SSC General Awareness Topic Wise Solved Papers – Polity
General Awareness Previous Year Question Papers Mathematics English Reasoning
1. The term’Caste’was derived from (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
2 The term ‘Greater India’ denotes (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
(a) Political unity
(b) Cultural unity
(c) Religious unity
(d) Social unity
3. Who is rightly called the “Father of Local Self Government” in India? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
(a) Lord Mayo
(b) Lord Ripon
(c) Lord Curzon
(d) Lord Clive
4. The two forms of democracy are (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
(a) Parliamentary and Presidential
(b) Direct and Indirect
(c) Monarchical and Republican
(d) Parliamentary and King
5. Which is an extra-constitutional body ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
(a) Language Commission
(b) Planning Commission
(c) Election Commission
(d) Finance Commission
6. The Prime Minister of India is (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
7. Which is not an All India Service ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2010)
(a) Indian Administration Service
(b) Indian Police Service
(c) Indian Foreign Service
(d) Indian Forest Service
8. The declaration that Democracy is a Government ‘of the people’ by the people; for the people’ was made by (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(a) George Washington
(b) Winston Churchill
(c) Abraham Lincoln
(d) Theodore Roosevelt
9. India attained ‘Dominion Status’ on (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(a) 15th January, 1947
(b) 15th August, 1947
(c) 15th August, 1950
(d) 15 th October, 1947
10. Despotism is possible in a (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(a) One party state
(b) Two party state
(c) Multi party state
(d) Two and multi party state
11. Marx belonged to (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
12. Which one of the following is the guardian of Fundamental Rights ? (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(c) Political parties
13. Sarkaria Commission was concerned with (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(a) Administrative Reforms
(b) Electoral Reforms
(c) Financial Reforms
(d) Centre-State relations
14. The speaker of the Lok-Sabha has to address his/her letter of resignation to (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(a) Prime Minister of India
(b) President of India
(c) Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha
(d) Minister of Parliamentary Affairs
15. A Presidential Ordinance can remain in force (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2010)
(a) For Three months
(b) For six months
(c) For nine months
16. Judicial review in the Indian Constitution is based on:
(a) Rule of Law (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2011)
(b) Due process of Law
(c) Procedure established by Law
(d) Precedents and Conventions
17. The Drafting of the Constitution was completed on: (SSC CGL Is* Sit. 2011)
(a) 26th January, 1950
(b) 26th December, 1949
(c) 26th November, 1949
(d) 30th November, 1949
18. Who was the President of the Constituent Assembly? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2011)
(a) Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru
(b) Sardar Patel
(c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(d) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
19. Which innovative discussion process is introduced by the Indian parliament to the World Parliamentary systems? (SSC CGL Is* Sit. 2011)
(a) Question hour
(b) Zero hour
(d) Presidential Speech
20. The judges of the Supreme Court retire at the age of: (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2011)
(a) 60 years
(b) 65 years
(c) 62 years
(d) 58 years
21. Who was the architect of North and South Blocks of the Central Secretariate in Delhi? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2011)
(a) Sir Edward Lutyens
(b) Herbert Baker
(c) Robert Tor Russell
(d) Antonin Raymond
22.If the Anglo-Indian community does not get adequate representation in the Lok Sabha, two members of the community can be nominated by the (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2011)
(d) President in consultation with the Parliament
23. For the election of President of India, a citizen should have completed the age of (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2011)
(a) 25 years
(b) 30 years
(c) 35 years
(d) 18 years
24. A member of Parliament will lose his membership of Parliament if he is continuously absent from Sessions for (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2011)
(a) 45 days
(b) 60 days
(c) 90 days
(d) 365 days
25. In India, the Residuary Powers are vested with (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2011)
(a) Union Government
(b) State Government
(c) Both the Union Government and the State Government
(d) Local Government
26. The National Commission for Minorities was constituted in the year (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
27. In which of the following systems of government is bi-cameralism an essential feature? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
(a) Federal system
(b) Unitary system
(c) parliamentary system
(d) Presidential system
28. Socialism succeeds in achieveing (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
(a) higher standard of living of the people
(b) equal distribution of income in the society
(c) higher individual welfare in the society
(d) maximum social welfare in the society
29. The seat of Madhya Pradesh High Court is located at (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
30. Who said that the Directive Principles of State Policy are just like “a cheque on bank payable at the convenience of the bank”. (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(a) Pandit Nehru
(c) B. R Ambedkar
(d) N. G Ranga
31. The proposal for the creation of new All-India Services can be considered only: (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(a) if majority of State Legislatures make such demand
(b) if Lok Sabha passes a resolution by two-thirds majority 41.
(c) if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by two-thirds majority
(d) None of the above
32. The authority to specify which castes shall be deemed to be scheduled castes rests with the: (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(a) Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Tribes
(b) Prime Minister
33. The seat of Kerala High Court is located at: (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
34. The first speaker of Lok Sabha was: (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(a) S. Radhakrishnan
(b) M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar
(c) Sardar Hukum Singh
(d) G V. Mavlankar
35. The Social Contract theory deals with (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
(a) The Purpose of State
(b) The Origin of the State
(c) The Nature of State
(d) The Functions of State
36. The Supreme Court of India offers advice to the President on matters of Legal, Public or Constitutional importance based on (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
37. Which is the most effective means of executive control of administration? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
(a) Financial administration
(b) Political direction
(c) Appointment and removal of top officials
(d) Subordinate legislation
38. Violation of Rule of Law’ arises mostly from (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2012)
(a) Lack of Checks and Balances
(b) Executive’s Quasi-Judicial Powers
(c) Limited Franchise
(d) Delegated Legislation
39. The Constitutional Amendment Act that has introduced safeguards against the misuse of proclamation of national emergency is the (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(a) 42nd Amendment Act
(b) 43rd Amendment Act
(c) 44th Amendment Act
(d) 45th Amendment Act
40. The Fundamental Rights can be suspended by the (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(c) Law Minister
(d) Prime Minister
41. The main reason for the growth of communalism in India is (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2012)
(a) Educational and economic backwardness of minority groups
(b) Political consciousness
(c) Social inequalities
(d) Imposing ban on communal organisations
42.A Retired Judge of a High Court is not permitted to practice as a lawyer in (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2012)
(a) Supreme Court
(b) Any Court in India
(c) High Courts
(d) Except the High Court where he retired
43. Which one of the following does not match (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2012)
(a) Hindu Marriage Act: 1955
(b) Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act: 1971
(c) Domestic Violence on women Act: 1990
(d) Cruelty against Women : 1995
44. The vacancy of the office of the President must be filled within: (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(a) 3 months
(b) 6 months
(c) 12 months
(d) 1 month
45. In which part of the Indian Constitution, the fundamental duties are enshrined ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(b) IV A
46. Who described the Government of India Act, 1935asanew charter of bondage ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Rajendra Prasad
(d) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
47. Which of the following is not a fundamental right as per the Indian Constitution? (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2013)
(a) Right to Education
(b) Right to Information
(c) Right to Speech
(d) Right to Life
48. Who is custodian of the Indian Constitution? (SSC CGL 2nd Sit. 2013)
(a) President of India
(b) Chief Justice of India
(c) Prime Minister of India
(d) Chairman of Rajya Sabha
49. Constituent Assembly of India was formulated on the recommendation of (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2013)
(a) Wavel Plan
(b) Cripps Mission
(c) August Offer
(d) Cabinet Mission
50. Which of the following is an essential element of the state? (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2013)
(d) All these
51. Which has become a legal right under 44th Amendment? (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2013)
(a) Right to Education
(b) Right to Property
(c) Right to Judicial Remedies
(d) Right to work
52. By which Constitution Amendment Act, Right to Property ceased to remain a fundamental right? (SSC CGL 2nd Sit 2013)
53. Who presides over the Joint Session of Indian Parliament? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(a) Chairperson of Rajya Sabha
(b) Seniormost Member of Parliament
(c) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(d) President of India
54. Under which Article of the Constitution of India, can the fundamental rights of the members of the Armed Forces be specifically restricted? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(a) Article 21
(b) Article 25
(c) Article 33
(d) Article 19
55. Which Article of the Indian Constitution did Dr. B. R. Ambedkar term as the “Heart and Soul of the Indian Constitution”? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(a) Article 356
(b) Article 32
(c) Article 14
(d) Article 19
56. Who was the first to use the term ‘State’? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
57. Who is the Chairman of the 20th Law Commission? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2013)
(a) Justice K.G. Balakrishnan
(b) Justice D. K. Jain
(c) Justice Usha Mehra
(d) Justice J. S.Verma
58. Which one of the following is not a function of Election Commission ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(a) Allotment of symbols
(b) F ixation of election dates
(c) Maintaining fairness of election
(d) Selecting the candidates for election
59. ‘State is a necessary evil’ is associated with (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2013)
60. Who was the first President of the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
(a) C.R Das
61. If there is a deadlock between Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha over an ordinary bill, it will be resolved by
(a) The President (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2013)
(b) The Council of Ministers
(c) The Joint Session of Parliament ‘
(d) The Supreme Court
62. Provisions of citizenship in Indian Constitution, became applicable in (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2013)
63. The National Emergency in India declared by the President of India due to the external aggression or armed revolt through (SSCCGL 1st Sit. 2013)
64. The most important feature of Cabinet system of Government is (SSC CGL 2014)
(a) Individual responsibility
(b) Collective responsibility
(c) Responsibility to none
65. Direct legislation in Switzerland has (SSC CGL 2014)
(a) a natural growth
(b) a haphazard growth
(c) an artificial growth
(d) None of the above
66. Who gave the idea of “Cabinet Dictatorship” ? (SSC CGL 2014)
67. In which of the following countries are the judges of the federal court elected by the two Houses of the Federal Legislature? (SSC CGL 2014)
(d) Both (a) and (b)
68. The President of the USA appoints Supreme Court Judges (SSC CGL 2014)
(a) with Senate’s consent
(b) at his discretion
(c) with consent of the House of Representatives
(d) None of these
69. Which of the following is not a Union Territory ? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2015)
(d) Dadra and Nagar Haveli
80. Who was the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha: (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2015)
(a) B.R. Ambedkar
(b) GV. Mavalankar
(c) N. Sanjeev Reddy
(d) DrS.P. Mukheijee
81. What is the plural volting system? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2015)
(a) All the citizens caste three votes each
(b) Eligible voter exercises one vote and some voters with specific qualifications cast more than one vote.
(c) Only the higher officials caste more than one votes
(d) Candidates themselves caste more than one vote.
82. Voting is: (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2015)
(a) The unit of area who constitute a unit for electing representative
(b) The process by which voters exercise their right to vote
(c) The process of selecting representatives
(d) Universal adult franchise.
83. An amendment of the constitution may be initiated. (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2016)
(a) by introduction by the President of India.
(b) by introduction of a Bill in Rajya Sabha.
(c) by the Governors of States.
(d) by the introduction of a bill in either House of Parliament.
84. The Directive Principles of State Policy has been adopted from which Constitution? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2016)
(a) U.S. Constitution
(b) British Constitution
(c) Irish Constitution
(d) French Constitution
85. Which type of democracy do we follow in India? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2016)
86. The Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly of India was (SSC CGL Is* Sit. 2016)
(a) K.M. Munshi
(b) D.P. Khaitan
(c) Dr. B.R Ambedkar
(d) T.T. Krishnamacharia
87. Who has the right to decide whether a Bill is a money bill or not? (SSC CGL Is* Sit 2016)
(a) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(b) Prime Minister
(d) Finance Minister
88. The discretionary powers of a Governor is limited in (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2016)
(a) Appointment of Chief Minister
(b) Dismissal of the Ministry
(c) Dissolution of the Legislative Assembly
(d) Assent to Bills
89. Who is the first law officer of the country? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2016)
(a) Chief Justice of India
(b) Attorney General
(c) Law Minister
(d) Solicitor General
90. Which one of the following was established with a definite provision under an Article of the Constitution of India? (SSC CGL 1st Sit. 2016)
(a) Union Public Service Commission
(b) National Human Rights Commission
(c) Election Commission
(d) Central Vigilance Commission
91. The President can advance money to meet unforeseen expenses from the (SSC CGL 1st Sit 2016)
(a) Consolidated Fund of India
(b) Grants of the Central Government
(c) Aid from the Union Government
(d) Contingency Fund
92. How many cricketers, who have represented India in test matches, are presently Lok Sabha members ? (SSC CHSL 2012)
93. Which one of the following was created by the ‘Pitt’s India Act’ ? (SSC CHSL 2012)
(a) Board of Control
(b) Board of Revenue
(c) Standing Council
(d) Court of Directors
94. Term ‘Federal’ has been used in the Indian Constitution in: (SSC CHSL 2012)
(c) Nowhere in the Constitution
95. Which one of the following items comes under the Concurrent List ? (SSC CHSL 2012)
(a) Trade Unions
(c) Local Government
(d) Inter-State rivers
96. Which Amendment of the Constitution deals with Political defections ? (SSC CHSL 2012)
97. Which schedule of the Indian Constitution prescribes distribution of seats in Rajya Sabha ? (SSC CHSL 2012)
(a) 4th schedule
(b) 5th schedule
(c) 6th schedule
(d) 3rd schedule
98. Who said in the Constituent Assembly that the Directive Principles of the State Policy are like a ‘Cheque on a bank payable at the convenience of the bank’ ? (SSC CHSL 2012)
(a) K.M. Munshi
(d) K. T. Shah
99. How many members can be nominated to both the Houses of the Parliament by the President ? (SSC CHSL 2013)
100. Under which Article of the Constitution can an individual move to the Supreme Court directly in case of any violation of Fundamental Rights? (SSC CHSL 2013)
(a) Article 31
(b) Article 32
(c) Article 28
(d) Article 29
101. Presidential form of government consists of the following: (SSC CHSL 2013)
(a) Popular election of the President
(b) No overlap in membership between the executive and the legislature
(c) F ixed term of office
(d) All the above
102. The concept of Concurrent List in Indian Constitution is borrowed from the Constitution of (SSC CHSL 2013)
103. Who admits a new State to the Union of India ? (SSC CHSL 2014)
(b) Supreme Court
(c) Prime Minister
104. Who has got the power to create All India Services ? (SSC CHSL 2014)
(a) Supreme Court
(b) The Parliament
(c) Council of Ministers
(d) Prime Minister
105. In the provisional Parliament of India, how many members were there? (SSC CHSL 2014)
106. The 73rd Constitutional amendment act is related to ? (SSC CHSL 2015)
(a) Panchayat Raj
(b) Foreign Exchange
(c) Finance Commission
107. Impeachment Proceedings against the President for Violation of the Constitution can be initiated in : (SSC CHSL 2015)
(a) The Supreme Court
(b) The Rajya Sabha
(c) Either House of Parliament
(d) The Lok Sabha
108. Who was the F irst Speaker of the Lok Sabha ? (SSC CHSL 2015)
(a) K.S. Hegde
(b) Hukum Singh
(c) Ganesh Vasudev
(d) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
109. Which Article of the Indian Constitution deals with Election Commission ? (SSC CHSL 2015)
(a) Article 356
(b) Article 360
(c) Article 324
(d) Article 352
110. If the President wants to resign, he shall address his letter of resignation to: (SSC CHSL 2015)
(a) Vice-President of India
(b) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(c) Chief Justice of India
(d) Prime Minister of India
111. Constitution of India came into force in (SSC Multitasking 2013)
112 Cold War refers to (SSC Multitasking 2013)
(a) tension between East and West
(b) ideological rivalry between Capitalist and Communist world
(c) tension between Superpowers
(d) All of the above
113. The concept of Judicial Review has been borrowed from the Consitution of (SSC Multitasking 2014)
(b) Great Britain
114. In the Constitution of India, the budget is known as (SSC Multitasking 2014)
(a) Annual Financial Statement
(b) Annual Revenue Statement
(c) Annual Budget Statement
(d) Annual Expenditure Statement
115. Which of the following countries has a Parliamentary form of Government? (SSC Multitasking 2014)
(a) New Zealand
(c) United States of America
116. Which of the following systems in independent India goes against the very basis of democracy? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2012)
(a) Caste system
(b) Economic system
(c) Party system
(d) Parliamentary system
117. According to Karl Marx, the change economic system results in inevitable changes in (SSC Sub. Ins. 2012)
(a) political system only
(b) social system only
(c) the entire systems
(d) religious system only
118. The model code of conduct for political parties and candidates to be followed during the elections is (SSC Sub. Ins. 2012)
(a) laid down in the Consitution of India
(b) specified in The Representation of the People Act, 1951
(c) enjoined by the Supreme Court
(d) agreed through a voluntary agreement among the recognised political parties
119. A citizen can directly move the Supreme Court for any violation of Fundamental Rights under (SSC Sub. Ins. 2012)
(a) Article 31
(b) Article 32
(c) Article 33
(d) Article 34
120. Which one of the following sitting Vice-Presidents of India contested for the post of President and lost the election?
(a) S. Radhakrishnan (SSC Sub. Ins. 2012)
(c) Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
(d) Both (B) and (C)
121. Which article of the Indian Constitution provides for equal opportunities for all citizen in Public employment? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2013)
122. Which one of the following is opposite to democratic state? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2013)
123. Who said: “Where there is no law, there is no freedom”? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2013)
124. Which one of the following statements about the Chief Justice of India (CJI) is not correct ? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2013)
(a) He appoints the Chief Justice of all High Courts.
(b) The CJI administers the oath or-office to the President
(c) When both the offices of the President and Vice-President fall vacant simultaneously, the CJI discharges the duties of the President.
(d) The CJI can hold his office till he attains the age of 65 years.
126. Liberty stands for (SSC Sub. Ins. 2014)
(a) absence of restraint
(b) consists in the presence of restraint
(c) feeling enjoyed in a cogenial atmosphere
(d) the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunity to be their best selves – Laski
127. When the Vice-President is acting as President he (SSC Sub. Ins. 2014)
I.will have all powers and functions of both President and Vice-President
II. gets all the allowances and privileges of the President
III. should continue to work as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
(a) I, II and III
(b) I and III
(c) I and II
(d) II only
128. In Presidential Government, the President is (SSC Sub. Ins. 2014)
(a) independent of the Legislature
(b) dependent on the Legislature
(c) dependent on the Judiciary
(d) bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers
129. The method of amending the Constitution by popular veto is found in (SSC Sub. Ins. 2014)
130. Which of the following is the inalienable attribute of the parliamentary system of government ? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2014)
(a) Flexibility of the Constitution
(b) Fusion of Executive and Legislature
(c) Judicial Supremacy
(d) Parliamentary Sovereignty
131. Which one of the following kinds of equality is not compatible with the liberal notion of equality ? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2014)
(a) Legal Equality
(b) Political Equality
(c) Social Equality
(d) Economic Equality
132. The states reorganisation in 1956 created: (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(a) 17 States and 6 Union Territories.
(b) 17 States and 9 Union Territories.
(c) 14 States and 6 Union Territories.
(d) 15 States and 9 Union Territories.
133. Reservation for the Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes in the service has been provided in the Indian Constitution under: (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(a) Article 365
(b) Article 375
(c) Article 315
(d) Article 335
134. The Members of the Constituent Assembly which enacted the constitution of India were:
(a) Nominated by Governor-General.
(b) Nominated by the Political Parties.
(c) Elected by the Legislative Assemblies of various Provinces.
(d) Directly elected by the People.
135. To whom the President has to submit his resignation ? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(b) Chief Justic
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Vice President
136. The total number of planets revolving around the sun are: (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
138. Which one of the following chapters in the Indian Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to the people? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(b) Part IV
139. Mac Iver says ‘Kinship creates society and society at length creates ’. (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(b) City State
140. If the Union Parliament is to assume legislative power over and subject included in the State List, the resolution to the effect has to be passed by which of the following ? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(a) Lok, Sabha, Rajya Sabha and legislatures of the Concerned States.
(b) Both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
(c) Lok Sabha
(d) Rajya Sabha
141. Which Article of the Indian constitution defines the duties of the Chief Minister? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2015)
(a) Article 164
(b) Article 166
(c) Article 167
(d) Article 163
142. Political Science is a science of (SSC Sub. Ins. 2016)
(a) Economic Engineering
(b) Cultural Engineering
(c) Social Engineering
(d) Political Engineering
143. Which of the following is not the essential element of the State? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2016)
144. Parliamentary Government is a form of Constitutional democracy in which (SSC Sub. Ins. 2016)
(a) the legislature emerge from and is responsible to the executive.
(b) the executives emerge from and is responsible to the judiciary.
(c) the executive emerge from and is responsible to the legislature.
(d) the legislatures emerge from and is responsible to the judiciary.
145. The concept of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity enshrined in the Indian Constitution is inspired from (SSC Sub. Ins. 2016)
(a) US Constitution
(b) Irish Constitution
(c) French Constitution
(d) UK Constitution
146. The authority to alter the boundaries of states in India rests with the (SSC Stenographer 2013)
(b) Prime minister
(d) State Government
147. Schedule VII of Indian Constitution contains (SSC Stenographer 2013)
(a) Presidential election
(b) Acts beyond judicial review
(c) States and Union territories
(d) Division of Powers into 3 lists
148. Which Article of the Indian Constitution mentions about financial emergency? (SSC Stenographer 2013)
149. Maximum age of superannuation for the judges of the Supreme Court of India is (SSC Stenographer 2013)
(a) 62 years
(b) 65 years
(c) 60 years
(d) 70 years
150. Name the portfolio held by Sri Pranab Mukherjee before he was elevated as President of India (SSC Stenographer 2014)
(a) Railway Minister
(b) Finance Minister
(c) External Affairs Minister
(d) Home Minister
151. Who addresses the joint sessions of the parliament?
(a) The President (SSC Stenographer 2014)
(b) The Prime Minister
(c) The Chairman of Rajya Sabha
(d) The Lok Sabha Speaker
152. Fundamental Rights are borrowed from the Constitution of (SSC Stenographer 2014)
153. The term “politics” was first used by (SSC Stenographer 2016)
(b) John Locke
154. Arrange the names of the President in the order they served’ (SSC Stenographer 2016)
(a) N.S. Reddy, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, R. Venkataraman, Gyani Zail Singh
(b) R. Venkataraman, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, Gyani Zail Singh, N.S. Reddy
(c) N.S. Reddy, Gyani Zail Singh, R. Venkataraman, Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma
(d) N.S. Reddy, R. Venkataraman, Gyani Zail Singh, Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma
155. Who first gave the concept of “Distributive Justice”? (SSC Stenographer 2016)
156. The reorganization of states on linguistic basis was done in (SSC Stenographer 2016)
157. Bodo and Dogri were added in the 8th Schedule by the following amendment: (SSC Stenographer 2016)
(a) 91st Amendment
(b) 92nd Amendment
(c) 81st Amendment
(d) 85th Amendment
158. What is the minimum age required to become vice – president of India? (SSC CGL 2017)
(a) 30 years
(b) 35 years
(c) 40 years
(d) 37 years
159. Which of the following “writ” of the High Court or the Supreme Court is issued to restrain a person from holding a public office which he is not entitled to? (SSC CGL 2017)
(d) Quo Warranto
160. NITI Aayog has been formed to replace which of the following institution? (SSC CGL 2017)
(a) Planning Commission
(c) Department of Telecommunications (DoT)
(d) Department of Information Technology
161. Whose recommendation is mandatory to impeach the President of India from his office before the completion of his/her term? (SSC CGL 2017)
(a) The Prime Minister
(b) The Speaker of the Sabha
(c) The Chief Justice of India
(d) The two houses of the parliament
162. How many types ofWrit are there in the Indian Constitution? (SSC CGL 2017)
163. Who administers the oath of the President of India? (SSC CGL 2017)
(a) Governor General of India
(b) Chief Justice of India
(c) Prime Minister of India
(d) Vice President of India
164. Who among the following gave monistic theory of sovereignty? (SSC CGL 2017)
165. Fundamental duties are mentioned in which of the following part of India Constitutoin? (SSC CGL 2017)
(a) Part II
(b) Part III
(d) Part IV A
166. What is the minimum age for becoming a Governor of state in India? (SSC CGL 2017)
(a) 30 years
(b) 25 years
(c) 35 years
(d) 45 years
167. The number of parliamentary seats (Lok Sabha) of Punjab is (SSC CHSL 2017)
168. is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. (SSC Sub. Ins. 2017)
169. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected for how many years? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2017)
(a) Two years
(b) Three years
(c) Five years
(d) Six years
170. Under which pardoning power of the President, duration of sentence is reduced without changing its character? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2017)
171. In pocket Veto, the president oflndia can keep a bill for how much duration? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2017)
(a) 1 month
(b) 6 month
(c) 12 month
(d) Indefinite period
172. The President’s seat can be left vacant for how much duration? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2017)
(a) 6 Months
(b) 3 Months
(c) 9 Months
(d) 12 Months
173. Which constitutional Amendment Act of India reduced voting age from 21 years to 18 years? (SSC Sub. Ins. 2017)
(a) 42nd Amendment Act
(b) 61st Amendment Act
(c) 74th Amendment Act
(d) 83rd Amendment Act
174. Who amongst the following is the Vice – Chairman of the newly formed NITI AAYOG? (SSC MTS 2017)
(a) Arvind Panagariya
(b) A.B. Bhattacharya
175. Does the President of India have veto power (SSC MTS 2017)
(b) The constitution is silent on this
(c) Only for Money bills
176. The consumer is compared to a king under? (SSC MTS 2017)
(b) Mixed Economy
177. Which of the following is an example of direct democracy? (SSC MTS 2017)
(a) Village Panchayat
(b) Gram Sabha
(c) District Panchayat
(d) Nagar Panchayat
178. The words socialist and secular were inserted in the Preamble to the Constitution by: (SSC MTS 2017)
(a) The 16th Amendment
(b) The 42nd Amendment
(c) The 44th Amendment
(d) The 7th Amendment
179. Which of the following elicits the Public opinion on a Bill? (SSCMTS 2017)
180. Fraternity means: (SSCMTS 2017)
(a) Unity and Integrity
(b) Elimination of Economic Justice
(c) Fatherly treatment
(d) Spirit of brotherhood
181. Theplanning commission is replaced byNITI Aayog. What is the ftill form ofNITI? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
(a) National Institute of Team India
(b) National Institution of Transforming India
(c) New India and Team India .
(d) No option is correct
182 What is the main purpose of inclusion of Directive Principles in the Constitution of India? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
(a) to establish socio-economic democracy
(b) to establish social democracy
(c) to establish Gandhian democracy
(d) to establlish political democracy
183. The Panchayati Raj is based on which of the principle? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
(a) centralisation of power
(b) unification of power
(c) decentralisation of power
(d) bifurcation of law
184. Who presides over the joint session of Lok Subha and Rajya Sabha? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
(a) President of India
(b) Vice President of India
(c) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(d) Prime Minister of India
185. By which Constitutional Amendment Bill was the voting age reduced from 21 years to 18 years in India? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
186. Who among the following elects the Vice President of India? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
(a) By the members of Parliament
(b) By the members of Rajya Sabha
(c) By the elected members of Lok Sabha
(d) Members of Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies
187. Whose absence from the Democracy makes its functioning impossible? (SSC Stenographer 2017)
(a) Home Ministry
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Political Parties
(d) Panchayati Raj System
Hints & Solutions
The real benchmarking of the government policy on decentralisation can, however, be attributed to Lord Ripon who, in his famous resolution on local self¬government on May 18, 1882, recognised the twin considerations of local government: (i) administrative efficiency and (ii) political education.
U.S. president Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) defined democracy as:Govemment of the people, by the people, for the people.
The Constitution has assigned to the Supreme Court( judiciary) as the Guardian of Fundamental Rights and also responsibility for the protection. As the Guardian of Fundamental Rights It can declare any law null and void if it violates.
The Speaker may, at any time, resign from office by writing under her hand to the Deputy Speaker.
The drafting of the Constitution was completed on 26th November, 1949, it was adopted on the same day and it came into effect on January 26,1950.
Zero hour refers to left over time after question hour in Indian Parliament. During this time members are allowed to raise matters of importance without giving any prior notice. Zero hour is entirely at the discretion of the Speaker as there is no constitutional provision with regard to this.
As per the provisions of Article 331 of Indian Constitution, President of India nominates two members of Anglo-Indian community as the Member of the Parliament, in the absence of the adequate representation in Lok Sabha.
Article 58 of the Indian Constitution says that the presidential candidate must: Be a citizen of India, Have completed the age of thirty-five years, and be qualified for elections as a member of the Lok Sabha.
Article 101 (4) of the Constitution provides that if for a period of sixty days a member of either House of Parliament is without permission of the House absent from all meetings thereof, the House may declare his seat vacant.
The Union Government set up the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) under the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992, on 17th May, 1993.
Some countries, Such as Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, Switzerland and the United States, link their bicameral systems to their federal political structure.
Socialism is an economic system characterised by social ownership and/or cannot of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy.
The Court was established in Nagpur, but after the reorganisation of states on 1 November 1956, it was moved to Jabalpur.
Article 312 provides that an All India Service can be created only if the Council of State declares by a resolution supported by not less than a two-thirds majority that it is necessary in the national interest to create one or more such All india Services.
As per the provision of the article 341(1) of the Constitution, The President may with respect to any State or Union Territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor thereof, by public notification, specify the castes, races or tribes or parts of or groups within castes, races or tribes which shall for the purposes of this Constitution be deemed to be Scheduled Castes in relation to that State or Union Territory, as the case maybe.
The High Court of Kerala is headquartered at Kochi. It is located in Ernakulam.
Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, popularly known as Dadasaheb, was an independence activist, the President. (from 1946 to 1947) of the Central Legislative Assembly, then Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of India, an later the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
The Fundamental Rights can be suspended during the Emergency under Article 359 of the Constitution by the President of India. (a) & (b) both are correct. It was the 7th amendment act of the Constitution of India which proposed to revise thearticle220soasto relax this complete ban and permit a retired judge to practice in the Supreme Court and in any High Court other than the one in which he was a permanent judge. Therefore (a) & (b), both are correct. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006.
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006.
Right to Information is a part of fundamental rights under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution which states that every citizen has freedom of speech and expression. The 86th Constitutional amendment making education a fundamental right was passed by Parliament in 2002. Right to speech comes under freedom of speech and expression which is a fundamental right. The constitution guarantees the right to life and personal liberty as a fundamental right under article 21.
The Constitution has made the Supreme Court as the custodian and protector of the Constitution. The Supreme Court decides disputes between the Centre and the Units as well as protects the Fundamental Rights of the citizens of India.
The state has four essential elements: population, territory, government and sovereignty. Absence of any of these elements denies to it the status of statehood.
The 44th amendment eliminated the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property as a fundamental right. However, in another part of the Constitution. Article 300 (A) was inserted to affirm that no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.
The 44th amendment of 1978 eliminated the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property as a fundamental right. The Constitution originally provided for the right to property under Articles 19 and 31.
The Speaker of Lok Sabha presides over the joint sittings ofboth Houses of Parliament. The joint session of parliament is convened by the President of India.
Parliament may restrict the application of the Fundamental Rights to members of the Indian Armed Forces and the Police, in order to ensure paper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline, by a law made under Article 33.
Dr. B R Ambedkar, the chairman of the Drafting committee called the fundamental right to constitutional remedies as the heart and soul of the Indian constitution. According to this right, a person can move the Supreme Court in case of violation of their fundamental rights. In the Constitution, this right is enshrined in Article 32.
Machiavelli has been credited with formulating for the first time the “modem concept of the state”. The term ‘lo state’ appears widely in Machiavelli’s writings, especially in The Prince, in connection with the acquisition and application of power in a coercive sense.
Justice D.K Jain, Judge, Supreme Court of India, is the Chairman of the Twentieth Law Commission of India. The Twentieth Law Commission was constituted through a Government Order with effect from 1st September, 2012.
Selecting the candidate of election is the function of the political party
This quote is given by the theory of Individualism
All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was founded on 31st October, 1920 with LalaLajpatRai as its first president in Bombay.
The Joint Session of Parliament resolves the deadlock between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha over an ordinary bill.
Cabinet collective responsibility is constitutional convention in governments is that members of the Cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. This support includes voting for the government in the legislature. Cabinet collective responsibility is related to the fact that, if a vote of no confidence is passed in parliament, the government is responsible collectively, and thus the entire government resigns.
Switzerland is a small country located in the heart of western Europe, at the intersection of German, French and Italian language and culture. Switzerland has been multicultural in its own way for centuries. Direct Democracy in particular, has a long, but not undisputed tradition in this country. Switzerland’s unique political system is today world’s most stable democratic system, offering a maximum of participation to citizens.
John Muir was a Scottish-American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States.
The Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, take senior status, or are removed after impeachment (though no justice has ever been removed).
Nagaland is a’state in Northeast India. The state capital is Kohima. Nagaland became the 16th state of India from 1 December 1963.
GVMavalankar was the first speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Plural voting is the practice whereby (me person might be able to vote multiple times in an election.
Voting is the process of selecting representatives.
As per the procedure laid out by article 368 for amendment of the Constitution, an amendment can be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament. The Bill, passed by the required majority, is then presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill.
The concept of Directive Principles of State Policy was borrowed from the Irish Constitution. The makers of the Constitution of India were influenced by the Irish nationalist movement. Hence, the Directive Principles of the Indian constitution have been greatly influenced by the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Bills which exclusively contain provisions for imposition and abolition of taxes, for appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund, etc., are certified as Money Bills. Money Bills can be introduced only in LokSaWia.lt is rally the speaker of the LokSabha, who has the right to decide whether a Bill is Money Bill or not.
The Attorney General for India is the Indian government’s chief legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court of India. He is appointed by the President of India under Article 76( 1) of the Constitution and holds office during the pleasure of the President.
Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80 (2)), deals with the allocation of seats in the council of states (Rajya Sabha).
According to the Indian Constitution, 14 members can be nominated to both the houses of parliament by the President. This is the legislative power of the President where he nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and if not adequately represented 2 Anglo-Indian members to the Lok Sabha.
Under Article 32 of the Constitution, an individual can directly move to the Supreme Court in Case of any violation of fundamental rights. Fundamental Rights are those rights which are essential for the growth of an individual’s personality and are enjoyed by every citizen irrespective of caste, color, creed, race and sex.
A presidential system is a republican system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. The United States, for instance, has a presidential system. Popular election of President, no overlap in membership and fixed term of office are the main criteria of Presidential form of Government.
The concept of Concurrent List in Indian Constitution is borrowed from the Constitution of Australia. The Concurrent List or List-Ill is a list of 52 items(though the last item is numbered 47) given in Part XI of the Constitution of India, concerned with relations between the Union and States. This part is divided between legislative and administrative powers. The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union List, State List and Concurrent List.
The parliament of India has power to add a new state to the Union of India. This is done by collecting votes of Members of Parliament in the favour of new state,
the Parliament has the power to create all India Services.
The Provisional Parliament of India was consisted of 313 members. The Constitutional Assembly of India was introduced in 1934. This will become the major assembly to draft constitution for India (Including present day Pakistan and Bangladesh). Members of this assembly was indirectly elected representatives from across the India. It consists of the members of Congress and Muslim League. The first official meeting of this Constituent Assembly was held on 9 Dec, 1946 while the last meeting was held on 24 Jan, 1950. On 26th Jan, 1950, the day when Constitution of India finally took in effect, Constitutional Assembly was renamed as Provisional Parliament of India.This Provisional Parliament was dissolved after the first general election of India in 1952.
73rd Constitutional amendment act is related to provide 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all states having population of over 20 lakh.
Impeachment of the president for violation of consititution of India may start in either of the two houses of the Parliament.
Ganesh VasudevMavalankar was the first speaker of Lok Sabha.
The Article 324 of the Indian constitution basically empowers the Election Commission to exercise its power to prevent criminals and corrupt persons from entering politics.
If the President wants to resign he/she shall address his letter of resignation to the Vice-President.
The constitution of India came into effect from 26th January 1950
The Cold War, often dated from 1947 to 1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany,- leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.
The concept of Judicial Review in the Constitution of India is borrowed from USA. In the Indian constitution, Judicial review is dealt with under Article 13. Judicial Review refers that the Constitution is the supreme power of the nation and all laws are under its supremacy.
In the Constitution of India, the budget is known as Annual Financial Statement. The Union Budget of India, referred to as the Annual Financial Statement! 1 ] in Article 112 of the Constitution of India, is the annual budget of the Republic of India, presented each year on the last working day of February by the Finance Minister of India in Parliament. The budget, which is presented by means of the Financial Bill and the Appropriation bill has to be passed by the House before it can come into effect on April 1, the start of India’s financial year.
Zealand has parliamentary form of government. A parliamentary system of government means that the executive branch of government must have the direct or indirect support of the parliament. This support is usually shown by a vote of confidence. The relationship between the executive and the legislature in a. parliamentary system is called responsible government. Parliamentary systems usually have a head of government and a head of state. The head of government is the prime minister, who has the real power. The head of state often is an elected (either popularly or through parliament) president or, in the case of a constitutional monarchy, hereditary.
The Representation of The People Act, 1951: An Act to provide for the conduct of elections to the Houses of Parliament and to the House or Houses of the Legislature of each State.
A citizen has the right to ‘move the supreme court’ (under article 32) directly in case s/he feces any violation of his/her fundamental rights.
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat was the 11th Vice-President of India. He served in that position from August 2002, when he was elected to a five-year term, until he resigned on July 21,2007, after losing the presidential election to Pratibha Patil.
Article 16 of the Indian Constitution deals with equality of opportunity in matters ofpublic employment. It states that no citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State.
Democracy is a political system whereby people elect their representatives who then administer the region/ nation. Despotism is a way of ruling
in which the leader has total, unchecked power. It can also describe tyranny, the wielding of power through cruelty and terror.
John Locke in his Second Treatise of Civil Government, Chapter 6, said that the end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. According to him. in all the states of created beings capable of laws, where there is no law, there is no freedom.
Judges in a High Court are appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the governor of the state. The Constitution confers the power of appointment of judges on the President of lndia
Liberty means absence of restraint and assures freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
Vice President acts as President only for a maximum period of six months within which a new president to be elected. While acting as a President or discharging the functions of president, he/she doesn’t perform the duties of the office of the chairman of RajyaSabha. During this period, those duties are performed by the deputy Chairman of RajyaSabha
A system of government in which the powers of the president are constitutionally separate from those of the legislature.
The method of amending the Constitution by popular veto is found in Switzerland.
A parliamentary form of government is a democratic one where the head of state and head of government are held by different people and the executive and legislature branches of government are linked. The executive and legislature branch are linked because the executive branch gets its power from the legislative branch and is held accountable for their actions by them as well. The leaders of the majority party or alliance in the legislature become the members of the Cabinet or Ministry. Naturally, the ministers can easily extend their influence on the legislature. Consequently, the programs and policies of the Cabinet are backed by a majority inside the legislature. This feature is inalienable in Parliamentary form of government.
Economic equality is not compatible with the liberal notion of equality. Liberal means free of restraints and economic equality is about a level playing field where everyone has the same access to the same wealth; which is not possible.
Article 335: Allows relaxation in qualifying marks for admission in educational institutes or promotions for SCs/STs.
The Fundamental Rights are defined in Part III of the Constitution which apply to every Indian citizen irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed or gender.
“Kinship” says Maclver, creates society and society at length creates the state.”
Article 167 defines the duties of the chief minister.
The state has four essential elements:
Seventh Schedule gives allocation of powers and functions between Union & States. It contains 3 lists
1. Union List (For central Govt.) 97 Subjects.
2. States List (Powers of State Govt.) 66 subjects
3. Concurrent List (Both Union & States) 47 subjects.
The joint sitting of the Parliament is called by the President and is presided over by the Speaker or, in his absence, by the Deputy Speaker of the LokSabha or in his absence, the Deputy-Chairman of the RajyaSabha.
President order: NeelamSanjiva Reddy(from 25 July 1977 to 25 July 1982),GianiZail Singh (from 25 July 1982 to 25 July 1987), RamaswamyVenkataraman (from 25 July 1987 to 25 July 1992), Shankar Dayal Sharma (from 25 July 1992 to 25 July 1997).
As per article 66, the candidate contesting for election of Vice-President of India, He must have completed age of 35 years.
Quo Warranto is a writ issued with a view to restrain a person from holding a public office to which he is not entitled.
National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog was established by the NDA government to replace the Planning Commission in January 2015.
According to the article 61 of Indian constitution, the recommendation of the two houses of the parliament is mandatory to impeach the President of India from his office before the completion of his/her term.
There are five types of writs in the Indian Constitution – Habeas Corpus, Certiorari, Quo-Warranto, Mandamus and Prohibition.Thus, Supreme Court under Article 32(2) and High Courts under Article 226 are empowered to issue writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
According to article 60 of the Indian constitution, Chief justice of India or, in his absence, the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court available, administers the oath of the President of India.
In the 19th century the theory of sovereignty as a legal concept was perfected by Austin, an English Jurist.
Fundamental Duties have been enumerated in Article 51 -A in part-IV A of our Constitution.
As per the 157 of the Constitution of India, No person shall be eligible for appointment as Governor unless he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of 35 years.
The Democratic form of government is an institutional configuration that allows for popular participation through the electoral process.
Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and is not subject to dissolution. However, one-third members of the Rajya Sabha retire after every six years.
Article 72 gives the pardoning power to the president in which duration of sentence is reduced without changing its character.
Pocket veto empowers the president to simply keep the bill pending for an indefinite periods The president neither ratifies nor rejects nor returns the bill.
The president’s seat can be left vacant for atmost 6 months, after that fresh elections has to be conducted.
61st constitutional amendment Act of India, 1989, lowered the voting age of elections to the LOK Sabha and to the legislative Assemblies of state from 21 years to 18 years.
Arvind Panagariya, is the Vice Chairman of the newly formed NITI AAYOG
Yes. In India, the president has three veto power i.e. absolute, suspension & Pocket.
In Mixed Economy, forces of demand and supply operates in the market. Therefore, consumer is compared to the King.
Village Panchayat is an example of direct democracy.
The words socialist and secular were added to preamble to the constitution by the 42nd Amendment.
Plebiscite elicits the Public opinion on a Bill.
Fraternity means spirit of brotherhood.
NITI lull form is National Institution for Transforming India and it replaced the planning commission.
The main purpose of inclusion of Directive Principles in the constitution of India is to establish socio-eco¬nomic democracy.
Panchayati Raj is based on the Principle of decentralisation of power.
Speaker of Lok Sabha is empowered to preside over the joint session of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
The Sixty first Amendment of the constitution of India, 1989, lowered the voting age of elections to the Lok, Sabha and to the Legislative assemblies of states from 21 years to 18 years.
The Vice President of India is elected by the members of Parliament in both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Political Parties absensce from the Democracy makes its functioning impossble.
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