Telangana History Origin of the Word Telangana
The first Telugu texts which mentioned the words ‘Telangana’ and ‘Telugu people’ were Markandeya Purana and Vayupurana.
Telugudesa was called as Trilinga or Tilinga in these books. They both belonged to the early centuries of A.D. Ptolemy’s chronicle ‘Geography’ which belongs to the same age called the Telugudesa as .’Tilingan’. The capital of Tilingan was called as Triglipatan or Tirgiphan by Ptolemy.
Vayupurana stated Tilinga’s Janapada as one of the Janapadas of Middle India in a verse “Arthapascha Tilingascha Magadhas chavriki Saha Madhyadesa Janapadah, Prayaso mee Prakeerthita”. That region is the same as contemporary Telangana. The Telugus of vaidik literature were the neighbours of kalingas who conducted occupations such as farming and cattle keeping and who lived settled life in plains and river banks. The word Kalinga means that ‘people who eat rice’, and it also means that watery region. The people behind them, who lived on upper regions were called as Tala (head) or Talaings. The word Kalinga in Mundari language means that the people who lived on river banks; and Tilinga means people who lived behind the banks, on upper regions. So, as the place where the Kalingas lived was called as Kalingadesa, the people where Telingas lived was called as Telingadesa. Contemporary Telangana was called very early as Andhradesa also; So from the time of Vayupurana, the same place was called as both Andhradesa and Tilinga (Telinga). It was concluded that the word Tailangu came from the word Talaingu. The kurgodu inscription of 12th century contains the word ‘Telunga’. Later on that word transformed into Telugu scholars also said that the river Godavari has another name as Telivaha river; This word and the word Tilinga are related.
The region Telinga can be understood as the place where Tilingas (Telugu people) lived until the time of early Satavahanas. Later on, the term had transformed into Tenugu, which denoted the whole of Telugu people, Telugudesa and Telugu region as a whole and had come into universal usage. The word Tillinga’ was also found in the purli inscription of Indravarma of Ganga dynasty. This word is almost the same as the word used by Ptolemy (Tilingan). There were three regions in the Kalinga kingdom which spread between the rivers, Ganga and Godavari. They are North Kalinga, Middle kalinga and South kalinga. The North (uttara) kalinga became Utkala, Middle (madya) kalinga was called by ptolemy as Meadow kalinga and South (Dakshina) kalinga had become ’Tenkalinga’. Some say that Tenkalinga had later transformed into Tenugu and then to Telugu. However, Agathiyam’ (5th century A.D.). The tamil grammar text mentioned a language called ‘Telungam’. As ‘Saivism’ spread extensively by 9th century A.D., the word Tillinga was sanskritised and has become Trilinga that is why Rajasekhara a poet between 880-920 A.D. used the word ‘Trilingadhipati’ in his writings. Nannaya also mentioned the Telinga region in his Adiparva of Mahabharata. Kurgodu inscription of 12th century A.D., contains the word ‘Telunga’. Vidyanatha, court poet of Kakatiya Pratapa rudra-II, applied the ‘Trilingas’ to the whole of Andhra i.e., both Telangana and Andhra regions. By then, Andhradesa was being called as Trilingadesa. By the time of Prataparudra-II, the whole of Andhradesa was under the rule of kakatiyas. Vidyanatha described Trilingadesa as the region between Draksharama, Kaleswaram and Srisailam (Three Sivalingas). Vidyanatha called Kaleswaram (Now in Telangana) as the third lingam instead of Kalahasti. However, as Vidyanatha was under the influence of Saivism, he called the region as Trilingadesa. Yadava rulers wdre the contemporaries of Kakatiyas. The minister of Yadava rulers, Hemadri called Kakatiya Pratapa rudra II as ‘Trilingadhipati and Tailinga Kshitipala in his book ‘Vratakhanda’.
Moghul poet Amir khusrau and Abul Fazl called this region as Tilinga and Telingana respectively. Khusrau and Fazl used the term Telingana in their historical writings. They must have taken it from the Tilinga and Tailinga words used by Hemadri.
After the decline of Kakatiyas, Muslim historians mentioned the Andhra region in their writings as Tilinga, Telinga and Telangana. The term ‘Telangana’ appears for the first time in these writings. Though they used these terms (Telinga and Telingana) to describe the whole of Andhra under the Kakatiya rulers, they did not mention the. regions of South of river Krishna or the seashore of Andhra. Telangana, as a specific geographical region, found mention in the writings of muslim historians and in the ‘Vilasa Inscription’ of Prolaya Nayaka, after the decline of Kakatiyas.
The word Telangana’ was found in an inscription of 1417 A.D., found at Tellapur, Sangareddy Taluq of Medak district. In the Velicherla inscription of 1510 A.D., given by Prataparudra Gajapati, the word ‘Telangana’ was used as “Ananya Sadharana Sahasa Srirjagraha Paschattelungana Durgan”.
The Tirumala inscription of Sri Krishnadevaraya in 2/1/1517 A.D (Chittoor district) and the Chinnakanchi (Tamilnadu) inscription of 14-01-1517 A.D both contain the word ‘Telungana’ The above inscriptions described the conquering of Andhra shores, East and West coast regions by Sri Krishna Devaraya as ‘Purana Digvijayayatras’ and the conquering of North-Andhra and Odissa regions as ‘Kalingadesa Digvijaya Yatras’; and the conquering of Anantagiri, Undrugonda, Arvapalli, Urlugonda, Rachakonda, Devarakonda, Kandikonda, Kappuluvai, Nalgonda, Jallepally, Kanagagiri, Sankaragiri, Khammam mettu and Durgam (All in Telangana Region) as ‘Telanganyapu fort Yatras’. This proves that the word ‘Telangana’ came to be used all over to denote the region South of rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra (Telangana of today) by 15th century itself. Even inscriptions mentioned it as ‘Tilingam’. This region was also called as Tilingadesa, Tilinganem. ‘Anem’ and ‘Desam’ are synonyms to the word region. Later On ‘Anem’ because Anam and Tilinganem had become Telanganam and further Tilingana and Telangana.
Arab and Persian historians called the Telugudesa in their chronicles as Tiling, Tailang and Tilinga,. After the conquer of Kakatiya kingdom by Mohammed bin Tugluq. The muslims called Trilingadesha as Telingana. The head of army of Tugluq, Anurvali invaded the coastal areas after occupying Warangal. He then noted the region as Telangana in his inscriptions and administrative kaifiyats. From then onwards muslims called this whole region as Telingi. Later region under the Nizam rule came to be known as Telangana.
Telangana History Telugu Language
Dravidian races, which introduced the Kairan culture in Telangana lived here for & long period. In the Dravidian language ‘Ten’ means South (Dakshinam) and ‘Agu’ means people who lived or wandered here. So ten+agu = Tenugu means people who wandered on the South side. Those same words became synonymous to their language also. That is why Telugu language is said to belong to Dravidian family of languages. Some say that the Paisachi language which was in popular usage during the Satavahana era, was the source of Telugu language. Paisachi was a non-Aryan language. Gunadhya wrote his ‘Brihatkatha’ in this language. Even today Telugu language contains a large number of prakrit words that belong to the paisachi language. Telugu language also contains a large number of Sanskrit words also. But the sohnd ‘inga’ which is present in the kalinga and Telugu is not present in .the Sanskrit language. That sound can be seen in the Ashtriki and Mundari languages. So Telugu language could belong to their family also. The official languages from Satavahana era to kakatiya era were prakrit and Sanskrit. So, during that period, Telugu language was not very popular.
Early telugu inscriptions
Satavahanas minted a number of coins in dual, languages. Those two languages were prakrit and Desi (local) language. In one of the inscription written in prakrit language ‘Gotamiputra Sirisatakarni’ was translated into Desi language as ‘Gotami Magaku Tiruhata kaniku’. Maga means ‘a son’. One scholar believes that this ancient inscription contains local Telugu grammatical characteristics. Historian Dr. DC sarkar and others also believed that this inscription of Satavahanas contains the structure of ancient Telugu language.
The names of many villages were also written in Telugu even in inscriptions of B.C. period. So, it can be concluded that an independent language existed for Telugu people other than Sanskrit and prakrit.
By 16th century A.D., Telugu cholas and chalukyas started to use Telugu in their inscriptions. The structure of ancient Telugu language can be seen from this. The very early Telugu inscriptions were Kalamalla inscription of Erukula Muthuraju Dhanunjaya in 575 A.D., Erragudipadu inscription of Punyakumara in 600 A.D. These are the last of stone inscriptions of 6th century A.D. The Madras museum copper inscription of 9th century A.D. by Telugu Chola king Ballaya Chola’s inscription was the first Telugu Copper inscription. After Renati Chola rulers, the Eastern Chalukyas made their inscriptions in Telugu. They are 50 percent Telugu words in the Cherla inscription of Kubja Vishnuvardhana, and the other half are Sanskrit words. It was not considered as a Telugu inscription in the beginning. The ‘Vipparla inscription of first Jayasimha Vallabha, son of Kubja Vishnuvardhana is considered as the Eastern Chalukyas’ first Telugu inscription. The Panduranga inscription of Addanki was an example of well developed Telugu inscrip- ‘ tion. During the Chalukya era, inscriptions were written in Telugu Kannada script (which was called as Vengi script and in Nagara script in Telangana. An inscription of 13-14 the century A.D., was brought to light recently at Jeedimetla in Hyderabad. The word ‘Telangana’ was written in it, said historians. Another inscriptions of 1417A.D., found at Tellapur, Sangareddy Taluq, Medak district also contained the word ‘Telungana’. Velieherla inscription of Prataparudra Gajapati in 1510 also contained the word Telungana’.
1.Which historical text first mentioned the ’’Asmaka’ kingdom? Mahabharata (Adlparva)
2.Which area was called as the ‘Dakshinapatha’ in Sanskrit literature and inscriptions? The Deccan
3.In which of his books (1st century A.D.) did ptolemy called the Telugudesa as the ‘Tilingam’?
4.The capital of Tilingas was called as …………. by ptolemy in his ‘Geography’ book
Trigllpatan or Tirgiphan
5.Which book recognised the Andhradesa was Tailinga desa as different regions?
Sakii sangama Tantra
6.Which Buddhist text stated the 16 Janapadas of , 6th century B.C.?
7.What was the capital of Asmaka kingdom, according to Vayupurana?
Podhan (Paudanyapuram, Pothali, Bodhan and Bahudhanyapuram)
8.Which text stated that there were two Andhaka kingdoms, which on one side of the river Godavari? -Commentary on Suthanipatha
9.These people were said to be the rulers of the region ‘Andhaka Rattam’ in the river valley of Godavari. Asmakas or Alakas or Mulakas
10.A contemporary or Buddha, who was the ruler of Bodhan, according to Buddhist literature.
11.Who ruled the Tilinga region with Bodhan as his kingdom, according to Jaina texts?
Bahubali (son of Rishabhanatha)
12.Name the Brahmanacharya who came to the southern India in 6th century. B.C. and settled down here to teach his knowledge, according to Suthanipatha?
Bavari (He was mentioned as the Guru of Kosala king)
13.Panini, who belonged to 6th century B.C. men ioned the Kalinga and Asmaka kingdoms of South-India or Dakshinapatha in his text. What is its name?
14.Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas mentioned that people of different tribes lived as neighbours of Andhras on the banks of thiswiver in the lands North of Himalayas (Central Asia). Which river is that? Vakshu (Chakshu orAxus)
15.A race called Mahishakas lived in a place in the Telangana region of today. According to archaeological evidence which phase is that?
Medak and Nalgonda districts
16.Name the 1st century A.D. literary texts, which called Telugudesa as Tilinga and Trilinga
Markandeya Purana and Vayupurana
17.Different meanings of the word ‘kalinga’
Watery region, coastal people (in Mnndari language) and people who eat rice.
18.In which inscription of the 12th century was the word ‘Telunga’ found?
19.Which inscription was commissioned by Indravarma, ruler of Ganga dynasty, in which the word ‘Tillinga’ was foimd?
20.Which writer (belonging to 880-920 A.D.) used the word !Trilingadhipathi’?
21.Name the poet who in his writings, clubbed the Andhra and Telangana regions; applied the whole of Andhradesa to 3 lingas (kshetras) and described it as the Trilingadesa? .
Vidyanatha (court poet of Kakatiya Prataparudra-II)
22.Hemadri, a minister of Yadava kings, described Kakatiya Rudradeva as the Trilingadhipati and Tailinga Kshitipala in his book. What is the name of that book? .
23.Name the Moghul poets who described the Deccan region as Tilinga and Telingana in their writings? Amir Khusrau and Abul Fazl
24.Which inscription of prolaya nayaka contained the word Telangana.
Vllasa copper Inscription
25.What was the word found in the inscription of 1417 A.D. in Tellapur, Sangareddy taluq, Medak district?
26.Which inscription of 1510 A.D., commissioned by Prataparudra Gajapati contained the word Telungana?
27.Inscriptions commissioned by Sri Krishnadevaraya in which the word ‘Telangana’ was found?Tirumala inscription (Chittoor district, 02-01-1517AD. and Chinnakanchi inscription (Tamilnadu 14-01-1517AD.)
28.What was the Telugudesha called in the writings of Arab and Persian historians?
Tiling, Tailang and Tilinga
29.Army chief of Mohammed Bin Tugluq invaded the coastal region after occupying Orugallu (Warangal). He commissioned several inscriptions and administrative KaifLyats in which the word Telangana was used. What is his name?
30.Which race introduced the Kairan culture into Telangana?
31.Which language are seen in the bilingual coins minted by the Satavahanas? Prakrit and Desi
32.Who commissioned the first Telugu inscriptions in the Andhradesa? – Dhanunjaya in 578 AD.- the Kalamalla inscription andPunyakumara in 600 AD.- the Erragndipadu inscription
33.The Vipparla inscription, considered to be the first of Eastern Chalukyas was commissioned by
34.The script, which combined the Telugu and Kannada scripts during the Chalukya period was used to write inscriptions. What is it called? Vengi script
35. Inscriptions in Telangana were written in this script – Nagara script
1.When did the Historic Age begin as far as Telangana is concerned?
1.6th century B.C. 2. 7th century B.C.
3.8th century B.C. 4. 9th century B.C.
2.Which among the following works first used the word Dakshinapatha to describe a particular geographical region, extensively?
2.Suthanipatha (Buddhist Text)
4.All the above
3.Name the foreign traveller who had written about the Deccan clearly in his writings of 1st century A.D.
3.Nuniz 4. Nicolo Conti
4.Which foreign chronicler described the 1st century AD. Telugudesa as ‘Telingan’ ?
1..Aristotle 2. Copernicus
3. Ptolemy 4. Kepler
5.Which among the following was one of 16 Janapadas of India in 6th century B.C.?
1.Avanti 2. Gandhara
3.Panchala 4. All the above
6. Which text stated that there were 16 janapadas in India in 6th century B.C. ?
1.Mahabharata 2. Ramayana
3.Angautharanikaya 4. Abhidamma Pithika
7. Commentary on Suthanipatha stated that 2 Andhaka kingdoms were present on both sides of river Godavari. What are their names?
1.Asmaka and Avanti
2.Asmaka and Gandhara
3.Asmaka and Kambhoja
4.Asmaka and Mulaka
8.Historians consider this town in Telangana as pothan, the capital of Asmaka kingdom stated in the Vayupurana?
1.Nirmal 2. Bodhan
3.Peddapally 4. Nalgonda
9.Who was the son of Rishabhanatha that ruled the region with Bodhan as his capital , according to Jaina texts?
10.Bavari, the Guru of the Kosala king settled down in the Assaka kingdom to teach here, according to this religious text
1.Angautharanikaya 2. Suthanipatha
3. Vinaya pitaka 4. Abhidamma pithaka
11 Which was the first Aryan text that explained about the Deccan and that the Aryans came down through the Vindhya ranges into the Asmaka kingdom (Telangana today)
1.Brahinanakas 2. Aranyakas
3. Suthanipatha 4. All the above
12.Paaradas, who were considered as the neighbours of Andhras in Vayu and Brahmanda puranas, were called as southserns of Dakshinatyas in the inscriptions of later period, commissioned by
1. Ashoka 2. Kanishka
3.Jayasimha Vallabha 4. Ajatashatru
13.Andhras retreated from Central Asia and came to the Dakshinapatha because of the continuous attacks of Aryans. By the time they came here, which races were living in the Andhradesa?
4. All the above
14 Archaeological evidences suggest that Mahishakas lived in this region
1. Medak district .
3.Dharwad district (Karnataka)
4.All the above
15.Which among the following is the meaning of the word Kalinga?
1.Watery region 2. People who eat rice 3. Coastal people 4. All the above
16.Which inscription of 12th century A.D. contained the word ‘Telunga’ ?
1.Kurgodu 2. Maski
3.Rajula mandagiri 4. All the above
17.Which among the following word# was mentioned in the purii inscription commissioned by Indra varma of Gangeya dynasty king?
1.Tilingam 2. Telunga
3.Tenugu 4. Tilhnga
18.Historians stated that Ptolemy had written in his book the ‘Geography’ about middie kalinga as
1.Tenkalinga 2. Meadow kalinga
3.Lower kalinga 4. All the above
19.Telugu as a language as Telungani, was mentioned in a grammatical text. What is its name?
1.Ashthadhyayi 2. Tolkappiyam
3.Silappadikaram 4. Agathiyam
20.Which among the following copper inscriptions is considered as the first Telugu copper inscriptions ?
4.Madras Museum copper inscription
21.Who commissioned the Kalamalla inscription which is considered to be the first Telugu inscription of Andhradesa?
22.Which among the following inscriptions has half Telugu and half Sanskrit words?
23.Which inscription of Sri Krishna devaraya has the word Telungana’ in it? ’
1.Chinna kanchi inscriptions (Tamilnadu)
2.Tirumala inscription (Chittoor district)
3.Both 1 and 2
4.None of the above
24.The inscriptions of 1417 A.D., which was found recently is located at »*•*•••» in the Sangareddy Thluq of Medak district.
1.Lingampalli 2. Tuphran
3.Vargal 4. Tellapur