line is moving 45° in anti clockwise.

6) b; Here the given symbols are moving to their next positions in clockwise direction.

7) d; Here the two circles are moving to their adjacent side and the shade of the circle is also changing from one figure to another.

8) a; The given figure is rotating 90° in clockwise direction by losing a symbol.

9)c; Here the symbols are moving to their next position in anti clockwise direction.

10) b; Here the diagram is moving 45° in anti clockwise.

11) b; In every figure, one dark circle is placed outside of the square in anti clock wise . So, next figure will be option -b.

12) c; From one figure to another, the direction of the arrows is changing and one new arrow is added.

13) c; The next figure will have the symbols in right bottom comer with first being a circle next the line.

14) b; Here from figure-1 to 2, all the symbols are moved 45° in clockwise and first symbol is moved to the end. From figure-2 to 3, all the symbols are moved 90° in anti clockwise and first symbol is moved to the end. Same pattern continues for the subsequent figures.

15) b; The figure is moving 90° in anti-clockwise direction and the square is moving to its opposite side.

16) b; Here the letters P, S, T are rotated 90° in clockwise where as ‘R’ in anti-clockwise. The next figure will retain its starting positions.

17) b; From figure-1 to figure-2, the elements are rotating in anti clockwise direction, by replacing the position of square shape with a new symbol. The same pattern follows in the subsequent figures. The next figure in the sequence is option-b.

18) b; From figure-1 to figure-2, every segment has moved 90° in clockwise. At the same time an element is decreased from one segment and added to the opposite segment. Following the same pattern, the next figure in the sequence is option-b.

19) b; From figure-1 to figure-2, one new line is added in clockwise direction and the circle has moved to its adjacent side in anti clockwise direction. Hence, the next figure is option-b.

20) b; From figure-1 to figure-2, the symbols are moving one step down. Last symbol is deleted and a new symbol is added at the top. Hence, the next figure will be option-b.

21) d; In the given series of figures, the dot is moved 1, 2, 3, 4 steps in anti clockwise and every time a new symbol is introduced at top, middle and bottom diagonally. Hence, option-d is correct.

22) c; The two arrows are rotated 90° in clockwise direction. And every time one cross symbol is removed.

23) b; The given figure is rotating in clockwise direction. But the two circles are at the same positions and ‘X’ is moving from one block to another block in clock wise direction. Hence, the next figure is option-b.

**Exercise-II**

In the following questions, there is a series of figures which follow a pattern except one. Find the odd figure or which does not fit in the series.

### Explanations-II

**Examples-III**

In the following questions, figure-1 and figure-2 are logically related to each other. Using the same relationship to figure-3 find the figure-4 from the

**Explanations-III**