Telangana History Qutub-Shahi Era (1512-1687 A.D.)
The Qutub-shahi era was given a prominent place in the history of Telugu region by foreign trav¬ellers like Athenacius and selucus Nicator and his¬torians like Maremanda Rama Rao and prof, shervani. The Qutub-Shahi Sultans ruled Telugu regions from 1512 A.D. for about 175 years. They brought this area under a single umbrella politically; and they also observed religions tolerance admirably. Though the qutub-shahi sultans were muslims, they respected the traditional practices, religions rituals and language and literature of Hindus. They recognised that as they ruled were Hindus and their population was highest, it was compulsory to respect their culture and religion.
The Qutub-shahi kingdom was founded in 1512 A.D. with Golkonda as its capital. Golkonda is located at about 10 kms distance from Hyderabad. In 1565, after the fall of vijayanagara empire, the qutub shahi rule expanded to the whole of Andhra region. In the end, in 1685, the qutub-shahi king: dom merged into the Moghul empire. The end of qutub-Shahi era ushered the beginning of modem era in the Andhradesa. The qutub-shahi rulers ruled between 1512 and 1687A.D. for 175 years. There were 7 rulers and they belonged shiate sect of Muslims.
Sultan Quli Qutub-Shah (1512-1543 AD.)
The founder of the Qutub Shahi dynasty was Quli qutub shah. He belonged to a noble family called ‘Handam’ in the middle Asia region. His family lost it’s kingdom to enemies of Akunov race; he escaped from their clutches and fled to India in the final years of 14th century. He reached Bidar during the reign of Mohammed Shah-III of Bahmani dynasty and joined the bodyguards force of Mohammed shah as a common soldier. Later on, the shah was impressed with his talent and courage, promoted him and even gave a title called ‘Qutub-Ul-Mulk’. After some years, Qutub Shah was sent to the Telangana region as a Tarafdar by Mohammed Shah. The post of Tarafdar is almost equal to Governor. After the fall of Bahmani kingdom, Quli qutub Shah founded an independent Golkonda kingdom in 1513 A.D. Quli qutub Shah was not only a good administrator, but also a visionary. He used to spot the weaknesses of other states and took advan¬tage. In 1529, after the death of Srikrishnadevaraya,the vijayanagara kingdom started to decline with internal brickerings. Qutub Shah spotted this imme-diately and went into action, he fought battles with Sitapatiraju, who was called as ’Shitab Khan’, a sub-ordinate ruler of Gajapati dynasty, defeated him and captured Orugallu, kambham (khammam) mettu, Bellampally, kondapalli, Metuku (Medak), Panagallu, Kovilakonda and other forts and expanded his kingdom tremendously. From then onwards he fought battles continu¬ously and merged most of the Telugu regions. North of river krishna in his kingdom. Though he was shiat Muslim, he had given high level posts to Hindus in his court. Araveeti Ramaraya worked as Qutub-Shah’s chief of army for some time. Shah gained popularity among the Telugu people and was called bondly as ‘Bade Malik’ (good ruler). In the end, Jamsheed, third son of Qutub Shah, murdered his father at the age of 90 years and ascended the throne.
Jamsheed (1543-1550 A.D.)
Jamsheed, who killed his own father to ascend the throne, was not liked by the masses. Though he was a good administrator, he was also very cruel and brutal. Daulat and Ibrahim, his own brothers plotted against him but their coup was failed by Jamsheed. Then Ibrahim fled to Vijayanagara Kingdom and lived in the underground for 5 years. In 1550, Jamsheed died with a fatal disease, and Ibrahim came back to Golkonda. He murdered Subhan, the 2 year old son of jamsheed Brutally and came to rule the Golkonda kingdom.
Ibrahim Qutub Shah (1550-1580 A.D.)
Ibrahim Qutub Shah was capable, courageous ! and also a good administra¬tor. He was noted for his religious tolerance. As he lived in the vijayanagara kingdom for several years he ‘ had become bond of the Telugu language and literature. He patronised a number of Telugu poets and was praised as ‘Malkibharama’. He built a border wall around Golkonda fort, phoolbhag gardens, Ibrahim Patnam tank and Hussain sagar (in Hyderabad). The first bridge over the river Moosi (existing today) in Hyderabad was also built by him. The Golkonda kingdom flourished under his rule. He also protected people and their assets by always maintaining law and order in the kingdom. Historian perishta praised him for this. He patronised several Telugu poets. Prominent among them were –
He wrote Niramkushopakhyanam and Sugreeva Vijayam. He compared Ibrahim with lord shiva. Ibrahim donated the ‘Rentachintala’ agra- haram to him.
He wrote the book ‘Tapati Samvarano pakhyanam’.
He wrote the ‘Yayati charitra’. During the reign of Ibrahim Qutub Shah, the urdu language also developed rapidly. That is why he is also called as the Urdu Chajar’ (father of urdu). His son-in-law Ajrat Hussain Shah Vali supervised the digging of the Hussain Sagar. Ibrahim died in 1580 A.D.
Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah (1580-1612 A.D)
Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah, third son of Ibrahim came to rule after the death of his father.
Though he was very young at 14 years by then, he was trained in all fields required to a ruler. He was a great scholar and wrote several books in Deccan urdu. He also would recite poetry in Telugu, though he did not write any books in that language. He suppressed revolts in the kingdom with the help and support of capable army officers and always kept law and order. He patronised artists and scholars equally. The city of-Hyderabad was built during his reign in the year of 1591 A.D. (started). Later, he also constructed architectural wonders like charminar, chaar kamaan, Jama Masjid, Darulshifa, Dadmahal, Gagan mahal and others in Hyderabad. He loved a woman named ‘Bhagamati’ and named the city on her name That is the city of Hyderabad and common capital of Telangana and Andhra pradesh today. But some historians say that it is not true (that he loved Bhagmati and named the city as Bhagyanagar). He also employed Hindus in high level posts in his government. The charminar was built inmemorating the complete eradication of plague, which occurred in Hyderabad during his reign. Sarangu Tammayya wrote the ‘Vyjayanti Vilasam, book during his rule only. Mohammed Quli qutub Shah died in 1612A.D.
Sultan Mohammed Qutub Shah (1612-1626 A.D.)
Mohammed Qutub Shah, sop of the younger brother of mohammed quli qutub Shah succeeded his uncle after his death. He was also a good administrator and a peace loving person. As he disliked battles, people lived happily under his rule, according to historians. He not only patronised poets, but also wrote poetry himself. There used to be several persian poets in his court. He also encouraged writing of scientific books in persian language. Mohammed Mumeen wrote ‘Risala Mikda- riya’ on weights and measurements and a doctor called hakim Takimuddin wrote the book-‘Mijanut Tabai qutubshahi’ during his reign. Mohammad qutub Shah was also very interested in constructing new buildings. He built the Khairatabad Masjid in Hyderabad and also laid foundations to Mecca Masjid.
Literary works of the period of Qutub Shahi dynasty
★ Kancharla Gopanna, who was called as Ramadasu was imprisoned by Tanisha and he wrote the ‘Dasarathi Satakam’ in jail. Ramadasu was a nephew of Akkanna apd Madanna.
★ The period of Abdullah qutub Shah was called as the ‘Golden era’ of Deccan urdu literature.
★ The book of poems written by Mohammed qutub Shah is called as ‘Buliyar Khali’.
★ The poet Addanki Gangadhara wrote the ‘Tapati Samvaranopakhyanam’ during the reign of Ibrahim aftd dedicated it to him. It was the first Telugu book that was dedicated to a Muslim ruler.
★ Ponnekanti Telaganarya wrote the ‘yayati charitra’, the first pure Telugu book (in Telangana)
★ Kandukuri Rudrakavi wrote the ‘Sugreeva Vijayam’, which was the first yakshagana in Telugu
Abdullah Qutub Shah (1626-1672 A.D)
Abdullah, eldest son of Mohammed qutub shah succeeded his father as the ruler of Golkonda kingdom and ruled for 46 years continu¬ously. But the decline of the kingdom started during his reign. He was only a 12 year old boy when he ascended the throne. As he was still a child, his mother Hayatbhakshi Begum ruled as his guardian. Under her control, corruption, and carelessness of employees increased and law and order situation was frequently disturbed on one hand, Abdullah had become decadent and on the other hand, the Moghul rulers started threatening the Golkonda kingdom.
Shahjahan who had become the Moghul emperor in 1628, attacked the Golkonda kingdom with all his might in 1636. Abdullah could not fight against him and made compromise. According to their agreement
1. Abdullah, ruler of Golkonda had become a sub-ordinate king under shahjahan, the Moghul emperor;
2. Abdullah agreed to pay 2.5 lakhs of Hons annually to shahjahan; and
3. It was agreed that-in the Friday prayers in Masjids all over the Golkonda kingdom, the name of the Moghul emperor would be men¬tioned instead of the persian emperor. Thus, the great Golkonda kingdom had come under the control of Moghul empire. Also, during Abdullah’s regime, the European companies started to act independently, not caring for the opinion of the qutub Shahi rulers. The Dutch occupied santhan and the English stopped paying taxes in Machilipatnam and chennapatnam. Abdullah sent Razak Kuli Neknam Khan, ruler of Karnataka region to suppress the above revolts. Neknam Khan suppressed them capably, recaptured Santhan region from the Dutch and collected taxes from the English: Abdullah died in 1672.
Kshetrayya wrote his famous ‘Mowapadalu’ during the reign of Abdullah.
Abul Hasan (Tanishah) (1672-1687 AD.)
After the death of Abdullah, his third son-in-law Abul Hasan came to rule. The famous brothers Akkanna and Madanna held key posts in his court. Abul Hasan gave the title of ‘Suryapra- kasarao’ to Madanna and appointed him as Mirjumla (Prime minister) in 1674 and later appointed Akkanna as chief of army (Sir Lashkar). Though Madanna served his master faithfully, he was adjudged as partial towards Hindus. He took a number of actions to protect the Golkonda kingdom.
Kancharla Gopanna, who worked as the Tahsildaar of Paloncha Taluq and had later became the famous Ramadasu’ was the nephew of Akkanna and Madanna. He used revenue collections of the region to build the Sri Rama temple at Bhadrachalam. For misappropriation of government money, he was imprisoned by Abul Hasan (Tanishah). Because of this, the name of Tanisha had become known all over the Telugu regions. In 1685, Aurangazeb sent army forces led by his son, to invade the Golkonda kingdom. As some officers of his own army betrayed him, the forces of Tanisha were defeated. Abul Hasan fled to Golkonda fort from Hyderabad and hide there. In the end, he made a peace agreement with the Moghul rulers. According to the conditions of the above agreement, Abul Hasan had to remove Akkanna and Madanna from their posts. But as Tanisha delayed their dis¬missal, several Muslim leaders joined hands and executed the brothers on the night of 34 March, 1686, while they were going home, after political dis-cussions with Abul Hasan. Their severed heads were presented to Aurangazeb. With this brutal incident, the Golkonda kingdom further weakened. Auranagazeb took advantage of this and attacked the kingdom himself. Battle between the two sides began on 7 February, 1687 and continued for 8 months. The Golkonda army fought very coura¬geously. But one of the army generals of Golkonda, Abdulla Pani betrayed his master and opened the gates of the fort at midnight on 3rd October, 1687, through which the Moghul armies entered and caught the soldiers of the fort offguard. Though courageous soldiers like Abdul Razaq Harry fought hard, they failed to protect the Golkonda fort. The Moghul armies occupied it, captured Abul Hasan and sent him to Daulatabad, where he was imprisoned for 13 years and died in 1700 A.D. with him, the era of qutub Shahi dynasty ended.
Prominent details of Qutub Shahi dynasty
Good administrative system and stable econo¬my are important for any state to run smoothly for a long period. The chief characteristics of the administrative system ef the qutub Shahi dynasty were-
The Sultan (ruler) was the head of the state, chief of army, chief law maker and chief judge. He used to form new laws, and Farmaanas and issued them. The Golkonda rulers were just and generous, they gave importance to the welfare of people. Sultans toured the kingdom to know the conditions of people. As Hindus were the majority in popula¬tion, Sultans of qutub-shahi dynasty respected their religious beliefs, traditional practices, languages and literature. Though most of the Farmaanas (orders) were issued in persian, a Hindu employee or translator was usually appointed by every ruler to translate them into Telugu. A committee called ‘Majlis-e-kingas’ or ‘Majlis Diwan aspect of the ad-ministration. Prominent persons of all communi¬ties were appointed to it. All of them used to live in the capital and attended meeting called by the sultan
A council of ministers helped the king in running the different departments of administrative system. TKe Prime minister was called as ‘Peshwa’- He was next to the sultan in widing power. 12 vazirs (ministers) worked under him. The minister of finance was most important after peshwa. He was called ‘Miijumla’. Revenue and expenditure of the kingdom were under his control next in the line of power was minister of battles (or defence). He was called as ‘Inulmulk’. The ‘Majumdar’ was equal to today’s Auditor Genera. The main officer who looked after the administrative affairs and reported to the king, was called as ‘Nazir’. Kotwal is equal to present day police com¬missioner, who looked after the law and order of the state.
Two secretaries called ‘Dabirs’ worked under the peshwa. They used to compose Farmaanas (Government orders) and supervised their implementation. One of them always used to be a Hindu. He translated them from persian to Telugu. That is why the Hindu Dabir used to be a bilingual. The drafts and details of th Farmaanas and laws were formed, by another officer called ‘Prahnavis’. ‘Mushrif used to supervise the affairs of royal protocol.
The Golkonda rulers of Qutub Shahi dynasty divided the kingdom into Tarafs (states), circars (districts) and paraganas (Taluqs) for ease of administration. The Golkonda kingdom was divided into 6 tarafs, 38 circars and 517 paraganas. The
Reign of qutub Shahi rulers
1. Quli Qutub Shah – 1512-1543 A.D ‘
2. Jamsheed – 1543-1550A.D
Subhan . – (Ruled only for 6 months in 1550 A.D)
3. Ibrahim Qutub Shah – 1550- 1580 A.D
4. Mohammed quli qutub Shah – 1580-1612 A.D
5. Mohammed Qutub Shah- 1612-1626 A.D
6. Abdullah Qutub Shah – 1626-1672 A.D
7. Abul Hasan (Tanisha) – 1672-1687 A.D
head of a Taraf was Tarafdar, head of a circar was Fauzdar and head of a paragana was Tahsildaar. An officer called ‘Shabandar’ was appointed to collect duties in port towns. In the department of Revenue-There were Mukaddam (head of the village or Munsif) Kulkami (karanam) and Deshmukh, (collector), circars were taken as a unit to collect taxes. The power to collect taxes was sold through auction. Those who bought that power were called as ‘Mustazirs’. Most of them used to be Hindus.
There used to be 12 types of Ayagars who had Mirasi (hereditary) rights in the villages of Golkonda kingdom; They were called as Baluthions-which means strongmen. They were
1. Patel (Munsif), 2. Kulkarni (Karanam), 3. Chaudary (Head of traders) 4. Potedar (Exchanger of coins), 5. Deshpandya (statistician) 6. Nahani (Barber) 7. Parith (Washerman) 8. Guru (priest) 9. Sutar (carpenter) 10. Kumbhar (potter) 11 Vesahara (Gatekeeper) 12. Joshi (Astrologer-Jyotishya)
Qutub Shahi recognised the importance of a proper judiciary system and followed the judiciary system of the Bahmani dynasty mostly. During their reign, The khuran, Farmaanas and local tradi¬tions were the chief sources of judgements and decision making. Sultan acted as the chief justice of the state. ‘Shariat Panch’ was the second in line. He used to supervise the implementation of judiciary system in the kingdom. He could be com¬pared with the chief justice of today. The judicialactivities of each paragana were conducted by offi-cials called Quazi, Hawaldar, Majlis and Thamedar. But all of them came under the control of ‘Shariat Panch’. A special officer called ‘Mahatsif was appointed to propagate moral values among the masses. The speciality of the qutub Shahi rulers was that-they did not usually interfere in the religious matters and traditions of Hindus. People had the right to appeal to the sultan on the judgements of local courts. According to historian Travernier, Sultan used to give judgements on these appeals every once in a week. Punishments were very severe. Revolutionaries were given the punishment of death. Limbs and hands of thiefs were severed.
Qutub Shahi rulers provided religious freedom to all communities. They were not partial in their administrative activities. Hindus in their kingdom enjoyed religious freedom that no other muslim dynasty allowed anywhere else. For this they were praised by historians.
They built tanks and canals and on general helped the development of agriculture. They also dug wells in many villages; built choultries; reared gardens; stopped collection of taxes in villages where conditions of people were not good.
Qutub Shahi ruler imposed taxes on industries and trade. Iipport and export tariffs were collected in port towns by Hawaldars. Production of salt, pre-cious stones, betel leaves, tobacco and others was completely under the control of government . Taxes on land, industries and trade used to be high. The annual average income of qutub Shahi rulers was 5 crore honns and the net profit was 19 lakh honns, according to a historian called methold.
As they were surrounded by strong neighbour states, the Golkonda rulers built up a strong mili¬tary system from the beginning. Sultan was the chief of all armies. Second to him was Inulmulk, who helped the sultan in military activities and deci¬sions. He used to supervise the selection and train¬ing of soldiers and also the production of weaponry and preparedness of the army. The army of Golkonda was divided into two classes. 1. central army 2. Jagirdar
The chief occupation of people during qutub Shahi rule, was agriculture. Sultans constructed and dug tanks, wells and canals to develop agricul¬ture. They appointed workers called ‘Vadderas’ to repair them. Main crops were – paddy, Jowar, Ragi, pulses, cotton, tobacco. Tobacco was exported to Portugal during this period from he kingdom. The revenue of the government increased by cotton and tobacco.
By seventeenth century, industries grew rapid¬ly in the Golkonda kingdom. Some historians believe that Golkonda was far better in industrial sector than some European countries during that period. Some western travellers even described the Golkonda kingdom as the ‘Second Egypt’. As cotton was produced extensively, handloom indus¬try developed as the chief industry of the state. Beautiful, handmade cloth was produced extensively and was exported to European countries, which was much sought after there. Especially Doria cloth from Visakhapatnam, carpets from Eluru, long cloth (white cloth) from East Godavari region, Kalamkari cloth from Bundar (Machilipatnam) and neighbouring regions, Kerchiefs and towels from Nellore areas were in high demand in Western countries. Ships were built with wood available near Rajahmundry and Bhadrachalam regions. Iran tools, necessary for ship building were produced at Madhaveeyapalem. The ships built in the Golkonda kingdom travelled to Java, samatra and other islands and returned safely. During the 17th century, Iran and steel were also produced in Golkonda kingdom. Swords, knives and weaponry were made from them. Especially, weaponry was produced at Nirmal and Indur areas.
Sulphur was available in Machilipatnam, Narasapur and pulikat regions, with which gun shot material was prepared. The diamonds found at Golkonda mines had become world famous. Diamond mines were located at Kollur (Guntur dis¬trict), Paritala (Krishna dt.), Vajrakarur (Anantapur dt.) They were routed to contractors by the government. Textiles, paddy, diamonds, iron,’ steel imple¬ments, china silk, copper and red sandals were exported from Nizampatnam, pulikat and chennai to western countries.
Castes and occupations
Majority population in Golkonda kingdom belonged to the Hindu community. The caste system settled down in the society during the reign of Qutub Shahis. Castes and subcastes expanded. Though same conducted their own occupations, others con¬ducted the occupations of more than one caste. Brahmins, with their education and knowledge remained at the top rung of the society. They were well respected and were appointed for key posts in the courts of kings.
Kshatriyas continued as subordinate rulers, Zagirdars and Mirasidars. some even resorted to agriculture and related occupations.
The chief occupation of vaisya continued as trading, they conducted the businesses of gold, dia-mond, textiles and others and many of them export¬ed to foreign countries also.
Sudras mainly conducted agricultural occupa¬tions, though there were sudras who held key posts in the courts of Sultans. Some people of Reddy, Kamma and velama castes were occupied as Zagirdars, Deshmukhs, Deshpandeys and Mirasidars. Untouchability was in practice. They lived at the outskirts of villages in separate colonies. Many of them were charmakaras but some were weavers.
Patriarchy was in practice in the society under the rule of qutub Shahi dynasty. Father/man was the head of. family. Women were treated as inferior creatures. Most of the men married only once but used to take mistresses or patronised prostitutes. Prostitution had the blessings of rulers. It was esti¬mated one. There were 20,000 prostitutes in Hyderabad alone. Both child marriages and sati were in practice, Though the Sultans discouraged sati, it still continued.
As vices like prostitution and drinking were in vogue and increased during the qutub Shahi reign, as if to oppose them, the sufi movement also expanded rapidly in the Golkonda state. The leaders of sufi movement condemned social inequalities. In Hindus reformers and philosophers like potuluri Veerabrahmendraswami and others emerged and propagated the spiritual way of life. The qutub Shahis, who belonged to persia originally, were fol¬lowers of shiate Islam. They mentioned the name of emperor of persia in their prayers. But after they were defeated by Aurangazeb this changed and they began to mention the name of Moghul emperor in Friday prayers.
The Golkonda rulers respected the religious believes and traditions of Majority Hindus; donated to temples and priests; appointed Hindus depending upon their talent in government posts while followers of Hinduism were in majority, there were a few jains, but Buddhism almost disappeared by then.
In 1670, a church was built in Machilipatnam for the Christians of Goa. Most important thing was-until then, the presence of Muslims was limited to the Telangana region during the Bahmani rule, but during the reign of qutub Shahis, they expanded to all areas of Andhra region. The Sultans used to attend Hindu festivals and cel¬ebrations, while Hindus participated in Muslim celebrations like ‘peerla festival’ and others. This tradition is being continued even today
Language and Literature
The languages of urdu and Telugu and their lit-erature flourished under the reign of qutub Shahi dynasty, The urdu developed here is called as ‘Deccani urdu’. Many poets wrote books in this language. Almost all the qutub-Shahi rulers patron¬ised Telugu language and literature. The services of Ibrahim qutub Shah, who was called as ‘Malkibharama, to the Telugu literature were mem¬orable. he used to conduct ‘Mushairas’ (readings of poetry) in Telugu language. Kandukuri Rudrakavi wrote Nirankusopakhyanam, sugreeva vijayam and Janardhanaashtakam during his reign, for which Jbmahim donated the chintalapalem of Nellore dist, to him. Addanki Gangadhara kavi dedicated his ‘Tapati samvaranopakhyanam’ to Ibrahim. Mallareddy who wrote ‘Padmapurana’, ‘Shatchakra- varti Charitra’ and ‘Sivadharmottaram’ was a Zagirdar in the Golkonda kingdom. Poet kshetrayya was honoured by Abdullah qutub Shah. Ramadasu wrote the ‘Dasarathi Satakam’ during their reign, which was being called as ‘Ramadasu keertanalu as’ today.
Arts and Architecture
Arts and architecture flourished during the reign of qutub Shahi rulers. They had become famous all over the world after the construction of Hyderabad city. Several great structures were built here and are still standing. Architecture reached its zenith under their rule, which is showcaged in the buildings of charminar, chaar kamaan, Mecca Masjid and others.
Music and dance were also given prominence by qutub Shahi rulers. They used to conduct music and dance programmes frequently in their courts. A number of dance systems like perini, Dandalasyam, kundali dance and others were developed and sever¬al musical instruments like kinnera, veena, Tambura, Mridangam, flute and others were in vogue. Kuchipudi, which was a famous dance tradition of Andhras was also patronised extensively. Abul Hasan, who immensely liked it, donated the kuchipudi Agraharam to Bhagavatas (who practice the kuchipudi dance).
★ Who was the founder of qutub Shahi dynasty? – Quli qutub Shah
★ Quli qutub Shah belongs to which dynasty? • ‘Handam’ dynasty
★ The reign of Quli qutub Shah: –1512-43 A.D.
★ At the time of the establishment of Qutub Shai empire by Quli qutub Shah, the capital was – Golkonda
★ The name given by Quli qutub Shah to the fort of Golkonda – Mohammad nagar
★ In his first invasion Quli qutub Shah occupied the forts of: – Rachakonda, Devarakonda, Panagallu, Ghanapur
★ The name of the vassal Kambham mettu who faced defeat in the hands of Quli qutub Shah ? – Sitapati Raju
★ Who killed Quli qutub Shah? – Jamsheed
★ Who was Jamsheed? . – Third son of Quli qutub shah.
★ Quli qutub Shah belongs to which sect of Islams – Shiat sect
★ The name of the Masjid built by Quli qutub Shah: – Jamma Masjid
★ The reign of Jamsheed: –1543-50 AD.
★ During the reign of Jamsheed, his brother Ibrahim Qutub Shah stayed in the court of ? – Sadasivaraya
★ Which Qutub Shahi ruler referred by the Telugu poets as Malkibharama’? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ Which Qutub Shahi ruler patronised the Telugu poets like Kandukuri Rudrakavi, Addanki Gangadhara kavi, Mariganti Singana? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ Which Qutub Shahi ruler called Golkonda as Bhagiradhi nagar? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ ‘Sugreeva Vijayam’ the first Telugu Yakshagana’ was written in whose period? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ Who wrote Yayati Charitra’ the first ‘accha tenugu kavya’? – Ponnekanti Telaganarya
★ The Qutub Shahi ruler who helped the development of Deccani Urdu – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ Who constructed the Purana Pool’ across the river Moosi? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ Who built Hussain sagar and Ibrahim patnam tanks? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ The kingdom which was famous as second Egypt? . – Golkonda
★ The forts occupied by Ramaraya from Golkonda kingdom – Panagallu and Ghanapuram forts.
★ Which Vijayanagara ruler gave shelter to Jagadeka Rao who left Golkonda? – Aliya Ramaraya
★ Which Qutub Shahi ruler participated in the bat¬tle of ‘Rakshasha Tangadi’ ? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ The reign of Ibrahim qutub Shah –1550-80 A.D.
★ Who gave shelter to Ibrahim qutub shah during the reign of Jamsheed? – Aliya Ramaraya
★ Who came to power after Ibrahim qutub Shah? – Mohammed Quli qutub Shah
★ The reign of Mohammed Quli qutub Shah –1580-1612 A.D.
★ Who was the Qutub Shahi ruler, that constructed Charminar? – Mohammed Quli qutub Shah
★ Who was the founder of Hyderabad? – Mohammed Quli qutub Shah
★ How many kings ruled Qutub Shahi Kingdom? – eight
★ Who was the Qutub Shahi ruler that came to power after Mohammed quli qutub Shah? – Mohammed qutub Shah
★ The reign of Mohammed qutub Shah? –1612-26 A.D.
★ Who ascended the throne after Mohammed Qutub Shah? – Abdullah Qutub Shah
★ The reign of Abdullah Qutub Shah? –1626-72 AD.
★ In which year Abdullah Qutub Shah converted to sunni sect from shiat? –1636 A.D.
★ Who came to power after Abdullah Qutub Shah? – Abul Hasan
★ The reign of Abul hasan? –1672-87 A.D.
★ The last ruler in Qutub Shahi dynasty ? – Abul Hasan
★ Who was that Qutub Shahi ruler referred to as ‘Tanisha’ ? – Abul Hasan
★ In the year 1687 A.D. Golkonda kingdom was merged into which empire? – Moghul empire
★ Who scored victory over Abdul hasan Tanisha in 1687 A.D. ? – Aurangazeb Constructions during the time at Mohammed Quli qutub Shah :
★ The brothers who served as pradhani and military general respectively during the period of Abul hasan Tanisha: – Akkanna, Madanna
★ Who was the revenue officer of Bhadrachalam during the time of Abul hasan Tanisha? (Ramadas) – Kancherla Gopanna
★ Who was the Governor of Puramalli during the period of Abul hasan? – Podili Linganna
★ Who was the nephew of Akkanna and Madanna who served as an army officer during the time of Abul hasan Tanisha ? – Yanganna.
★ The village which has been given as Agraharam’ to Kandukuri Rudrakavi? – Chintalapalem (Nellore)
★ To whom Ponnekanti Telangana dedicated his Yayaticharitra? – Amin Khan
★ Before the reign of Jamsheed, the fort under the control of Ibrahim qutub Shah was: • – Devarakonda
★ To prevent the extension of Bijapur, who entered into a treaty with Ahmed nagar sultan? – Ibrahim qutub Shah
★ The author of ‘Dasarathi satakam’ was, – Kancherla Gopanna
★ The Qutub Shahi ruler who allowed the Britishers to establish trade centres in Machilipatnam in the year 1611; – Mohammed quli qutub Shah
★ Famous Urdu poet Vazi mohammed was the con-temporary of – Mohammed quli qutub Shah
★ Kshetrayya visited the court of: • Abdullah qutub Shah
★ In which year did the British people establish their factory at Visakhapatnam? –1682
★ The name of the states (Rashtras) in Golkonda kingdom – ‘Tarafs
★ What was the chief source of income to the Golkonda kingdom? – Land revenue
★ The most important centre for foreign trade in the kingdom of Golkonda? – Machilipatnam.
★ The literary work written by Addanki Gangadhara: – Tapati samvaranopakhyanam
★ The ruler of Qutub Shahi dynasty who was responsible for the constructions of a dam across the river Moosi? – Mohammed Quli qutub Shah
★ Which is the famous construction built by Mohammed Quli qutub Shah in memory of the successful suppression of the plague? – Charminar
★ Who started the construction of Mecca masjid? – Mohammed Qutub Shah
★ In how mqny years, was the construction of Mecca masjid completed ? –77 years
★ Who was the Qutub Shahi ruler referred to with the title ‘khavas khan’ by Bahmani sultan? – Quli qutub Shah
★ The foreign travellers who visited the kingdom of Qutub Shahis? – Bernier and Trevemier
★ Who were the famous as ‘Andhra sultans’? –Qutub Shahi rulers
★ Who was the chief official after sultan during the period of Qutub Shahis? – Peshwa
★ Under whom, the vazirs did work during qutub Shahis? – Peshwa
★ Potuluri Veerabrahmendra swami lived in the period of: – Qutub Shahis
★ ‘Brahmamgari matham’ is situated at? – Kandimallaya palli (Kadapa dist.)
★ Who wrote ‘Vyjayanti vilasam’? – Sarangu tammaya
★ The author of ‘Dasaratharaja nandana charitra’ was : – Maringanti Singana
★ The sultan who granted ‘Kuchipudi’ as agra- haram to ‘Kuchipudi bhagavatas’? – Abul Hasan Tanisha
★ In which year did the Bahmani kingdom disinte-grate ? –1500 A.D.
★ How many years Qutub Shahis ruled the king¬dom, Golkonda as the capital? –175 years
★ The ruler who gave the title ‘Qutub ul mulk’ to Quli qutub Shah? – Mohammed Shah-III of Bahmani
★ Under whose leadership Quli qutub Shah worked before the establishment of the dynasty? – Mohammed Shah-III of Bahmani
★ Akbar sent his ambassador Masoodbegh to Qutub shahi ruler in 1600 A.D. At that time, the ruler of Golkonda kingdom was? – Mohammed Quli qutub Shah
★ The name of the ship which arrived at Machilipatnam in 1611 A.D. under the captain-ship of Hippan – Globe
★ The contemporaries of Quli qutub Shah: – Srikrishnadevaraya, Prataparudra Gajapati, Babar, Humayun
★ The fort occupied by Quli qutub shah at first – Rachakonda
★ The famous poet who wrote ‘Laila-Majnu’ during the period of Mohammed Quli qutub Shah? – Mirja Mohammed Amin
★ Who was the Maharashtra ruler, contemporary to Abul Hasan Tanisha? – Sivaji
★ The famous Urdu poet ‘Gavan’ lived during the time of – Abdullah Qutub shah
★ Who showed his courage at the time of capturing the Golkonda fort by Aurangazeb? – Abdul Razaq lari
★ Who helped Aurangazeb in capturing the Golkonda ? – Abdullah phani
★ During the period of Abdullah Qutub Shah, Kohinoor diamond was found in?- Sattenapalli taluq (Guntur district)
★ During whose reign, the Dutch People established their trade centre in Telugu region ?- Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ Who was the son-in-law of Mohammed QuliQutub Shah ? – Mohammed Qutub Shah
★ The ruler who changed the capital from Golkonda to Hyderabad. – Mohammed Quli qutub Shah
★ In whose.remembrance Mohammed quli qutubShah changed the name of Bhagyanagar into Hyderabad ? – in the name of his son Haider
★ The dynasty which constructed the first fort on Golkonda ? – Kakatiya dynasty
★ The name of Golkonda during the period of Kakatiyas? – Golla konda
★ Who was defeated by Quli qutub Shah at , Khammam mettu? – Chitab khan
★ On whom Jamsheed scored a victory at Narayan ” Khed ? ‘ – Malik Bareed
★ Who was the Vijayanagar king that extended his help to Ibrahim Qutub Shah to become a ruler? – Aliya Raniaraya
★ Who was the best ruler among Golkonda rulers? – Ibrahim Qutub Shah
★ The kingdom which did not join the Bahmani alliance in the battle of Rakshasa Tangadi ? – Berar
★ Who plundered the Ahobila temple during the reign of Ibrahim Qutub Shah? – Murahari Rao
★In which year were Akkanna and Madanna were murdered ? –1686 A.D.
★ Who wrote ‘Risala Mikdariya’ on weights and measurements ? – Mir Mohammed Munim
★ What was the official language during the QutubShahis ? ‘ – Persian
★ What is the height of the Charminar? –186 feet
★ The courts were called by Golkonda Nawabs? – Aman mahal, Dad mahal
★ Who was the originator of Kuchipudi? – Siddhendra Yogi
★ Siddhendra Yogi belongs to which century? – 16th Century
★ Siddhendra Yogi was the resident of ? – Kuchipudi village
★ Who was the famous Telugu ‘Prajakavi’ during the period of Qutub Shahi? – Vemana
★ The general of Ibrahim Qutub Shah who arranged marriages for poor Brahmins ? –Aminkhan
★ Who presented the Kohinoor Diamond to Moghul emperor Shajahan? – Mirjumla
★ Who was Mirjumla? – The efficient minister and Army Chief of Abdullah qutub Shah.
★ Who encouraged the invasion of Aurangazeb on Golkonda in 1655 A.D.? – Mirjumla
1.Who are famous as ‘Andhra Sultans’ ?
1. Asafjahis 2. Qutubshahis
3. Moghuls 4. Bahmani Sultans.
2. In which year did Qutubshahi kingdom established Golkonda as the capital ?
1. 1511A.D. 2.1512A.D.
3. 1565 A.D. 4. 1687 A.D.
3. Qutubshahi kingdom became a part of this kingdom :
3. Bahmani Sultan 4/Vijayanagara empire
4. Founder of Qutubshahi kingdom :
2. Quli qutubshah
3. Ibrahim qutub shah
4. Sher Kuli
5. Who was appointed as tarafdar to Telangana region and got the title Qutub -Ul-Mulk from Bidar Sultan Mohmed Shah ?
1. Jamsheed 2. Ibrahim qutubshah
3. Sher Quli 4. Quli qutub Shah
6. Who became famous as Bada Malik ?
1. Jamsheed 2. Quli qutub Shah
3. Ibrahim Qutub Shah 4. Abdullah Qutub Shah
7. Who among the following patronised Andhra poets and became famous as ‘Malkibharama’?
1. Quli qutub shah
2. Ibrahim qutub shah
3. Mahammed quli qutub Shah
4. None of these
8. Which of the following was constructed by Ibrahim Qutubshah ?
1. Golkonda fort compound
2. Bridge on Moosi
3. Ibrahim Bagh and Hussain Sagar
4. All the above
9. Who provided shelter to Ibrahim Qutub Shah in Vij ayanagaram for seven years ?
1. Venkatapati raya 2. Aaliya Ramaraya
3. Sri Krishnadevaraya 4. Jagadeka rao
10. Who established Phool bagh and Langars ?
1. Sultan Mahmed 2. Mahmed quli qutub Shah 3. Ibrahim Qutub Shah 4. Quli qutub Shah
11. Whose period is considered as golden age in the history of Golkonda ?
1. Ibrahim qQutub Shah
2. Quli qutub Shah
3. Mohammed quli qutub Shah
4. Abdullah qutub Shah
12. Which of the following are constructed by Mohmed Quli Qutub shah ?
1. Hyderabad city •
2. Charminar and Chaar kamaan
3. Jama Mazid, and Darul Shifa
4. All the above
13. In whose name, did Mohammed Quli qutub shah (1880-1612 A.D.) construct Bhagya nagar?
1. Bhagamati 2. Leelavati
3. Hemavati 4. Razia Sultana
14.Golkonda became a feudatory kingdom to Moghuls during the period of:
2. Abdullah qutub shah
3. Sultan Mahmed qutub shah
4. Quli qutub shah
15. Who issued ‘golden farmaanas* to Britishers in 1636 AJD. ?
1. Abdullah qutub Shah
3. Sultan Mohmed qutub Shah
4. None of these
16. Akkanna and Madanna served in whose court?
1. Abul Hasan
2. Abdullah Qutub Shah
3. Quli qutub Shah
4. All the above
17. With whom did Abul hasan conclude a treaty to join Moghuls ?
1. Aurangazeb 2. Shahjahan
3. Sivaji 4. Ramaraya
18. Who was the treacherous person, that helped Aurangazeb in 1687 by opening the doors of Golkonda fort when he attacked?
1. Abdul Razaq Larry 2. Abdullah Paani
3. Mozumdar 4. Sheik Minhaz
19. Which of the following is correctly matched?
1. Mir zumla – Finance Minister
2. Inul Mulk – War Minister
3. Kotwal – Police Commissioner
4. All the above
20. Which of the following is not correctly matched?
1. Prime Minister
4. None of these
21. Which of the following is in correct order ?
1. Rajyam, Tarads, Sarkars, Paraganas
2. Rajyam, Sarkars, Jagirs, Paraganas
3. Rajyam, Tarafs, Paraganas, Sarkars
4. None of the above
22. Which of the following is correctly matched ?
1. State Administrator – Tarafdar
2. District Administrator – faujdar
3. Paragana Administrator – Tahsildaar
4. All the above
23. What is the unit for revenue collection during the period of Qutubshahis ?
1. Taraf (State) 2. Sarkars (districts)
3. Paraganas (Taluq) 4. Village
24. What are the Dad mahal and Aman mahal?
1. courts 2. granaries
3. treasurers 4. Armours
25. During Qutub Shahis, the manufacture of which of the following was under the con¬trol of Government ?
1. Salt, Diamonds 2. Tobacco
3. Beetle leaves 4. All the above
26. Which kingdom was praised as second Egypt by Western Pilgrims ?
1. Bidar 2. Vijayanagaram
3. Golkonda 4. Bahmani
27. Which is famous for diamonds in Golkonda kingdom ?
1. Kollur (Guntur)
2. Paritala (Krishna)
3. Ramallakota & Vajra Karur (Anantapur)
4. All the above
28. Which of the following is correctly matched?
1. Nirmal and Indur – Arms industry
2. Nellore – Hand-kerchiefs
3. Elurii – Carpets
4. All the above ‘
29. Where was the world famous Kohinoor diamond discovered ?
1. Kollur 2. Paritala
3. Ramappakota 4. Vajrakarur
30. Qutub Shahis tried to eliminate the social evil of:
1. Prostitution 2. Sati
3. Child marriages 4. Untouchability
31. Who laid foundation for religious harmony through Govinda vakyas ?
1. Sri Potuluri Veera brahmendra Swami
3. Bhakta Ramadas
4. All the above
32. Qutub Shahis belong to Shiat religious sect. They came from :
1. Persia 2. Arab ‘ 3. Greek 4. Rome
33. Who organised the ‘mushairas’ and hon¬oured the poets ?
1. Ibrahim Qutub Shah
2. Quli qutub Shah
3. Abdullah Qutub Shah .
4. All the above
34. First Pura Telugu (accha Tenugu) poem in Telugu?
1. Yayati Charitra
3. Sugreeva Vijayam
4. Tapati Samvaranopakhyanam
35. The painting in which the Hindu, Parsi and Western traditions were merged during Qutub Shahis period ?
1. Moghul painting 2. Andhra painting 3. Deccani painting 4. Qutubshahis painting
36. Who donated the village of Kuchipudi as agraharam to Kuchipudi artists ?
1. Ibrahim Qutubshah 2. Abul Hassan 3. Abdullah Qutub Shah 4. Aurangazeb
37. Who is the patron of Deccani paintings ?
1. MirHasthim 2. Abdullah
3. Tanisha 4. Tariqh Hussain
38. Who honoured the ‘Pada Kavita Pitamaha’ Kshetrayya ?
1. Quli qutub Shah 2. Abdullah Qutub Shah 3. Tanisha 4. None of these
39. Which of the following was constructed by Abdullah Qutub Shah in the name of his mother?
1. Hyderabad 2. Charminar
3. Hayatnagar 3. Hussain Sagar
Material is good.. kindly provide the material for telangana movement (group 2 paper 4) material