NEET AIPMT Biology Chapter Wise Solutions – Syllabus
UNIT I: Diversity In Living world
- What is living?: Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of taxonomy – museums, zoos, herbaria, botanical gardens.
- Five kingdom classification: salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and viroids.
- Salient features and classification of plants: into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.
- Salient features and classification of animals: Nonchordate up to phyla level and Chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation In Animals And Plants
- Morphology and modifications: Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant practical of the practical syllabus). .
- Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell: Structure And Function
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; Mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant-water relations-imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water-absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis; Pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Respiration: Exchange of gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT V: Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea,
- Breathing and respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricote- lism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (to be dealt with the relevant practical of practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans-central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system- hypothalamus, pituitary pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (common disorders e.g. dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exopthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
UNIT I: Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; Vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female game- tophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-pistil interaction; Double fertilisation; Post fertilisation events- development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy. polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); Parturition (elementary idea); Lactation (elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics And Evolution
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-in humans, birds, honeybee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- lac operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence; Darwin’s contribution, modem synthetic theory of evolution; Mechanism of evolution-variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease: Pathogens; Parasites causing human diseases (malaria, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and animal husbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilisers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology And Its Applications
- Principles and processes of biotechnology: Genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology).
- Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology And Environment
- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorus); Ecological succession; Ecological services-carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of biodiversity; Patterns of biodiversity; Importance of biodiversity; Loss of biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.