Analogy Reasoning Material for All Competitive Exams | PDF Download
Analogy means ‘correspondence’. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. Analogy tools are therefore meant to test one’s ability to reason – how far you are able to compare and comprehend the relationship that exists between two objects, things or figures.
Verbal analogy measures the ability to understand the relationship between two given words or group of letters, presented in abbreviated form. See the following example.
Moon : Satellite : : Earth : Planet
This abbreviated form conveys the idea that moon is related to satellite in the same way as the earth is related to planet.
Look for the Kinds of Relationship
There are many possibilities in establishing a relationship. Here are some useful points on the basic knowledge required for the test.
Worker and Product
Example: Carpenter : Furniture : : Mason : Wall Carpenter makes Furniture and Mason builds a Wall.
Worker and Tool Relationship
Example: Woodcutter : Axe : : Soldier : Gun
Axe is the tool used by a Woodcutter, likewise a Soldier uses a Gun to shoot.
Tool and Action
Example: Pen : Write : : Knife : Cut
Pen is used for Writing and Knife is used for Cutting
Worker and Working Place
Example: Farmer : Field : : Doctor : Hospital
A Farmer works on a Field while a Doctor works in a Hospital.
Product and Raw Material
Example: Cloth : Fibre : : Petrol : Crude Oil
Cloth is made of Fibre and Petrol is extracted from Crude oil.
Quantity and Unit
Example: Length : Metre : : Distance : Light Year
Metre is the unit of Length and Light year is the unit of Distance.
Instrument and Measurement
Example: Barometer : Pressure : : Speedometer : Speed
Barometer is used to measure Pressure. Speedometer is used to measure Speed.
Study and Topic
Example: Botany : Plants : : Ornithology : Birds
Botany is the study of Plants, Ornithology is the study of Birds.
Animal and Young Ones
Example: Cat : Kitten : : Dog : Puppy
Kitten is the young one of a Cat and Puppy is the young one of a Dog.
Male and Female
Example: Son : Daughter : : Nephew : Niece
Word and Synonym
Example: Mend : Repair : : House : Home
Word and Antonym
Example: Ignore : Notice : : Friend : Foe
Word and Intensity
Example: Anger : Rage : : Joy : Ecstasy
Rage is greater degree of Anger and Ecstasy is greater degree of Joy.
There is another kind of analogy that can be asked in this section. In this type of question, two groups of letters related to each other in some way are given. The candidate is required to find this relationship and choose a group of letters which is related in the same way to a third group provided in the question.
Example – NFK : PHM : : AXH : ?
(1) BYI (2) ZWG (3) CZJ (4) DAK(5) YVF
Sol. (3) Each letter of the first group is moved two steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group. A similar relationship will exist between the third and the fourth groups.
Analogy Reasoning Material for All Competitive Exams (Download Pdf)