Campus Recruitment – Verbal Ability – Closet – Reading Comprehension
Reading is a skill which has other sub-skills included in it. It is not mere recognition of the words, it also includes being able to understand, comprehend and respond, if questioned about the text. Many languages share the same script; Hindi, Punjabi, Telugu, Kannada. For that matter all European Languages like English, French, Spanish and German have the same script. Being able to read a script does not ensure understanding the script. Another important aspect is familiarity with the content. If you are not in the habit of reading, if you are not aware of what’s happening around you, then even the simplest of scripts will seem like Greek and Latin. The most important point is READ, READ and READ.
1. Spend a few minutes a day reading at a faster than comfortable rate (about 2 to 3 times faster than your normal speed). Use your hand or an index card to guide your eyes down the page. Then time yourself reading a few pages at your normal speed.
2. If you have poor concentration when reading, practice reading for only 5 to 10 minutes at a time and gradually increase this time
3. As we read, our eyes move along the line in a series of jerky movements, stopping at each word. Fast readers usually take in 3-4 words in each movement that their eye makes. The more words you can take in with each movement of the eye, the faster your reading will be. Try to avoid focusing on every word, but rather look at groups of 2 to 3 words.
e.g.: The above sentence could be read as:
Try to avoid/ focusing on every word/ but/ rather look at/ groups of 2 to 3 words.
4. Read more! 15 min a day of reading an average size novel equals 18 books a year at an avg reading speed!
5. Spend a few minutes a day reading at a faster than comfortable rate (about 2 to 3 times faster than your normal speed). Use your hand or an index card to guide your eyes down the page. Then time yourself reading a few pages at your normal speed. You’ll find that often your normal reading speed will increase. Being a voracious reader is just not enough. In examinations where reading skills are tested, the ability to read and comprehend fast is needed. Here are some tips to tackle the reading section. In order to improve your reading speed, follow these steps.
One of the most effective ways of reading in order to be able to comprehend quickly is the SQ3R method:
Scanning provides a rapid overview. Many well written books follow logical outlines that can orient the reader to the subject matter.
Questioning is a natural, instinctive, second step that most winners follow. In the scanning process, certain questions naturally arise. These should be noted in a short list of questions to be answered through reading. The questioning procedure helps the reader stay focused.
- First, determine the main idea from the title, the first paragraph, and the last paragraph.
- Second, determine if a large subject is divided into smaller subjects with some outlining scheme.
- Underline key words or take notes to the side what the purpose of the paragraph is. i.e. cause, effect, reason, example, definition, instructions, background info, etc. Don’t worry if you can’t do that for all and don’t spend too much time trying to identify each paragraph.
- Read for Author’s Main Idea and Primary Purpose.
- At the end of reading, ask yourself questions like: What was the passage about? What was author’s motive in writing all this?
- Don’t over read. Skip examples, dates, lengthy names, any details which can be. referred in case something is asked explicitly!
- Don’t go for choices which hold true only for one part of the author’s argument.
- Finally, review as often as necessary to keep focused. Outlining and note-taking often help.
- Once you start to become an effective reader, you will find that you are also becoming a faster reader.
- With these tips your reading skills are sure to improve.
A) Management education gained new academic stature with US Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960’s and 1970’s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University , won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And the popularity of business education continued to grow, since 1960, the number of master’s degrees awarded annually has grown from under 5000 to over 50000 in the mid 1980’s, & the MBA has become known as ‘the passport to the good life’.
By the 1980’s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so far as to blame business schools for the decline in US competitiveness.
Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be discerned. The first is that business schools must be either unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. Underlying this argument is the idea that management ability cannot be taught, one is either bom with it or must acquire it over years or practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that have little application to real world problems. Third, they give inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage undesirable ; attitudes in students, such as placing value on the short term and ‘bottom line’ targets, while neglecting longer- term development criteria. In summary, some business executives complain that MBA’s are incapable of handling day to day operational decisions, unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept responsibility for following through on implementation plans. We shall analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other countries.
In contrast to the expansion and development of business education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of management in the entire country until the mid 1970’s and it still boasts the only two year masters program.
The absence of business schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority placed upon learning by its Confudan culture. Confudan colleges taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in US, Germany, England and France to learn the secrets of Western technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the Japanese to the highest level in the world.
Until recently, Japanese corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign business schools for the development. Of their future executives. Their in-company training programs have sought the serialization of newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and those who receive it have neither the capadty nor the incentive to quit.
‘The prevailing belief says Imai, ‘is that management should be bom out of experience and many years of effort and not leamt from educational institutions.’ A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that ‘managerial capabilities can be attained only on the job and not in universities.
However, this view seems to be changing: that same to be changing: the same survey revealed that even as early as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should teach integrated professional management. In the 1980’s, a Combination of increased competitive pressures and greater multi¬nationalization of Japanese business are making it difficult for many companies to rely solely upon internally trained managers. This has led to a rapid growth of local business programs and a greater use of American MBA programs. In 1982-83, the Japanese comprised the largest single group of foreign students at Wharton, where they not only leamt the latest techniques of financial analysis, but also developed world-wide contacts through their dassmates and became Americanized, something highly useful in future negotiations.
The Japanese, then do not ‘do without’ business schools, as is sometimes contended. But the process of selecting and orienting new graduates, even MBA’s, into corporations is’radically different than in the US . Rather than being placed in highly paying staff positions, new Japanese recruits are assigned responsibility for operational and even menial tasks. Success is based upon Japan’s system of highly competitive recruitment and intensive in-company management development, which in turn are grounded in its tradition of universal and rigorous academic education, life-long employment and strong group identification.
The harmony among these traditional elements has made Japanese industry highly productive and given corporate leadership a long-term view. It is true that this has been achieved without much attention to university business education, but extraordinary attention has been devoted to the development of managerial skills, both within the company and through participation in programs sponsored by the Productivity Center and other similar organizations.
1. The 1960’s and 1970’s can best be described as a period:
a) When quality business education contribute to the superiority of US corporations.
b) When the number of MBA’s raised form under 5000 to over to 50000.
c) When management education gained new academic stature and greater respect.
d) When the MBA became more disreputable.
2. According to the passage
a) Learning, which was useful in the 1960’s and 1970’s became irrelevant in the 1980’s
b) Management education faced criticisms in the 1980’s
c) Business schools are insensitive to the needs of industry.
d) By the 1980’s business schools contributed to the decline in US competitiveness.
3. The growth in popularity of business schools among students was most probably due to:
a) Herbert A. Simon,a management professor, winning the Nobel Prize in economics.
b) The gain in academic stature.
c) The large number of MBA degrees awarded.
d) A perception that it was a ‘passport to good life’.
4. A criticism that management education did not face was that:
a) It imparted poor quantitative skills to MBA’s
b) It was unnecessary and deleterious.
c) It was irrevocably irrelevant.
d) It inculcated undesirable attitudes in students.
5. US business schools faced criticism in the 1980’s because
a) Of the decline in Japanese competitiveness.
b) Many critics felt that the learning had little relevance to business problems.
c) People realized that management ability cannot be taught
d) MBAs were unwilling to accept responsibility for implementation on the shop floor.
6. The absence of business schools in Japan:
a) Is due to the prevalent belief that management ability can only be acquired over years of practical expense.
b) Was due to the high priority placed on learning as opposed to doing in Confucian culture.
c) Is hard to explain for the proponents of business education.
d) Contributed a great deal to their success in international trade and business.
7. The Japanese were initially able to do without business schools as a result of
a) Their highly developed
and intensively competitive education system.
b) Dispatching hundreds of students to learn the secrets of Western technology and modernization.
c) Their highly specific in-company training programs
d) Prevailing beliefs regarding educational institutions
8. The Japanese modified their views on management \ education because of:
a) Greater exposure to US MBA programs
b) The need to develop world-wide contacts and become Americanized.
c) The outstanding success of business schools in the US during the 1960’s and 1970’s.
d) A combination of increased competitive pressures ; and greater multi-nationalization of Japanese business
9. Training programmers in Japanese corporations have:
a) Been based upon Confucian culture.
b) Sought the socialization of newcomers.
c) Been targeted at people who have neither the capacity nor the incentive to quit.
d) Been teaching people domenia tasks.
10. The author argues that:
a) Japanese do not do without business schools as is generally perceived.
b) Japanese corporations do not hire MBAs because of traditions of universal and rigorous academic education, life-long employment and strong group identification.
c) Placing MBAs in operational and menial tasks is a major factor in Japanese business success.
d) US corporations should emulate the Japanese and change the way new recruits are induced.
11. The main difference between US and Japanese corporations is:
a) That one employs MBAs, the other does not.
b) That US corporations do not employ Japanese people
c) That US corporations pay more to fresh recruits.
d) In the process of selecting and orienting new recruits
12. The author argues that the Japanese system
a) is better than the American system
b) is highly productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as result of its strong traditions.
c) Is slowly becoming Americanized.
d) Succeeds without business schools, whereas the US system fails because of it.
B) To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced. Space may sound a vague, poetic metaphor until we realize that it describes experiences of everyday life . We know what it means to be in a green and open field; we know what it means to be on a crowded rush hour bus. These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others. In our jobs we know what is to be pressed and crowded, our working space diminished by the urgency of deadlines and competitiveness of colleagues. But then there are times when deadlines disappear and colleagues cooperate, when everyone has a space to move, invent and produce, with energy and enthusiasm. With family and friends, we know how it feels to have unreasonable demands placed upon us, to be boxed in by the expectations of those nearest to us. But then there are times when we feel accepted for who we are (or forgiven for who we are not), times when a spouse or a child or a friend gives us the space both to be and to become.
Similar experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades — to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning . But to study with a teacher who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourages students to help each other learn-to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space.
A learning space has three essential dimensions: openness, boundaries and an air of hospitality. To create open learning space is to remove the impediments to learning that we find around and within us: we often create them ourselves to evade the challenge of truth and transformation. One source of such impediments is our fear of appearing ignorant to others or to ourselves. The openness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries. A learning space cannot extend indefinitely: if it did, it would not be a structure for learning but an invitation for confusion and chaos. When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers. The teacher who wants to create an open learning space must define and defend its boundaries with care. Because the pursuit of truth can be painful and discomforting, the learning space must be hospitable.
Hospitable means receiving each other, our struggles, our new-born ideas with openness and care. It means creating an ethos in which the community of truth can form and the pain of its transformation be borne. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless , but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur — things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.
The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom. Consider the traditional classroom setting with row upon row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality or room for students to relate to the thoughts df each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect.
At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space, space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing. Assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading, which opens, not fills, our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.
We also create learning space through the kind of speech we utter and the silence from which true speech emanates. Speech is a precious gift and a vital tool, but too often our speaking is an evasion of truth, a way of buttressing our self-serving reconstructions of reality. Silence must therefore be an integral part of learning space. In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite.
Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the classroom, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning. In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings, the community of truth can flourish between us and we can flourish in it.
13. Which of the following statements best describes the author’s conception of f learning space?
a) Where the teacher is friendly.
b) Where there is no grim competition for grades,
c) Where the students are encouraged to learn about
d) Where the teacher provides information and theories which open new doors and encourages students to help each other learn.
14. The statement ‘the openness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries’ appears contradictory. Following statements provides the best justification for the proposition?
a) We cannot have a space without boundaries.
b) Bounded space is highly structured.
c) When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers.
d) A teacher can effectively defend a learning space without boundaries.
15. According to the author, learning is a painful process because:
a) It exposes our ignorance.
b) Our views and hypotheses are challenged.
c) It involves criticizing the views of others.
d) All of the above reasons.
16. The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality is multidimensional. It involves operating at:
a) Psychological and conceptual levels.
b) Physical, perceptual and behavioral levels.
c) Physical, conceptual and emotional levels.
d) Conceptual. Verbal and sensitive levels
17. According to “the author, silence must be an integral part of learning space because: –
a) Silence helps to unite us with others to create a community of truth
b) Silent contemplation prepares us to construct our mind-made world.
c) Speaking is too often an exercise in the evasion of truth
d) Speaking is too often a way of buttressing our self¬serving reconstruction of reality.
18. According to the author, an effective teacher does not allow:
a) Feeling to arise within the learning space.
b) Silence to become an integral part of the learning space.
c) Learning space to be filled by speed-reading of several hundred passages of assigned reading.
d) Violation of learning space boundaries.
19. Understanding the notion of space in our relations with others is:
a) To acknowledge the beauty of a poetic metaphor.
b) Exclusively rooted in our experiences of physical space
c) To accept a spiritual dimension in our dealings with our peers
d) To extend the parallel of physical space to our experiences in daily life.
20. Another way of describing the author’s notion of learning space can be summarized in the following manner:
a) It is vital that learning be accompanied by unlearning
b) Learning encompasses such elements as courage, dignity and endeavor.
c) An effective teacher recognizes the value of empathy.
d) Encourage good learners,discourage indifferent ones
21. Conceptual space with words can be created by
a) Assigned reading and lecturing
b) Speed reading and written comprehension
c) Gentle persuasion and deliberate action
d) A teacher who worships critical silence
C) Environmental protection and management is deservedly attracting a lot of attention these days. This is a desirable development in the face of the alarming rate of natural resource degradation, which greatly hampers their optimal utilization. When waste waters emanating from municipal sewage, industrial effluent, agriculture and land runoffs find their way either to ground water reservoirs to other surface water sources, the quality of water deteriorates, rendering it unfit for use. The natural balance is distributed when concentrated discharges of waste water is not controlled. This is because the cleansing forces of nature cannot do their job in proportion to the production of filthy matter.
According to the National Environment Engineering and Research Institute (NEERI), a staggering 70 percent of water available in the country is polluted. According to the Planning Commission: “From the Dal Lake in the North to the Shalimar Rivers in the South, from Damodar and Hooghly in the East to the Thane creek in the West, the picture of water pollution is uniformly gloomy. Even our large perennial rivers, like the Ganga, are today heavily polluted”.
According to one study, all the 14 major rivers of India are highly polluted. Beside the Ganga, these rivers include the Yamuna, Narmada, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry 85 percent of the surface runoff and their drainage basins cover 73 per cent of the country. The pollution of the much- revered Ganga is due in particular to municipal sewage that accounts for 3/4* of its pollution load. Despite India having legislation on water pollution [The Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974] and various water pollution control boards, rivers have today become synonymous with drains and sewers.
Untreated community wastes discharged into water courses from human settlements account for four times as much waste water as industrial effluent. Out of India’s 3119 towns and cities, only 217 have partial (209) or full (8) sewerage treatment facilities and cover less than a third of the urban population. Statistics reveal that 1,700 of 2,700 water using industries in India , are pollution the water around their factories. Only 160 industries have waste water treatment plants. One estimate suggests that the volume of waste water of industrial origin will be comparable to that of domestic sewage in India by 2000 AD. Discharges from agricultural fields which carry fertilizing ingredients of nitrogen, phosphorous and pesticides are expected to
be three times as much as domestic sewage. By that date, thermal pollution generated by discharges from thermal power plants will be the largest in volume.
Toxic effluents deplete the levels of oxygen in the rivers, endanger all aquatic life and render water absolutely unfit for human consumption, apart from affecting industrial production. Sometimes these effects have been disastrous. A recent study reveals that the water of the Ganga , Yamuna, Kali and Hindon rivers have considerable concentrations of heavy metals due to inflow of industrial wastes, which pose a serious health hazard to the millions living on their banks. Similarly, the Cauvery and Kapila rivers in Karnataka have been found to contain metal pollution which threatens the health of people in riverine towns.
The Periyar, the largest river of Kerala , receives extremely toxic effluents that result in high incidence of skin problems and fish kills. The Godavari of AndhraPradesh and the Damodar and Hooghly in West Bengal receive untreated industrial toxic wastes. A high level of pollution has been found in the Yamuna, while the Chambal of Rajasthan is considered the most polluted river in Rajasthan. Even in industrially backward Orissa, the Rushikula river is extremely polluted. The fate of the Krishna in AndhraPradesh, the Tungabhadra in Karnataka, the Chaliyar in Kerala, the Gomti in U.P., the Narmada in M.P and the Sonc and the Subamakekha rivers in Bihar rivers in Bihar is no different.
According to the W.H.O., eighty percent of diseases prevalent in India are water-borne: many of them assume epidemic proportions. The prevalence of these diseases heightens under conditions of drought. It is also estimated that India loses as many as 73 million man-days every year due to water prone diseases, costing f600 crore by way of treatment expenditure and production losses. Management of water resources with respect to their quality also assumes greater importance especially when the country can no more afford to waste water.
The recent Clean-the-Ganga Project with an action plan estimated to cost the exchequer 250 crore (which has been accorded top priority) is a trendsetter in achieving this goal The action plan evoked such great interest that offers of assistance have been received from France, UK, US and the Netherlands as also the World Bank. This is indeed laudable. Poland too has now joined this list. The very fact that these countries have volunteered themselves to contribute their mite is a healthy reflection of global concern over
growing environmental degradation and the readiness of the international community to participate in what is a truly formidable task. It may be recalled that the task of cleansing the Ganga alone the Rishikesh-Hardwar stretch under the first phase of the Ganga Action Plan has been completed and the results are reported to be encouraging.
The crisis of drinking water is deepening because water resources are drying up and the lowering of ground water through over pumping; this is compounded by the pollution of water sources. All these factors increase the magnitude of the problem.
An assessment of the progress achieved by the end of March 1985, on completion of the first phase of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-91) reveals that drinking water has been available to 73 percent of the urban population and 56% of the rural population only. This means that nearly half the country’s rural population has to get drinking water facilities. This needs to be urgently geared up especially when considered against the Government’s professed objective of providing safe drinking water and sanitation to all by the end of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade i.e., March 1991. The foremost action in this would be to clear, up our water resources.
As per surveys conducted by the NEERI, per capital drinking water losses in different cities in the country range between 11000 to 31000 liters annually. This indicates a waste level of 20 to 35 percent of the total flow of water in the distribution system primarily due to leaks in main and household service pipes. Preventive maintenance program would substantially reduce losses and wastage, and would certainly go a long way in solving the problem.
According to the Union Minister of Works and Housing, out of 2.31 lakh problem villages have been ’ provided with at least one source of drinking water as of March, 1986.
The balance (38748) villages are expected to be covered during the seventh plan. A time bound national policy on drinking water is being formulated by the government wherein the task is proposed to be completed by the end of the seventh plan. An outlay of ^6522.47 crore has been allotted for the water supply and sanitation sector in the seventh plan period against an outlay of ^3922.02 crore in the sixth plan. Of this, outlay for rural water supply sector is ^3454.47 crore. It is expected that this outlay would help to cover about 86.4 percent of the urban and 82.2 per cent of the rural population with safe drinking water facilities by March 1991. Hygienic sanitation facilities would be provided to 44.7 and 1.8 percent of the urban and rural population respectively within the same period.
22. The degradation of natural resources will necessarily lead to:
a) Poor economic utilization of resources.
b) Contamination of water from municipal sewage.
c) Water unfits for human consumption
d) None of the above
23. According to NEERI:
a) The extent of water pollution in the DalLake is grim
b) 70 percent of the total water available in the country is polluted.
c) Only 217 out of 311 towns and cities have sewage treatment facilities
d) All the 14 major rivers of India are highly polluted
24. Municipal sewage pollutants account for:
a) The lowest percentage of water pollution
b) 75 percent of the Ganga’s water pollution Load.
c) Twice the volume of the waste water of industrial origin.
d) three times as much as the discharge from agricultural fields.
25. Which of the following statements is correct?
a) The river Periyar is in-the South India.
b) The river Periyar is the largest river of Kerala.
c) The river Gomti is extremely polluted.
d) All of the above are correct
26. The cost of the Clean-the-Ganga Pollution Project Action Plan is likely to be sourced from:
a) The Indian Exchequer.
b) France, UK, US and the Netherlands.
c) The World Bank, Poland, UK
d) The US, UK, Netherlands, Poland, France, the World Bank and India
27. Which of the following statements made by the W.H.O. is correct?
a) Water-borne diseases account for 80percent of all diseases prevalent in India
b) Water-borne diseases in India create a loss of f600 crore every year
c) Both 1 and 2 are correct
d) None of these
28. Considerable amounts of metal pollutants are found in the river(s):
a) Chambal of Rajasthan
b) Rushikula in Orissa
c) Damodar, Hooghly, Krishna and Gomti.
d) Ganga, Yamuna, Kali, Hindon, Cauvery and Kapila
29. The crisis of drinking water is caused chiefly by:
a) The greenhouse effect.
b) Water pollution caused by industrial development.
c) Drying up of water sources and over pumping.
d) Increasing urbanization.
30. The best remedy for shortage lies in:
a) Putting up more pumps in rural areas, r b) Cleaning up polluted water.
c) Reducing the waste level of 25-30 percent of the total 1 flow of water,
d) Constructing large sized dams.
31. Out of the total outlay for water supply sanitation in the seventh plan, rural water supply sector would receive:
a) about 53 percent
b) over 80 percent
c) between 65 to 80 percent
d) equal to 44.7 percent
D) How quickly things change in the technology ‘ business! A decade ago, IBM was the awesome and
undisputed king of the computer trade, universally ‘ feared & respected. A decade ago, two little companies
called Intel and Microsoft were mere blips on the radar screen of the industry,upstart start-ups that had signed on to make the chips and software for IBM’s new line of personal computers. Though their products soon . became industry standards, the two companies
remained proh-ried children of the market leader. What has happened since is a startling reversal
of fortune. IBM is being ravaged by the worst crisis in ‘ the company’s 79-year history. It is undergoing its fifth
restructuring in the past seven years as well as seemingly endless rounds of job cuts and firings that have eliminated 100000 jobs since 1985. Last week IBM announced to its shell-shocked investors that it lost , $4.97 billion last year – the biggest loss in American corporate history.
And just when IBM is losing ground in one market after another, Intel and Microsoft have emerged i- as the computer industry’s most fearsome pair of competitors. The numbers on Wall Street tell a stunning story. Ten years ago, the market value of the stock of Intel and Microsoft combined amounted to ‘ about a tenth of IBM’s. Last week, with IBM’s stock at an II-year low, Microsoft’s value surpassed its old L mentor’s for the first time ever ($26.76 billion to $26.48 billion) and Intel ($24.3 billion) is not far behind. While IBM is posting losses, Intel’s profits jumped 30%, and L Microsoft’s rose 44%.
computer chips, and Microsoft, the world’s largest supplier of computer software, have assumed the role long played by Big Blue as the industry’s pacesetter. What is taking place is a generational shift unprecedented in the information age — one recalls a transition in the US auto industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors surpassed Ford Motor as America ‘s No. 1 car maker. The transition also reflects the decline of computer manufacturers like IBM, Wang and Unisys, and the rise of companies like Microsoft, Intel and AT&T that create the chips and software to make the computers work. “Just like Dr Frankenstein, IBM is in danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed.”
Although Intel and Microsoft still have close relationships with Big Blue, there is little love lost between IBM and its potent progeny. IBM had an ugly falling-out with former partner Microsoft over the future of personal-computer software. Microsoft developed the now famous disk operating system for IBM-PC …. called DOS – and later created the operation software for the next generation of IBM personal computers, the PS/2. When PS/2 and its operating system OS/2 failed to catch on, a feud erupted over how the two companies would upgrade the system. Although they publicly patched things up, the partnership was tattered.
IBM developed its own version of OS/2, which has so far failed to capture the industry’s imagination. Microsoft’s competing version, dubbed New Technology, or NT, will debut in a few months and will incorporate Microsoft’s highly successful Windows program, which lets users juggle several programs at once. Windows NT, however, will offer more new features, such as the ability to link many computers together in a network and to safeguard them against unauthorized use.
IBM and Intel have also been parting company. After relying almost exclusively on the Santa Clara, California company for the silicon chips that serve as computer brains, IBM has moved to reduce its dependence on Intel by turning to competing vendors. In Europe , IBM last year began selling a low-cost line of PC’s called Ambra, which runs on chips made by Intel rival Advanced Micro Devices. IBM also demonstrated a sample PC using a chip made by another Intel enemy, Cyrix. And last October IBM said it would begin selling the company’s own chips to outsiders in direct competition with Intel.
IBM dearly feels threatened, and the wounded giant still poses the biggest threat to any further dominance by Intel and Microsoft. Last year it teamed up with both companies most bitter rivals – Apple Computers and Motorola – to develop advanced software and microprocessors for a new generation of Desktop computers. In selecting Apple and Motorola, IBM bypassed its long-time partners. Just as Microsoft’s standard operating system runs only on computers built around Intel’s computer chips, Apple’s software runs only on Motorola’s chips. Although IBM has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of machines, it will initially run only computer programs written for Apple’s Macintosh or IBM’s OS/2. Its competitive juice now flowing, IBM last week; announced that it and Apple Computer will deliver the operating system in 1994 — a year ahead of schedule.
32. As a result of greater competition in the US computer industry,
a) some computer companies are expanding while others are contracting
b) employment in the industry is going down
c) the industry is becoming more monopolized
d) the share value of IBM is going up relative to that of Intel and Microsoft
33. Why is something that happened 70 years ago in the US auto industry being mentioned here
a) General Motors broke away from Ford Motor.
b) A new company went ahead of an established market leader
c) Like Dr. Frankenstein, Ford Motor created a monster in General Motors
d) Microsoft,Intel and AT&T where originally created by IBM.
34. Who is mentioned as the principal supplier of silicon chips to IBM?
35. The personal computer called Ambra is market by
36. What was the original reason for the feud between IBM and Microsoft?
a) The two companies developed competing software
b) Microsoft and Intel teamed up against IBM.
c) IBM began to purchase microchips from Intel instead of Microsoft.
d) IBM made losses while Microsoft made profits.
37. Which of the following statements is not implied by the passage?
a) The makers of microchips & software are becoming leaders in the computer industry.
b) Wang and Unisys are primarily manufacturers of computers.
c) IBM laying off workers is the biggest job cut in American corporate history.
d) Intel is based in California
38. Which of the following statements is true?
a) IBM plans to introduce a new system that will run on a variety of machines.
b) IBM’s new generation desktop computers will run only on Motorola’s chips.
c) IBM is working out a joint strategy with apple to force Motorola to supply chips at a lower price
d) IBM is going to sell its own chips to apple and Motorola.
39. Many computers would be linked together through a network in a system developed by:
d) None of the above
40. One possible conclusion from the passage is that:
a) Share prices are not a good indicator of a company’s performance
b) Firing workers restores a company’s health.
c) All companies ultimately regret being a Dr. Frankenstein to some other company.
d) Consumers gain as a result of competition among producers.
E) Emile Durkheim, the first person to be formally recognized as a sociologist and the most scientific of the pioneers, conducted a study that stands as a research model for sociologists today. His investigation of suicide was, in fact, the first sociological study to use statistics. In Suicide (1964, originally published in 1897)Durkheim documented his contention that some aspects of human behavior – even something as allegedly individualistic as suicide – can be explained without reference to individuals.
Like all of Durkheim’s work, suicide must be viewed within the context of his concern for social integration. Durkheim wanted to see if suicide rates within a social entity (for example, a group, organization, or society) are related to the degree to which individuals are socially involved (integrated and regulated). Durkheim described three types of suicide: egoistic, anomic, and altruistic. Egoistic suicide is promoted when individuals do not have sufficient social ties. Since single (never married) adults, for example, are not heavily involved with family life, they are more likely to commit suicide than are married adults.
Altruistic suicide, on the other hand, is more likely to occur when social integration is too strong. The ritual suicide of Hindu widows on their husbands’ funeral pyres is one example. Military personnel, trained to lay down their lives for their country, provide another illustration.
Durkheim’s third type of suicide-anomic suicide – increases when the social regulation of individuals is disrupted. For example, suicide rates increase during economic depression. People who suddenly find themselves without a job or without hope of finding one are more prone to kill themselves. Suicides may also increase during periods of prosperity. People may loosen their social ties by taking new jobs, moving to new communities, or finding new mates.
Using data from the government population reports of several countries (much of it from the French Government Statistical Office), Durkheim found strong support for his line of reasoning. Suicide rates were higher among single than married people, among military personnel than civilians, among divorced than married people, and among people involved in nationwide economic crises.
It is important to realize that Durkheim’s primary interest was not in the empirical (observable) indicators he used, such as suicide rates among military personnel, married people, and so forth. Rather, Durkheim used the following indicators to support several of his contentions:
(1) Social behavior can be explained by social rather than psychological factors.
(2) Suicide is affected by the degree of integration and regulation within social entities; and
(3) since society can be studied scientifically, sociology is worthy of recognition in the academic world. Durkheim was successful on all three counts.
41. In his study of suicide Durkheim’s main purpose was:
a) to document that suicide can be explained without reference to the individual.
b) to provide an explanation of the variation in the rate of suicide across societies.
c) to categories various types of suicide.
d) to document that social behavior can be explained by social rather than psychological factors.
42. According to Durkheim, suicide rates within a social entity can be explained in terms of:
a) absence of social ties
b) disruption of social regulation
c) nature of social integration
d) all of the above
43. Since single adults are not heavily involved with family life they are more likely to commit suicide which Durkheim categorized as
a) Anomic suicide
b) Altruistic suicide
c) Egoistic suicide
d) both b and c
44. Higher suicide rate during rapid progress In a society is a manifestation of
a) Altruistic suicide
b) anomic suicide
c) egoistic suicide
d) none of the above
45. Ritual suicide of Hindu widows on their husband’s funeral pyres was
a) a manifestation of strong social integration
b) an example of brutality against women
c) an example of anomic suicide
d) an example of egoistic suicide
46. Increase in die suicide rate during economic depression is an example of:
a) Altruistic suicide
b) anomic suicide
c) egoistic suicide
d) both a and c
47. According to Durkheim; altruistic suicide is more likely among:
a) military personnel than among civilians
b) single people than among married people
c) divorcees than among married people
d) people involved in nation-wide economic crisis
48. To support his contentions, Durkheim relied on the following indicators
a) Social behavior is explicable predominantly through social factors
b) Suicide is contingent upon the degree of regulation and interaction
c) Recognizing sociology is to acknowledge that society is susceptible to scientific investigation.
d) All of the above
49. Basing himself on his own indicators, Durkheim was
a) Right on some counts not others
b) Vindicated on all counts
c) Wrong but did not realize that he was right
d) Substantially correct but formally wrong .
F) The connective tissues are heterogeneous group of tissues derived from the mesenchyme, a meshwork of stellate cells that develop in the middle layer of the early embryo. They have the general function of maintaining the structural integrity of organs, and providing cohesion and internal support for the body as a whole. The connective tissues include several types of fibrous tissue that vary only in their density and cellularity, as well as more specialized variants ranging from adipose tissue through cartilage to bone. The cells that are responsible for the specific functions of an organ are referred to as it parenchyma.
While the delicate fibrous meshwork that binds the cells together into functional units, the fibrous partitions or septa that enclose aggregations of functional units, and the dense fibrous capsule that encloses the whole organ, collectively make up its connective-tissue framework, or stroma. Blood vessels, both large and small, course through connective tissue, which is therefore closely associated with the nourishment of tissues and organs throughout the | body. All nutrient materials and waste products ; exchanged between the organs and the blood must traverse peri-vascular spaces occupied by connective tissue. One of the important functions of the connective-tissue cells is to maintain conditions in the extra-cellular spaces that favor this exchange.
Some organs are suspended from the wall of a body cavity by thin sheets of connective tissue called mesenteries; others are embedded in adipose tissue a form of a connective tissue in which the cells are specialized for the synthesis and storage of energy-rich reserves of fat, or lipid. The entire body is supported from within by a skeleton composed of bone, a type of connective tissue endowed with great resistance to stress owing to its highly ordered, laminated structure and to its hardness, which results from deposition of mineral salts in its fibers and amorphous matrix. The individual bones of the skeleton are held firmly together by ligaments, and mussels are attached to bone by tendons, both of which are examples of dense connective tissue in which many fiber bundles are associated in parallel array to provide great tensile strength.
At joints, the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with cartilage, a connective tissue with an abundant inter cellular substance that gives it a firm consistency well adopted to permit smooth gliding movements between the opposed surfaces. The synovial membrane, which lines the margins of the joint cavity and lubricates and nourishes the joint surfaces, is also a form of connective tissue.
50. In peri-vascular spaces, exchange takes place between
a) blood and organs
b) cells and embryo
c) nutrients and waste products
d) septa and stroma
51. The connective tissues originate in the:
52. Mesenteries are:
a) adipose tissue in which some organs arc embedded.
b) referred to as parenchyma, and are responsible for specific functions of an organ.
c) thin sheets from which some organs are suspended.
d) cells through which blood flows.
53. Some instances of connective tissues are
(I) cartilage (II) stroma (III) lipid (IV) synovia
a) (I), (II), (III) and (IV)
b) (I), (III) and (IV) only
c) (I), (II) and (IV) only
d) (I) and (II) only
54. The connective tissue in which fat is stored is called
d) adipose tissue
55. The tissue which enables smooth gliding movements of neighboring surface is:
a) adipose tissue
c) synovial membrane
d) stellate cells
56. The passage has most probably been taken from a book on:
G) From a vantage point in space, an observer could see that the Earth is engaged in a variety of motions. First, there is its rotation on its own axis, causing the alternation of day and night. This rotation, however, is not altogether steady. Primarily because of the Moon’s gravitational action, the Earth’s axis wobbles like that of an ill-spun top. In this motion, called ‘precession’, the North and South Poles each traces out the base off a cone in space, completing a circle every, 25800 years. In addition as the Sun and the Moon change their positions with respect to the Earth, their changing gravitational effects result in a slight ‘nodding’ of the earth’s axis, called ‘nutation’, which is superimposed on precession.
The Earth completes one of these ‘nods’ every 18.6 years.
The earth also, of course, revolves around-the Sun, in a 6-million mile journey that takes 365.25 days. The shape of this orbit is an ellipse, but it is not the center of the Earth that follows the elliptical path. Earth and Moon behave like an asymmetrical dumb-bell, and it is the center of mass of this dumb-bell that traces the ellipse around the sun. The center of the Earth-Moon mass lies about 3000 miles away from the center of the Earth, and the Earth thus moves in an S-curve that crosses and re-crosses its orbital path. Then too, the Earth accompanies the sun in the sun’s movements; first, through its local star cloud, and second, in a great sweep around the hub of its galaxy, the Milky Way that takes 200 million years to complete.
57. Which of the following best describes the main subject of the passage?
a) The various types of the Earth’s motions
b) Past changes in the Earth’s position
c) The moon’s gravitational effect on the earth
d) Oddities of the Earth’s rotation on its axis.
58. The passage is most likely directed toward an audience of:
c) meteorologists interested in weather prediction.
d) persons with little technical knowledge of astronomy
59. Which of the following technique does the author use in order to make the descriptions of motion clear?
(I) Comparison with familiar objects
(II) Reference to geometric forms
(III) Allusions to the works of other authors
a) (I) only
b) (II) only
c) (I) and (II) only
d) (II) and (III) only
60. The passage indicates that a single cycle of which of the following motions is completed in the shortest period of time?
c) The Earth’s rotation on its axis
d) The movement of the dumb-bell formed by the center of mass of Earth-Moon.
H) Scientism has left humanity in our technical mastery of inanimate nature, but impoverished us in our quest for an answer to the riddle of the universe and of our existence in it. Scientism has done worse than that with respect to our status as social beings, that is, to our life with our fellow human beings. The quest for the technical mastery of social life, comparable to our mastery over nature, did not find Scientism at a loss for an answer: reason suggested that physical nature and, social life were fundamentally alike and therefore proposed identical methods for their domination. Since reason in the form of causality reveals itself most plainly in nature, nature became the model for the social world and the natural sciences the image of what the social sciences one day would be. According to scientism, there was only one truth; the truth of science, and by knowing it, humanity would know all. This was, however, a fallacious argument. Its universal acceptance initiated an intellectual movement and a political technique which retarded, rather than furthered, human mastery of the social world.
The analogy between the natural and social worlds is mistaken for two reasons. On the one hand human action is unable to model the social world with the same degree of technical perfection that is possible in the natural world,On the other hand,the very notion that physical nature is the embodiment of reason, from which the analogy between natural and social words derives, is invalidated by modem scientific thought itself.
Physical nature, as seen by the practitioner of science consists of a multitude of isolated facts over which human action has complete control. We know that water boils at a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit, and by exposing it to this temperature; we can make it boil at will. All practical knowledge of physical nature and all control over it are essentially of this same kind.
Scientism proposed that the same kind of knowledge and of control held true for the social world. The search for a single cause, in the social sciences, was but a faithful copy of the method of the physical sciences. Yet in the social sphere, the logical coherence of the natural sciences finds no adequate object, and there is no single cause by the creation of which one can create a certain effect at will. Any single cause in the social sphere can entail an indefinite number of different effects, and the same effect can spring from an indefinite number of different effects, and the same effect can spring from an indefinite number of different causes.
61. In the passage, the author is most concerned with doing which of the following?
a) Upholding the primacy of reason over superstition.
b) Attacking a particular approach to the social sciences.
c) Describing a method for achieving control over human social behavior
d) Demonstrating the superiority of the social sciences over the natural sciences.
62. As used In the passage, the term scientism’ can best be defined as
a) belief that the methods of the physical sciences can be applied to all fields of inquiry.
b) faith that human beings can master their own physical limitations.
c) desire to keep die social sciences separate from the physical sciences.
d) opinion that scientists must take moral responsibility for their actions.
63. Which of the following statements about scientism is best supported by the passage?
a) Scientism provides the basis for mastery of the social world.
b) Scientism is only is only superficially concerned with cause-and-effect relationships
c) Scientism is poorly suited to explain social behavior
d) Scientism is no longer applicable to the study of the natural sciences.
64. According to the author, causes and effects in the social world are
a) unrelated to each other
b) difficult to identify or predict.
c) subject to manipulation at will.
d) reducible to single cause for each effect.
65. The author’s attitude toward the application of scientism to the social science is best describe as one of
a) committed scrutiny
1) c; The first paragraph of the passage clearly tells about how management education gained new academic stature and greater respect during 1960’s and 1970’s. Other options can be quashed in comparison with option-c because of the thematic concern, which is absolutely expressed in option-c.
2) b; Paragraphs-2 and 3 discuss about the criticisms faced by management education in 1980’s, which is given in option-b. Rest of the options are not in the same direction as the facts stated in the passage.
3) b; Option-a says a typical example which is not the exact reason for the question asked. Option-c accentuates a ridiculous matter that is no way related to the paragraph. Option-d, the perception ‘passport to good life’ is the result of ‘growth in popularity of business schools’ but it is not the reason for the same. Therefore, according paragraph-1, the perfect reason for the popularity of business schools could be ‘the gain in academic stature’ which is option-b.
4) c; From para-3, except option-c, all other options are the criticisms that management education has faced.
5) b; Paragraph-2 clearly states In 1980’s, US business schools faced critics who charged that learning had little relevance to real business problems. So, option-b is correct.
6) a; Paragraph-6 explains the prevailing belief about the absence of business schools in japan, which is mentioned in option-a.
7) d; Paragraph-4 states that Japanese educational system is highly developed and intensely competitive. That is the reason why Japanese were initially able to do without business school. It is given in option-a. Option-d is not the exact reason for the question asked.
8) d; Options-a, b, c are wrong. In option-a, Japanese modification of the views never depends on US MBA programs, which is not mentioned in the passage too. Option-b states about ‘Americanized’ is showing different meaning not related to the given matter. Option-c is opposite to the question. But option-d righteously states the meaning of the question because it is mentioned clearly in the paragraph-7, “a combination of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalization of Japanese business are making”.
9) b; Paragraph-5 clearly states “Company training programs have sought the socialization of new comers”. Hence, option-b is true. Option-a, c and d are not related to the given question,
10) a; The passage says, Japanese process of selecting and orienting new MBA graduates id different from that of US. But it does not say, Japanese do not hire MBAs. Hence option-b is incorrect. The author does not argue about the points mentioned in option-c and d. The author fairly criticizes only that particular point mentioned in option-a in the passage. It is the thematic concern of the passage.
11) d; In the 7* paragraph of the passage the author mentioned clearly about the difference between US and Japanese corporations by his statement “But the process of selecting and orienting new graduates, even MBA’s, into corporations is radically different than in the US. Rather
than being placed in highly paying staff positions”. The answer depicts in option-d.
12) a; Throughout the passage, the author argues that the Japanese system is better than American system due to its traditional elements. So, option-a is correct.
13) d; Paragraph-2 has been clearly stated the author’s conception of learning space, which is option-d. “who encourages students to help each other learn – to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space”. To find this option as the correct one you need to possess the basic reading skills of underlining tire important points of the passage.
14) c; Option-a cannot provide the justification for the given statement because it has a negative approach. Option-b has no depth of the meaning and option-d is just a quotation from the author’s speech. Therefore the correct answer is option-c, which is the best justification for the proposition.
15) d; Paragraph-3 clearly says that learning is a painful process because “things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.” Hence option-d is correct
16) c; You should not confuse with the options though they look bit similar. Moreover the author has also mentioned at the paragraph-4 that ‘Physical, conceptual and emotional levels’ are only involved.
17) a; Author has mentioned about silence as an integral part of learning space in the last paragraph – “In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us”. It says that silence helps to unite us with others to create a community of truth. Hence, option-a is correct.
18) c; Option-c says about the author’s view, which is quite similar with the paragraph-4 of the passage – “Assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading.” Option-a does not have the relevant meaning with the author’s philosophy. Option-b says about ‘silence’, which is mandatory and not related with an effective teacher’s attitude. Option-d tells about ’violence’ that is for other relevance. Therefore, correct answer is option-c.
19) d; Understanding the notion of space in our relations with others is distinctly explained by the author in the first paragraph itself quoting “These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others”. To find this option as the correct, you should have the basic reading skills of underlining the important points of the passage. Therefore we can find our relevant answer in the option-d.
20) c; The last paragraph of the passage explains the author’s notion of learning space – “Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the classroom, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning”. It says about how an effective teacher recognizes the value of empathy.
21) a; We can find out the meaning of ’conceptual space’ from paragraph-4 where the author states – “the teacher can create conceptual space – space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing”.
22) a; According to the passage, the degradation of natural resources will necessarily lead to poor economic utilization of resources.
23) b; From paragraph-2, “a staggering 70 percent of water available in the country is polluted.”
24) b; Here option-a and c have no proper information regarding municipal sewage pollutants. Option-d is out of context. From paragraph-3, “The pollution of the much-revered Ganga is due in particular to municipal sewage that accounts for 3/4th i.e. 75% of its pollution load”. A similar meaning is found in option-b.
25) d; By observing thematic sentences, all the three options (a, b, c) are mentioned in the passage. Therefore all three options are correct.
26) d; Paragraph-7 states, the cost of action plan is sourced from France, UK, US, Netherlands, Poland and the World Bank.
27) c; Both the options-a and b are mentioned in paragraph-6. Hence, option-c is correct. .
28) d; From paragraph-5, “A recent study reveals that the water of the Ganga, Yamuna, Kali and Hindon rivers have considerable concentrations of heavy metals due to inflow of industrial wastes”.
29) c; From paragraph-8, the crisis of drinking water is caused chiefly by drying up of water sources and over pumping.
30) b; From paragraph-8, the author has explained the remedy to crisis of drinking water – “The foremost action in this would be to cleanup our water resources.”
31) a; Option-a is correct.
32) a; From the passage we can understand that some computer companies are expanding while other are contracting.
33) b; Option-a has no relation with the given point, option-c is not exactly correct. Option-d deviates from the main point. Option-b is appropriate to the question asked – “one recalls a transition in the US auto industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors surpassed Ford Motor as America’s No. 1 car maker”.
34) d; From para-6, we can easily understand that only Intel is the principal supplier of silicon chips to IBM.
35) b; In the 6th paragraph we find “In Europe, IBM last year began selling a low-cost line of PC’s called Ambra”. In accordance with this line we can say that Ambra is marketed by IBM only.
36) a; From paragraphs 5, 6 and 7, we can understand, the two giants IBM and Microsoft are developing advanced software and microprocessors for a new generation of desktop computers. This competition is the reason for the dispute between IBM and Microsoft. Hence, option-a is correct.
37) c; Option-a is the theme of paragraph-6. Option-b is mentioned in paragraph-4. Paragraph-6 says that Intel is based in California. But option-c is nowhere implied in the passage. Hence, option-c is correct.
38) a; According to the last paragraph of the passage, “Although IBM has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of machines”. Therefore option-a is true. Remaining options have no relevance to the passage.
39) c; From paragraph-5, “Microsoft developed the now famous disk operating system for IBM-PC called DOS – and later created the operation software for the next generation”. From this statement, we can say, Microsoft has developed an operating system which can link other computers.
40) c; As the whole paragraph expresses about the ups and downs of the software companies even the author accentuates already the consequence being Dr. Frankenstein quoting “Just like Dr Frankenstein, IBM is in danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed”. Therefore we come to the option-c where the ultimate theme of the passage can be found.
41) a; According to the first paragraph, “even something as allegedly individualistic as suicide – can be explained without reference to individuals” is an open fact about suicide. So, option-a has a relevant meaning on it.
42) d; According to paragraph-2 and 3, all the three options are correct. The relevant lines can be found from the author’s context – “individuals do not have sufficient social ties” and “The context of his concern for social integration” in the paragraph-2. “Anomic suicide – increases when the social regulation of individuals is disrupted” in the paragraph-3. So, optioned is correct.
43) c; From paragraph-2, author categorizes the suicides of individuals who do not have sufficient social ties as Egoistic suicides.
44) b; From paragraph-3, higher suicide rate during rapid progress in a society is a manifestation of anomic suicide.
45) a; From paragraph-2, altruistic suicide, which is more likely to occur when social integration is very strong, is the reason behind the suicide of Hindu widows on their husbands funeral pyres. Therefore, option-a- is correct.
46) b; From paragraph-3, increase in the suicide rate
during economic depression is an example of anomic suicide.
47) a; In paragraph-2, author gives an example of
“Military personnel” for altruistic suicide. Hence option- a is correct.
48)d; The last paragraph of the passage states the
indicators used by Durkheim to support several of his contentions. All the three options are correct according
to the passage. Hence, option-d is correct,
49)b; From the concluding statement, we can say Durkheim was vindicated on all counts.
50)c; From paragraph-2, it is clear that all nutrient
materials and waste products exchanged between the ‘ organs and the blood must traverse peri-vascular
spaces occupied by connective tissue.
51) c; The first line of the passage itself encircles the originality of the connective tissues to the Embryo.
52) c; First line of paragraph-3 states, mesenteries are thin sheets from which organs are suspended.
53) Option-c is the correct answer.
54)d; From paragraph-3, adipose tissue a connective
tissue in which fat is stored. Hence, option-d is correct.
55)b; The tissue which enables smooth gliding movements of neighboring surface is cartilage. Optionb is correct.
56)d; Option-a says the study of the structure and diseases of the brain and all the nerves in the body is not related to the passage. Likewise option-b says the substances that you take into your body as food and the way that they influence your health is also not the thematic concern of the passage. Similarly option-c says simple physical exercises that are done to make the body firm, able to stretch easily and more attractive. But option-d is rightly to be the answer as it says (the scientific study of) the way in which the bodies of animals and plants work. Hence, option-d is . correct.
57) a; The passage is all about the Earth’s motions. In the beginning lines of the passage itself it is clearly evident.
58) b; With the basic understanding of the passage, we can say it is directed towards the audience of astronauts.
59) c; From the first paragraph, we can say, author has used familiar objects like an ill-spun top and reference to geometrical forms like cone. Hence, option-c is correct.
60) c; According to the passage, a single cycle of a motion completed in the shortest time is the Earth’s rotation on its axis. Because remaining all other motions take more time to complete its task.
61) In the first sentence of the passage, the author is most concerned with attacking a particular approach to the social sciences.
62) a; According to scientism there is only one truth, the truth of science and the methods of physical science can thus be applied to other fields of enquiry, like the social sciences. Hence, option-a is correct choice.
63) c; Option-a is not a proper explanation for the question. Option-b is also not related to the question as well as to the passage. Option-d directly denies the fact. But option-c is suitable to the passage where the author states about it.
64) b; According to the author, causes and effects in the social world are difficult to identify or predict. He has given the reason about this in the last paragraph of the passage — ‘Any single cause in the social ‘.
65) c; This passage is a lucid and coherent criticism regarding scientism. The author lucidly explains the technical theorems about the term scientism. Obviously the author is not going to scrutinize, approve, or even dismiss the matter.