Telangana History Independence/National Movement in Telangana
- 1 Telangana History Independence/National Movement in Telangana
- 2 Agitation at Bollarum contonement
- 3 The 1862 conspiracy
- 4 Political awakening in the Nizam state
- 5 Renaissance of literature and culture
- 6 Andhra Jana Sangham
- 7 Ban on meetings
- 8 Kakinada congress conference
- 9 The Hyderabad political conference
- 10 Emergence of Andhra Maha Sabha
- 11 Hyderabad state congress
- 12 Historical vandemataram movement of1938 .
- 13 First Satyagraha in Hyderabad state
- 14 Opposition of Nizam towards local languages
- 15 Individual Satyagraha
- 16 Conditions during Quit India Movement
- 17 Azad Hind Fauz
- 18 Role of communists in the freedom movement of Hyderabad state
- 19 Hyderabad Youth Congress
- 20 Historic Musheerabad congress conference
- 21 Role of Socialists
- 22 Bhagyanagar Radio
- 23 Political Conditions after the Second World War
- 24 Nizam state on Independence day
- 25 Cables to foreign countries
- 26 Status Quo Agreement
- 27 Attacks of Razakars
- 28 Bomb attack on Nizam
- 29 Nationalists in Muslims
- 30 Murder of Shoyabullah Khan
- 31 Police Action
- 32 Bit Bank
With the onset of Europeans, modem era started in the Hyderabad state. The European imperialists interfered into the politics of the state even during the Asafjahi period and earned political gains.
Though the Nizam-ul-mulk, who formed the Nizam state/Hyderabad state in 1724 A.D. was an independent ruler, the Asaf Jahis considered as the subedar of Moghul until 1758. The Nizam had given off the North Andhra coastal region to the British, as a result of the negotiations between his ambassador Jogipantulu and the British East India company representatives. In exchange to this the company agreed to collect and give tributes (peshkash) from that region.
Jogipantulu negotiated to had over 4 Northern circars except Guntur Mustafanagar, eluru, Rajahmundry and Srikakulam to the British and made them pay Rs. 9 lakhs there and then to Nizam ali Again in 1766, the Nizam presented 5 circars the Mustafanagar, Mustafanagar, Eluru, Rajahmundry and chikakole (Srikakulam) – to the English as a free gift. The company also took over the Guntur circar from Nizam in 1788. On 2 June, 1798, the Nizam signed a military agreement with the British and ceded the Kadapa, Kurnool, Anantapur and Bellary regions to the British. (From then onwards, they have been known as the ceded regions/districts)
In this way, the Nizam gave away almost all of the coastal region and ceded regions to the British. They merged all those regions in the Madras State/province with it, most of the important port towns, and trade centres of the Nizam state went into the India under the British rule. And at the same time, the dominance of the company increased to a large extent in the Nizam state. Chandulal, who was a supporter of the company, had become peshkar.
The Nizam government had fallen into financial difficulties and taken loans from a banking organi-sation called’palmer company’ . This company bor-rowed at a rate of 12 percent from the rich and lent it to Nizam on 25% rate of interest As the Nizam could not repay these loans, he had given off the Berar and osmanabad circars also to the British.
Later, a movement called the ‘Wahabi move-ment’ was conducted against the Nizam and British, which was led by Mubariz-ud-daula, third son of sikinder jha in Hyderabad. He was arrested in 1838 and that was the first national movement against the British in Telangana. As the British suppressed the wahabi movement very severely, the 1857 sepoy revolution did not affect the Nizam state very much. Though the British took care for it to not spread in the south India and the Deccan, some incidents, relating to it, happened here and there.
The revolt of Bahadur Shah, the Delhi Sultan, also inspired a number of Muslims of Hyderabad. Maulvi Ibrahim incited the people of the Nizam state to revolt against thfe british on 10th June 1857.
A leader called Fakir addressed people at the Secun-derabad contonement area and incited them to fight against the British army, which was present. He was immediately arrested. The salarjung-I banned the reading of ‘Kutba’ which in cites Jihad feelings in the Mecca Masjid of Hyderabad.
Same Muslims, who conducted a revolt in Berar and Aurangabad came to Hyderabad under the leadership of Jamedar Chiddah khan. Chiddah Khan was arrested by salarjung-I Rohilla warriors , opposed this and went to capture the British residency in a group of 300, led by Turrebaj Khan. The company sent Major Briggs with an army protect the Residency. The Rohillas force weakened in the ‘ battle and Turrebaz Khan was shot to death by the British soldiers at Tuphran village while he was ‘ attempting to escape. Another leader of the Rohillas Maulvi Allauddin escaped-to Banglore. But was ” caught at Mangalpalli near Banglore and was again brought to Hyderabad. Later, he was sent to the Andaman jail where he died in 1884.
The revolt of Raja venkatappayya Nayak, ruler of sholapur in Maharashtra, (Which was under the Nizam rule), was also notable. The Raja was defeated by the British but as he did not want to be imprisoned by the British, committed suicide. The above incidents were related to the 1857 sepoy revolt, which were suppressed by the British ! with the support of Nizam, for this The British presented the Nizam with the ‘Star of India’ Title,and also ‘most exalted order’ and knighthood in 1861.
The people of Nizam state opposed Nizam for taking the titles and had written protests and slogans on walls.A number of small revolts also occurred in the Nizam state even before the 1857 revolt. ‘Sardar 1 Dharmaji paparao at Bid, Nawasji Nayak at Nanded and veerappa in Koppal’ led armed revolts against the British in 1818, but were suppressed cruelly by the contingent armies of the Nizam. Sardar Bhil Nayak led the attacks of armed , Bhil tribals against the British forces at Aurangabad contonement in 1819 but was caught and hanged by the British. Though Bhil Nayak was hanged the Bhils & did not go back but continued to fight with i new leaders named Jandhula and Jakira. The Bhils continued their attacks on the British between 1822 and 1857 frequently.
The Jangaon fort was recaptured by Apparao and his men from the British in 1840 and was kept under him for 8 years. Like wise lingappa in Bidar, Krishnaji Deshmukh in Nandapur, Narsingarao in Belgam and Hasnappanayak in sholapur fought against the British dominance.
The British forces were threatened and left the valley of River Godavari due to the violent revolt of Rohillas at Bhadrachalam Rohillas killed the British captain Hiver during the battle.
Agitation at Bollarum contonement
Bollarum near Hyderabad housed the chief con- tonment of the British army during the Nizam rule.
In 1855, Moharram, an auspicious day for Muslims feel on a Sunday. As Christians regard sunday as a day of rest, Brigadier mckenzie of Bollaram contonement gave orders that there should not be any noise. This led to the anger and agitation of the Muslim soldiers and a Havaldar named Gulam Khadir stabbed Brigadier Mckenzie with his sword. During this attack, even the person¬al security guards of the Brigadier deserted him and stood on the side of Gulam Khadir. This incident frightened the army officers of the contonment so much that they did not venture out of their houses for 10 days.
The 1862 conspiracy
Opposition and discontent arose among the people of the state because Nizam accepted the ‘Star of India’ award from the British. As word was out that Raosaheb peshwa was planning to lead an armed attack on the Nizam, people decided to support the peshwa. So, he came to Hyderabad and held discussions with the prominent leaders and activists here. Meanwhile, the Nizam government had come to know the presence of Peshwa in Hyderabad and arrested all the suspects and revolutionists. Thus the conspiracy failed to take place with this, almost all the revolts against the British, inspired by the 1857 revolt were suppressed.
Political awakening in the Nizam state
The peoples agitation against the Nizam government about the chanda Railway scheme started the political awakening among the common people of the state. Aghomath chattopadhyaya led a protest opposing the railway scheme, as a group of people felt that it might compromise the interests of people. They insisted that the construction work of the rail¬way line should be given to Indians. As it was the first incident in which people opposed and questioned the Nizam, the government felt that it was an insult to them and not only removed Aghornath from his post hut also expelled him from the state. He was the first nationalist leaders who was expelled from the Nizam state.
The Indian National congress was founded in 1885 and the scholars and middle class people were very happy about it. The first Muslim leader to join the Indian National congress from Hyderabad state was Mullah Abdul Khayyum. Aghornath chat¬topadhyaya and Ramachandra Pillai also joined the congress and tried to inculcate nationistic feelings among the educated people of Hyderabad and also tried to attract masses towards the National congress.
Many magazines and journals were being print¬ed from Hyderabad with nationistic views by 1900 itself. Prominent among them in English were-‘Hyderabad Telegraph, Deccan standard, Deccan Times, Hyderabad Record, The Deccan Budget, The Deccan Mail and the Hyderabad chronicle’, In Marathi Gulbarga Samachar, nizam Vaibhav Bhageswari, Sri Bhageswari Vijay and champavathi, In Telugu-the daily ‘Dina Vartamana’, and in Urdu Shankatul Islam and Hazardastan. The ‘Hyderabad Record’ was harassed by the British residency as it described the Resident as ‘Caesar’
Renaissance of literature and culture
Even before the advent of political awakening in Hyderabad state, renaissance movement was introduced in literary and cultural fields. It first began in the Telugu language and later spread to Marathi and Kannada regions also. The renaissance of Telugu region started with the establishment of ‘Sri Krishnadevaraya Andhra Bhasha nilayam in 1901 A.D. at Hyderabad. Later the ‘Sri Raja Raja Narendra Andhra Bhasha Nilayam’ was founded at Hanumakonda in 1904 and the ‘Andhra Samvardhini’ library in 1905 at Secunderabad by Komarraju Lakshmana Rao. The library movement helped to create awareness about the culture and heritage of the Andhra region and also taught the value of freedom and democracy to people.
Andhra Jana Sangham
The establishment of ‘Andhra Jana Sangham’ inspired and led to number of social, political and economic revolts in Hyderabad state. Suravaram, Madapati, Burgula, Mandumula Narsingarao and many others founded the Andhra Jana Sangham. At first it worked for the abolition of bonded labour and due to its agitations, government issued orders in 1923, 26, and 27 abolishing bonded labour. The name of the Sangham was changed to Nizam Rashtra Andhra Maha Sabha in 1922 which led to the Andhra movement. The sabha first worked to develop the social and cultural renais¬sance movement at Hyderabad state and later it turned political and merged with the Hyderabad state congress finally.
Ban on meetings
In 1921, educated youth of Hyderabad decided to convene a meeting to request constitutional amendments. But the Nizam issued an extraordi¬nary gazette on 9th September, 1921, banning all public meetings in the state. This was called as the Kala Gaphti. It had carry off the civil rights of people completely and people revolted against it in a large scale.
Kakinada congress conference
The annual conferences of Indian National congress was held at kakinada in 1923. As the East coast railway line was damaged due to heavy rains, the train to kakinada was diverted to Secunderabad. All the political leaders of congress, who were in that train were requested to attend a meeting and address congress activists in Secunderabad. As a result of that meeting, 500 representatives from Hyderabad state attended the conference at Kakinada later. There they discussed the future of people of Hyderabad and formed some resolutions. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao played a key role in preparing the drafts of the resolutions.
The Hyderabad political conference
The representatives of Hyderabad, who attended the Kakinada conference, conducted the first political conference of Hyderabad there. It was presided over by Madhava rao Ane. This meet adopted three main resolutions. They were- ‘
1. Political reforms in Hyderabad state
2. Formation of responsible government through elections
3. Right to expression
As the Nizam government refused to give per-mission to conduct the second political conference in Hyderabad state, it was conducted at Mumbai, under the presidentship of Y.M.Kale of Berar. The third political conference of Hyderabad was held at Pune in 1928 and S.C. Kelkar presided over it. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose spoke in it and declared that the establishment of a democratic gov¬ernment is the ultimate goal of congress. He also said that there were only white officers in British India, where as in Princely states-people had to fight with the rulers and officers of their own nation.
The fourth political conference of Hyderabad was held at Akola in 1931 and was presided over by Ramachandra Nayak. Thus the people of Hyderabad state had to conduct their own meetings outside their own state.
Emergence of Andhra Maha Sabha
The Andhra Jana Sangham changed its name and emerged as the Andhra Maha Sabha and decid¬ed to conduct its first meeting at Jogipeta in Medak district in 1930. Though the Nizam gov¬ernment agreed to conduct it. It imposed three con¬ditions. They were –
1. The chairman of the conference should be a mulki i.e., which means that he/she should be a native of Nizam state.
2. The conference should not create embarrass¬ing or hurtful situations to other religious
3. And issues of politics should not be dis¬cussed at the conference.
Suravarm Pratapa Reddy presided over the first conference and 32 resolutions were adapted. Along with this meeting, the first conference of Andhra Mahila Sabha was also held and Nadimpalli Sundaramma presided over it. After eleven Andhra Mahilasabha conferences (the last at Bhuvanagiri in 1944) They were stopped. 13 Andhra Maha Sabha conferences were held. In the 11th conference, the sabha split into -moderates and revolu¬tionists or extremists. The moderates branch, was later merged with the Hyderabad state congress and the extremists branch had transformed into the communist party and participated in the Telangana Armed struggle.
Hyderabad state congress
In fact, a congress committee had come into existence as early as 1918 in Hyderabad but they limited their activities to khadi and upliftment of backward classes, as the Nizam government was against the congress. A temporary executive was formed for the Hyderabad state congress an a January 1938 under the leadership of Govinda rao nanal and others and it was decided that the state wide conference should be held on 9th September 1938. But the Nizam government banned the state congress even before its formation on 7th September, 1938. They government accused it as communal organisation and banned it. The ban was strongly opposed by the congress which started the satyagra- ha movement. Thus the year 1938 was the most important year in the history of Hyderabad state, because it was the year of political awakening.
Historical vandemataram movement of1938 .
In 1938, November 30 hostel students of the Osmania University started singing the Vandemataram as a prayer sang prior to that, students used to sing- devotional songs of lords rama and krishna during prayers’ and festivals. Authorities of the hostel, who never objected to those songs, started objecting to the singing of vande mataram. Students refused to obey and were expelled from schools and colleges in hundreds. They began to agitate and got support from other students as well as the leaders of congress. A com¬mittee was formed to fight on behalf of the students. Achyuta reddy led it and Harihar deshpandey, and V.K. Reddy were members in it. Thus committee requested the vice chancellors of Andhra and Banaras universities to admit the students, but they refused. Finally the vice chancellor of Nagpur university agreed to admit them. The students were helped financially by Antu ramachandra Rao and Raja Bahaddur Venkata Rama reddy. The students later came back to Hyderabad and played key roles in the independence movement and became prominent leaders, one of them was the former prime minister P.V. Narasimha Rao.
First Satyagraha in Hyderabad state
Activists of congress conducted satyagraha opposing the ban on state congress in Hyderabad and courted arrests, some of them were-Govinda Rao Nanai, Ramakrishna Dhoot, Ravi Narayana Reddy, Janardhana Rao Desai, Srinivasa Rao Borikar and others. Police lathicharged the people who had come to watch the satyagraha at gowligu- da on 24 October, 1938. On the third day of satya¬graha Swami ramananda Tirtha was arrested, who played a prominent role for the freedom of Hyderabad state from Nizam. Along with the state congress, Arya Samaj, Hindu parishad and other civil rights societies conducted satyagrahas and protest activities. As the Nizam government branded it as a communal protest. Gandhiji ordered the leaders of Hyderabad to stop their satyagraha move-ment. So it was stopped on 24 December, 1938. Gandhiji then requested the Primeminister of Hyderabad Sir Akbar Hyderi to lift the ban con¬gress, but he did not. But the arrested leaders were released and prohibited. Bhogaraju pattabhi Sitaramaiah and K.F. Nariman to enter into Hyderabad state. The Nizam government refused primary and civil rights to nationalists and people on one hand and encouraged the communal and violent organisation-Majlis-e-Ithehadul-Muslimeen an the other hbnd. The Ithehadul muslimeen, which was formed on 12 November, 1927, started to play a key role in all the activities of the Nizam government by then.
Opposition of Nizam towards local languages
The Nizam governments opposed the usage or development of local languages like Telugu, Kannada and marathi and tried to destroy them in a systematic way. They refused to give permission to schools and educational institutions that taught in local lan¬guages. Urdu was the only official and teaching language from primary to university level education. All students had to learn Urdu compulsorily.
Gandhiji started individual Satyagraha nation wide-opposing the second world war and its effects as people of India. Leaders of Hyderabad state congress were selected to participate in it. some of them were-Swami Ramananda Tirtha, Hiralal koteba, Motilal, (Mantri Srinivasa Rao, Achyuta rao Deshpandey, devarambai chauhan, pranesacharya and others.
Conditions during Quit India Movement
Swami Ramananda Tirtha attended the All India National Congress conference held at Bombay on 8 August, 1942. The British government arrested Gandhiji and other leaders to suppress the Quit India movement. Swami wrote letters to the Hyderabad congress leaders with the call-‘Door or Die’ given by Gandhiji. Swami then changed his office to sholapur. He also prepared a letter to the Nizam government demanding the-lifting of ban on state congress, Providing civil rights to people and release of political prisoners. As Swami came back after the congress meeting to Hyderabad he was arrested by the Nizam government in the railway station itself. Swami sent his letter of demands to the Nizam through G.S. Melkotey.
People of Hyderabad responded to the Gandhijis ‘Door or Die’ call in a large scale. Many resigned their government jobs and entered the political fray and courted arrests by the Nizam gov¬ernment. The government accused them of treason and other wrong criminal cases and tried to sup¬press them by using police force. Many prominent persons arrested were-Padmaja Naidu, Harischandra Heda, Jnanakumari Heda, G.S. Melkotey, Burgula, Katam Lakshminarayana, Komaragiri Narayana Rao, Nandapurkar, G. Ramachari, Krishna Dhubey, Jayachandra jain and others. Opposing the arrests of leaders students also joined the agitation and some times turned violent. Protests, demonstrations, conferences and allies were conducted statewide. All this activity led the Nizam government to lift the ban on state congress. The Nizam government appointed professor Rushbrooks williams, a B.B.C. employee to conduct wrong propaganda that the civil rights implemented in the British India were also being implemented in Hyderabad state. But the people objected strongly to this and his propaganda was stopped
Azad Hind Fauz
The Hyderabad state played its role in the Indian National Army (I.N.A.) or Azad Hind Fauz, formed by Nethaji subhash chandra Bose. Dr. Suresh Chandra, who spoke in the Azad Hind radio and a friend of Netaji had worked in Hyderabad along with Abid Hussain Safrani, younger brother of dr. Jaffar Hussain (sociology professor in Osmania University and Ali sultan, son of the owner of charminar cigarette company Abid Hussain Saffrani worked as the personal secretary of Netaji in Germany-Netaji formed a government in exile for India and saffrani acted as a minister in that. Saffrani was a friend of Gandhiji too. He worked with Gandhi in the Sevagram for some time and was also imprisoned. Some people who joined the Azad Hind Fauz from Hyderabad State were Khanrul Islam, Advayya, Ramaswami, haribhagat, Sharifuddin, Abdul Sayyad Osmani, Abdul Latif, Narsimha -Rao, Ram Karan Singh, Narsayya,. Sivasankar Narasimha, Mahabub Ali, Mohammed Khan, V.B. Swami and others.
Role of communists in the freedom movement of Hyderabad state
The Hyderabad state congress demanded the merger of the state into the Indian Union but the communist Party had another goal and concept. The communist party was banned in the state between 1939 and 1942. Communists played a prominent role in leading farmers struggles against the exploitation of landlords all over the state. The extremists branch of Andhra Maha Sabha had become the communist party and leaders like Ravi Narayana Reddy, Baddam Ellareddy, Devulapalli Venkateswara Rao, Sarvadevabhatla Ramanatham made sincere sacrifices for the good of party and people.
The All India communist party conference was held at Calcutta in 1948. It made a new proposal say-ing that the union government had no right to pres-surise primary states to join the union of India. They described the Razakar forces of Hyderabad as peo¬ple’s army, with this type of resolutions the commu¬nist party, Hyderabad branch distributed 8 pages booklet in the state. It said that the Nizam should not join in the union of India. The Nehru govern¬ment is annexing the princely states into the union using pressure and force and it is planning to exploit people with capitalist policies. The Hyderabad state should remain independent and others-Raja Bahadur Gaur endorsed to this concept. The com¬munists got a lot of support and help from the Nizam government by supporting him and the slogan of ‘Free Hyderabad’.
Hyderabad Youth Congress
The youth congress was established in the Hyderabad state with the support of S.K. Rao and with suggestions from N.G.Ranga, Katam Lakshmi Narayana and Bai Ramamurty naidu, to bring awareness in the youth towards the independence movement. Representatives from all districts attended a meeting and formed the ‘Hyderabad state National Youth Congress’. It’s first president was-Bai Ramamurty naidu and chief secretary was Katam Lakshminarayana. They toured all the districts of Nizam state and formed the branches of youth congress in 16 districts in a very short period. As the state congress was banned in the state, and almost all the prominent congress leaders were in jails, the freedom movement in the state began to slow down. But the youth congress and students unions saved it with their activities. K.V.Gangadhar, a member of youth congress of Nizamabad was implicated in a lamb case once.
The youth congress members were the main reason behind the direct action resolution taken at the state congress conference held at Musheerabad in June 1947. After around 22,000 activists were imprisoned in the Nizam state, the Nizam govern¬ment realised the seriousness of the movement and tried to make compromise with the congress by releasing the moderate leaders. This news spread all over the state very fast and , Katam Lakshmi narayana, chief secretary of youth congress, who was in the Gulbarga jail wrote letters to many leaders opposing the move of the Nizam. Other youth congress leaders also opposed this and the negotia¬tions, of Nizam government failed.
Historic Musheerabad congress conference
The chairman president of invitation committee to this conference was Ramachandra Rao Antu, vice president was Pandit Narendraji and chief secretary was Marri Chennareddy, Katam Lakshmi Narayana, Basavaraju and Barda Purkar acted as secretaries. The conference was inaugurated by the chief guest All Indian congress chief secretary Shankar Rao Dave. It was presided over by Swami Ramananda Tirtha and Kamaladevi . Chattopadhyaya, N.G.Ranga Nijalingappa and other national leaders participat¬ed. Ramananda Tirtha spoke and warned that it an independent state continued to live the middle of the country, one day the existence of the whole country could become questionable. The demands of Hyderabad state congress were-
1, Nizam should immediately announce the merg¬er of Hyderabad state into the Indian union
2. Representatives should be elected to participate in the constitutional assembly. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao also spoke in the conference demanding the merger of the state into the union. The.executive committee of the state con¬gress met at sholapur for the first time. The Hyderabad state congress office was established at sholapur by then. Digambara Rao Bindu presided over the meeting. A working group was formed with Jamlapuram keshavarao, Govinda das sharaf and J.K. Praneswaracharya as mem¬bers. Madapati Ramachandra Rao was appoint¬ed as the chief secretary in the central office. G.S. Melkotey was appointed as the chief man¬ager of Hyderabad -Secunderabad region.
The headquarters of the Hyderabad state con¬gress was located at Bombay. S.K.Patil provided financial resources. The Telangana regional state congress office was established at Vijayawada. Karnataka regional state congress office was estab¬lished at Gadag and the Maratha regional state con¬gress office was established at Bombay. Incharge of the Telangana regional state congress office was T.Hayagreevachari. Jayaprakash Narayan offered his full support to the Hyderabad state movement from Bombay. The congress socialist party led by him lent the services of Aruna Asaf Ali for the movement. The propaganda incharge of the state con-gress, V.B. Raju, stayed at vijayawada and conduct¬ed activities like ‘Hyderabad day’. The congress called to hold satyagrahas with the slogan ‘Join India’ statewide
Role of Socialists
National leaders of the socialist party encour¬aged and inspired the people of Hyderabad to fight against the Nizams dictatorship. Leaders like Ashok Mehta and N.G.
Gore conducted lecture tours. The president of Hyderabad movement managing society (social¬ist party), Aruna Asaf Ali came to Hyderabad and spoke in a number of meetings, on 7 May, 1947, leader of the socialist party, Jayaprakash Narayan spoke in the public meeting conducted at karbala grounds in Secunderabad. But the Nizam police force sent him away the some night and pre¬vented his other meetings. Socialists used to accuse the Indian government and National congress of being soft hearten towards the Nizam state. The Socialist party declared the agreement between Indian government and the Hyderabad state gov¬ernment as a blunder. The socialists supported the Hyderabad movement led by swami Ramananda Tirtha and also participated in it. The party had a good impression among the students and workers of the Hyderabad state. Mahadev singh and S.B. Giri of the socialist party played a key role in the forma¬tion of workers union in Hyderabad. In 1946-47, socialist leaders N.M. Joshi, Ashok Mehta, Aruna Asaf Ali, Purushothamdas and Trivikramdas spoke in several public meetings held in Hyderabad to inspire people. They decided to hoist the national flag on 15 August, 1947 in Hyderabad, But were arrested in the process. L. Narayana, who hoisted the flag on the congress building and his followers were arrested.
On 8 September, 1947, students conducted a procession with national flags in Hyderabad and were arrested in the campus of Nizam college. Ghosh, principal of the college and leelamani, a lec¬turer, tried to stop the police but failed. This news travelled to Madras and was informed to Ravindra Varma, leader of All India students union. ‘Hyderabad students day’ was observed all over India on 15 September, 1947 following the call given by Ravindra varma. And students of the state boy-cotted colleges following the call of state congress on 23 October, 1947. The socialist members of the Hyderabad state congress executive were-1, B.S. Mahadev singh and 2. R.V.Bishop. During the underground activities of the socialists in the state, 3 leaders- Gangadhar Karyatekar, Jagannadh Balarao and Jagajjivanram died. Before the police action on Hyderabad state-Jayaprakash narayan declared that the Nizam lost the right to rule and ‘ that there was no place for princely states in India.
He demanded that the state of Hyderabad should _ become free and divided into three regions depend¬
ing upto their languages.
The Bhagyanagar Radio centre was established at Kurnool under the auspices of the Hyderabad state under the leadership of Paga Pullareddy. It ‘ transmitted programmes every evening along with
the Deccan Radio transmissions. The Deccan Radio was managed by the Nizam government. The trans-
missions were conducted in Telugu, urdu and English languages. As information* regarding this centre was kept secret, the Nizam government tried hard to locate it. Machinery for the Radio centre was
arranged by Raghunathareddy and kodanda Ramireddy of wanaparty and govardhana reddy of
[ pallepadu. Responsibility of transmissions was taken by Gadiyaram Ramakrishna Sarma, ‘ Gottimukkala Krishnamurty and others. Lawyer nagappa from Gadwal conducted the urdu transmis
sions. collection of news and editing was done by ‘ Gottimukkala Krishnamurthy. the freedom
movement of-the Nizam state benifited a lot from these radio programmes. Information about the movement was propagated speedily. And the atrocities and exploitation of Razakars, Majlis, Nizam
communal police forces and army against the com¬mon people were brought to light through the radio, and the eyes of people were opened towards the dictatorship of Nizam. It also brought to light the activities and sacrifices of the state congress activists.
Political Conditions after the Second World War
With the defeat of Japan in 1945, the second world war came to an end. clement Attlee had become the labour party Prime minister of Britain
His government lifted the ban on congress party in India and released political prisoners from jails. Talks and negotiations started in earnest to hand over the reigns of the country to Indians . In this background the Hyderabad government gave indica¬tions to lift the ban on the state congress in Septem¬ber 1945. Chathari Nawab, Chairman of the exec¬utive council of Nizam government invited the lead¬ers of the state congress to negotiations in November 1945. The government agreed to lift the ban an state congress on same conditions. Nehru, as the presi¬dent of All India state people’s conference wrote a letter to the prime minister of Nizam govern¬ment-sir Mirza Ismail asking him to lift the ban on state congress. After prolonged negotiations, the ban was lifted and Swami Ramananda Tirtha had become the president of Hyderabad state congress.
In 1946, the cabinet mission visited India. The Hyderabad government sent a representative com-mittee, led by Chathari Nawab, Nawab Ali yavar jung and sir waiter Mankton to meet the cabinet mission and viceroy. The committee argued that the Hyderabad state should be left independent without interference from Indian union.
Nizam state on Independence day
While India was celebrating independence on the night of 14 August, 1947, the state of Hyderabad still continued under the dictatorship of Nizam. Burgula Rama Krishna Rao and Katam Lakshminarayana went to Hyderabad and met with prakasham Pantulu, Bulusu Sambamurty, Kala Venkata Rao and other leaders and explained the situation of Hyderabad. They both were arrested in September, 1947 by the Nizam government.
Cables to foreign countries
cables were sent by the leaders and activists of freedom movement in Hyderabad to leaders of the countries like Russia, America (USA), France, England and others explaining the situation of Hyderabad and frugality of Nizam government. They explained the conditions under the Nizam in detail and requested the moral support of the countries.
Status Quo Agreement
The Nizam of Hyderabad issued a farmaana on 26 June, 1947, announcing that the Hyderabad state will not join the union of India or in the constitutional Assembly. Mirza Ismail, prime minister of Hyderabad state suggested that the Nizam govern¬ment should form a responsible government and hold friendly relations with the independent Indian government. But as the Nizam did not agree to his, Mirza Ismail resigned. Chathari Nawab replaced him. A committee of representatives, led by Chathari Nawab, sir waiter monktan, Sir Sultan Ahmed and Nawab Ali yavar jung was appointed to negotiate with the government of India. The com¬mittee started negotiations in July 1947. The Government of India gave two months to the Nizam to solve this problem. A draft agreement was reached on 18 October, 1947 between the Nizam government and union of India. The committee of representations took the signature of the Nizam on it and were about to go to Delhi an 27 October, but were stopped by Razakar forces of the majlis-e-Ithehadul Muslimeen. The Nizam govern¬ment capitulated under the pressure of Majlis and cancelled the agreement as well the committee of representatives. Another committee was appointed in its place. As a result of this chathari Nawab resigned as the Prime minister of Hyderabad. Mir Layak ali, a famous industrialist of Hyderabad replaced him. The new committee tried to change the draft agreement but failed as the union govern¬ment refused to change it. Finally, the states quo agreement was signed by both parties on 29 November, 1947. According to this agreement, The Indian government withdrew its army forces from Hyderabad state and K.M. Munshi was appointed as the Agent of Indian government in the Hyderabad state.
The Nizam went against this agreement and gave 20,000 pounds of the state money to pakistan government. He hoped that pakistan, in exchange would help him achieve independent status to Hyderabad state. He issued an ordinance banning the circulation of Indian currency in Hyderabad state. He even tried to secure a port town by the pur¬chase of Goa port from the portugal government (but failed). The nizam spent a lot of money on propa¬ganda in london, supporting his government; increased army forces; imported weaponry and mili¬tary equipment illegally from foreign countries; appointed waiter Monkton as his advisor. The Governor general suggested on behalf of India to conduct a referendum in Hyderabad state to know the opinion of the people regarding the merger of Hyderabad state into the Indian union. But the Nizam government refused the suggestion. At the end of negotiations, PM of Hyderabad-Layak Ali made a new proposal, suggesting to prepare a co-operation agreement.
Attacks of Razakars
Mean while, Razakars started making attacks on people frequently and violently. They burnt hun¬dreds of houses in Warangal and Nalgonda districts, slaughtered people like cattle, raped women, plun¬dered and pillaged the property of common people. Though the Indian government demanded the aboli¬tion of Razakar organisation at every stage, the Nizam government postponed it every time. Muslim refugees from other regions of India came into Hyderabad state and were recruited into the police force and Razakar army forces. Muslims, who were a minority before, increased their numbers drasti¬cally and started to threaten Hindus to migrate neighbouring states. Law and order of the state com¬pletely came to a halt. But even with violent attacks, Razakars could not control the anger and revolt of people. So they turned as the political prisoners and started to attack them with the support of the Nizam police. In January, 1948, Razakars attacked the Nizamabad jail and tortured the political prisoners there. Muslim prisoners in the jail joined hands with them and participated in the attack. They shouted slogans like- ‘Shah-e-osman zindabad’ and ‘Nizamabad jail is political prisoner’s cemetery’. Another incident like this occurred in the Warangal jail also. Razakars made an armed attack on the Gulbarga jail also, where Swami Ramananda Tirtha was imprisoned; beat the prisoners there mercilessly and many of them lost their limbs and lives. Following this, many political prisoners like Jagannatha Rao chandarki, Katam Lakshminarayana and other observed satyagraha protests.
Bomb attack on Nizam
Narayana Rao pawar, an activist of youth congress at sholapur felt that the Nizam was basi¬cally responsible for all the atrocities of Razakars and wanted to murder him, so that the conditions of people would improve. He along with his friend Gandayya prepared a plan to execute the Nizam, by throwing a bomb on his car. They implemented it on 4 December, 1947. But the bomb did not hit the car and flew behind it, so Nizam was saved. Pawar . and Gandayya were caught by the police but another perpetrator, Narayana Swamy escaped. Though ‘ pawar was sentenced to death and Gandayya to life term, they were released after the police action in the state. Another incident like this also happened in Hyderabad when youth congress leaders Bhai , Rammurty Naidu, Ramachandra Badale and others threw bombs on Sultan Bazar police station,charminar power house, post office, koti, buildings and king-koti palace
Nationalists in Muslims
Muslim nationalists and scholars from all over India were concerned about the conditions of Hyderabad state and the atrocities of Razakars, wrote to the Nizam government. They warned the government about the law and order situation of the state and asked it to dismiss the Razakar force; remove Layak Ali from the post of Prime Minister and to join the Indian Union
Murder of Shoyabullah Khan
Shoyabullah Khan editor of the urdu magazine Tmroz’ Published the full text of above letter in his paper. Qasim Khan, chief of Ithehadul Muslimeen and Razakars, got angry and ordered the Razakars to cut the hands of Khan. Razakars followed his . orders, brutally murdered & shoyabullah Khan andn sent his bodyparts as presents to Qasim Razvi. Against at this cruelty of Razakars, the state observed a day long hartaal. The army chief of Hyderabad called upon the people of the state to get ready to do battle with the Indian government. Prime minister of the state Layak Ali requested the UNO (United Nations Organisation) to cooperate during the battle with ; the Indian Union.
In this background, the Indian government realised that nothing short of an army/police attack would resolve the problem and decided to send Indian army forces to Hyderabad on 9 September, 1948. A warning letter to this effect was sent to the Nizam on 10 September by V.P. menon, the then secretary of Home department.
The Indian army started ‘Police Action’ on 13, September 1948 on the Hyderabad princely state. This was led by Major General J.N. Chaudary and was named as ‘Operation polo’. The main forces entered the borders of the state from the shola- pur-Hyderabad road and auxiliary forces entered through the vijayawada Hyderabad road. Though the army named it as ‘operation polo’, the the gov¬ernor general of India’, C. Rajagopalachari described it only as ‘Police Action’. The Military police were helped by thousands of congress sevadal volunteers in this police Action. Immediately after the com¬mencement of police action, the Nizam government put K.M. Munshi, agent of the Indian union at Hyderabad under house arrest. Though the Nizam army and Razakars offered token protest, they were never a match to the army forces. The Nizam sent a message to the Indian government through K.M. Munshi that he was dismissing the Razakar force on 17 September. Later on the same day prince Azamjha, chief of army of Hyderabad announced his defeat officially and brought down the Asaf Jahi flag.
Nizam announced his and his cabinets resigna¬tion on the deccan radio and expressed his regrets over what had happened. He said that he was grant¬ing permission for the Indian army to re-occupy the Bollarum and Secunderabad contonement areas. Then he gave orders to release all the political prisoners from jails and cancelled all the warrants against the congress leaders. Indian army forces, led by J.N. chaudary entered into Hyderabad on 18 September, 1948. He took over the administration of the state temporarily and dismissed the temporary cabinet of Nizam. Quasim Razvi and leaders of Razakars were arrested. Later he was prosecuted, on ‘Bibinagar case’ and was sentenced to a prison term. He was released in 1957 after the completion of the term’ and was sent to pakistan following his wishes.
The Nizam made an agreement with the Indian union in 1949 like all other princely states. The Indian government agreed to continue all his hariditans and personal rights and also his titles given before and after 1947. ,
Laws abolishing bonded labour and Zagirdari system were enacted in the Hyderabad state speedily. Sardar Vallabhai Patel, the then deputy prime minister declared that India did not get complete freedom on 15 August, 1947, but on 17 September, 1948, when the state of Hyderabad merged with the Indian union.
★ Nizam state formed in the year ‘ –1724
★ Nizam served as a Moghul subedar upto –1858
★ Who was the mediator between East India Company and Nizam Ali? – Jogi Pantulu
★ How much money has to pay to Nizam Ali by the british for Mustafanagar, Eluru, Rajahmundry got Guntur circar from Nizam? –1788
★ Who signed on the agreement of military cooperation method for the first time? – Nizam Ali Khan
★ The date on whom Nizam signed on the agree¬ment of military cooperation method. – 2nd June, 1798
★ After the military cooperation agreements, which areas were of british by Nizam? – Ceded districts
★ Which are the handed over districts? – Anantapuram, Bellary, Kadapa, Kumool
★ From which british company, Nizam borrowed to money for the salaries? – Paumer company
★ Nizam, who has not able to repay the debt, handed over union areas to british? – Berar, Osmanabad
★ The movement raised against the British – Wahabi movement
★ Wahabi movement raised in the year –1838
★ The son of Sikinder jha who started wahabi movement ? – Mubarij Ud-daula
★ The movement raised against the british for the first time in Telangana – wahabi movement
★ Who lead the sepoy mutiny in Berar, Aurangabad areas? – Jamedar Chiddah khan
★ The Rohilla leader who attacked the british residency – Turre Bajkhan
★ Who was appointed to protect to british residency? – Major Briggs
★ Turrebaj Khan was shot dead by british in which area? – Tuphran
★ Sholapur ruler, who revolt against Nizam? – Raja Venkatappaiah Nayak
★ In which year the British awarded the title called ‘Star of India’ to Nizam for his help? –1861
★ Bhils revolted against the British forces in the year. –1819
★ Under whose leadership Bhils revolted against to British army? – Bhil Nayak
★ The main contonement of the British in Nizam state – Bollaram near Secunderabad
★ In which year, the agitation of people against Chanda Railway scheme? -1883
★ Who started the people’s agitation on Chanda Railway scheme?- Aghoranath Chattopadhyaya
★ Which is the first political awareness movement in Nizam state? – Chanda Railway Scheme
★ The first national leader who expelled from Hyderabad city- Aghoranath Chattopadhyaya
★ The first muslim leader who joined in Indian National Congress from Hyderabad? – Mulla Abdul Khayyum
★ Hyderabad Telegraph, Deccan Standard, Deccan Times, Hyderabad Record, The Deccan Budget, The Deccan Maid and Hyderabad Chronicle papers published in which language? – English
★ Gulbarga Samachar,– Nizam Vaibhav, Bhageswari, Sri Bhageswari Vijaya and Champari papers published in which language? – Marathi
★ Shakatul Islam and Hazar Dastan papers published in which language? – Urdu
★ Dina Vartamana monthly came out in which language? – Telugu
★ Which paper was banned for describing Hyderabad president as a local ceaser? – Hyderabad Record
★ Srikrishnadevaraya Andhrabhasha nilayam was established in Hyderabad in the year. –1901
★ Founder of Srikrishnadevaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam – Komarraju Lakshmana Rao
★ Where did ‘Andhra Samvardhini’ library was established? – Secunderabad
★ In which year Andhra Samvardhini library was established? , –1905
★ Founder of Andhra Samvardhini, Sri Rajaraja Narendra Andhra Bhasha Nilayam: . – Komarraju Lakshmana Rao
★ Who will be called as grand father of Andhra Movement? – Madapati Hanumantha Rao
★ The Gazette announcement issued by Nizam government while prohibiting all types of public meetings: – Kalagashti
★ 500 representatives attended to which National Congress Meeting from Hyderabad? – Kakinada I.N.C.
★ Kakinada Indian National Congress Meeting held in the year –1923
★ First Hyderabad political meeting held at . – Kakinada
★ Under whose chairmanship, the first Hyderabad political meeting was held? – Madhava Rao Ane
★ The resolutions of first Hyderabad political meeting: – Those must be freedom of speech, political reforms must be implemented in Hyderabad state, The council must be established through elections, The responsible government must be established
★ Second Hyderabad political meeting held at – Bombay
★ The chairman of second Hyderabad political meeting – Y.M. Kale
★ The year in which Third Hyderabad political meeting was held . –1928
★ The chairman of third Hyderabad political meeting – S.D. Kelper
★ Third Hyderabad political meeting held at – Pune
★ In which Hyderabad political meeting, Subhash Chandra Bose believed a speech? – Third Hyderabad Political Meeting
★ Fourth Hyderabad political meeting held at – Akola
★ In which year, fourth Hyderabad political meeting was held? –1931
★ The chairman of fourth Hyderabad political meeting – Ramachandra Nayak
★ First Andhra conferences were held in the year -1930
★ The chairman of the first Andhra Conference – Suravaram Pratapa Reddy
★ First Andhra Conference, held at – Jogipeta (Medak district)
★ First Andhra Mahilasabha held in the year –1930
★ The chairman of first Andhra Mahilasabha – Nadimpalli Sundaramma
★ First Andhra Mahilasabha held at? – Jogipeta (Medak district)
★ How many Andhra Mahilasabhas held into –11
★ The chairperson of 11th Andhra Mahilasabha – Nimmagadda Satyavathi
★ 11th Andhra Mahilasabha held in the year –1944
★ In which meeting the members of Andhra Mahasabha (Andhra conference) divided into extremists and moderates? – 11th
★ How many Andhra conferences held in to –13
★ 13th Andhra sabha held at – Kandi (Medak district)
★ The chairman of 13th Andhra Mahasabha? – Jamalapuram Keshava Rao
★ 13th Andhra maha sabha held in the year –1946
★ 12th Moderates Andhra Mahasabha held at – Madikonda (Warangal district)
★ The chairman of 12th moderates Andhra Mahasabha – Mandumula Narsinga Rao
★ The dates of 12th moderates Andhra Mahasabha – 21, 22, 23 March, 1945
★ 12th extremists Andhra Mahasabha held at – Khammam
★ The chairman of 11th extremists Andhra Mahasabha – Ravi Narayana Reddy
★ 12th extremists Andhra Mahasabha held on – 26th and 27th April, 1945
★ What is the evolution of extremists Andhra Mahasabha? – It changed as Telangana Communist Party and participated in armed struggle
★ What is the evolution of moderates Andhra Mahasabha? – It was merged with Hyderabad state congress
★ In which year, temporary executive committee for Hyderabad state congress formed? – 8th January, 1938
★ Under whose chairmanship, Hyderabad state congress temporary executive formed? – Govinda Rao Nanai
★ In which year, the people of Nizam government began the political struggle for the first time? –1938
★ Vandemataram movement in Telangana started on – 30th November, 1938
★ Who took to the notice of National Congress leaders about Vandemataram movement in telangana ? – Dr. Jayasurya Naidu
★ The committee which requested the university belonging to other states about the admission of the students Osmania University who expelled from the university during Vandemataram movement? – Achyuta Reddy Committee
★ Who was the vice-chancellor of Andhra University in 1938? – Kattamanchi Ramalinga Reddy
★ Who was the vice-chancellor of Nagpur University in 1938? – Kedar
★ Who extended financial help to the students of Nagpur University who participated in Vandemataram movement earlier in Osmania University – Antu Ramachandra Reddy and Raja Bahaddur Venkata Rama Reddy
★ Who advised to the Members of Hyderabad state congress to cease the Satyagraha movement on 24th December, 1938? – Gandhiji
★ Gandhiji wrote a letter & to whom regarding to lift ban on state congress? – Hyderabad prime minister Sir Akbar Hyderi
★ Who were banned from learning to Hyderabad state – Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramaiah and K.F. Nariman
★ To whom Nizam prime minister send invitations to welcoming to cool down the people as a result of Vandemataram movement – Sardar Patel and J.B. Kripalani
★ Majlis-e-Ithehadul-muslimeen was established in the year –1927
★ The chairman of political Reforms committee introduced by Nizam government? – Aravamudam Ayyiengar
★ The Hyderabad, who attended to the All India National Congress meeting held on 8th August, 1942- – Swami Ramananda Tirtha
★ Dealing Quit India movement Swami Ramananda charged his work place to – Sholapur
★ The slogan of Quit India – do or die
★ Founder of Azad-Hind-Fauj – Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
★ The persons who worked in Azad-Hind-Fauj from Hyderabad state – Suresh Chandra, Abid Hussain Safrani, Ali Sultan
★ The person who gave lectures in Azad-Hind-Radio – Dr. Suresh Chandra
★ The son of Charminar cigarette company owner and the person who joined works with Netaji? – Ali Sultan
★ The Hyderabadi who served as a minister in Azad Hindu government-Abid Hussain Safrani
★ The institution which run the movement demanding that Hyderabad state must in godown union? – Hyderabad state congress
★ Communist party was banned in Telangana in the year -1946
★ In whose advice, Hyderabad youth congress was formed – N.G. Ranga
★ The president of Hyderabad state congress National youth congress – Bai Ramamurthy Naidu
★ The secretary of Hyderabad state National Youth Congress – Katam Lakshminarayana
★ To study about the Hyderabad state National Youth Congress Katam Lakshminarayana and Bai Ramamurthy Naidu visited which place? – Vijayawada
★ In how many districts of Nijam state the branches of youth congress were established –16 districts
★ The person involved in bomb case and the member youth congress in Nizamabad – K.V. Gangadhar
★ Musheerabad state congress conference held in – June, 1947
★ The reception committee chairman of Musheerabad congress meeting: – Ramachandra Rao Antu
★ The vice-chairman of Musheerabad congress meeting : – Pandit Narendraji
★ The General secretary of Musheerabad congress meeting: – Marri Chenna Reddy
★ All India Congress General Secretary who came to inaugurate Musheerabad congress meeting: – Shankara Rao Dev
★ The chairman of Musheerabad congress meeting – Swami Ramananda Tirtha
★ The ban on Hyderabad state congress was lifted on – July, 1946
★ Who gave a speech in Musheerabad congress meetings and opined that “the independent country in the heart of a country will became an ulcer and that will be a dangerous to the survival of India” – Swami Ramananda Tirtha
★ Who was the president to the executive body meeting held in Hyderabad state congress office in Sholapur? – Digambara Rao Birudu
★ The general secretary in Hyderabad state congress central office? – Madapati Ramachandra Rao
★ The main organiser in Hyderabad and Secunder-abad-for Hyderabad state congress – G.S. Melkotey
★ Where is the central office of Hyderabad state congress: – Bombay
★ Telangana regional state congress office was established at – Vijayawada
★ Karnataka regional state congress office was established at – Gadag
★ Maratha regional state congress office was established at – Bombay
★ Who is incharge of Telangana regional state con-gress office? – T. Hayagreevachari
★ The socialist movement who supported Hyderabad state congress movement? – Jayaprakash Narayana
★ In which year socialist party leader Jayaprakash Narayan made a public speech in Karbala ground in Hyderabad. – 7th May, 1947
★ Famous socialist and labour leaders in Hyderabad – Mahadeva Singh and S.B.Giri
★ Indian student union leader Ravindra Varma observed the students day on – 15th September, 1947
★ The socialist members in Hyderabad state con¬gress: – B.S. Mahadev Singh and R.V. Bishop
★ The socialist party leader who wrote a letter to Indian government suggesting that “There is no place to princely state reirs in a democratic India. Particularly Nizam lost his eligibility to hold the kingdom. His princely state must be divided into the parts and merged with respective language area” – Jayaprakash Narayan
★ Under whose control, Bhagyanagar Radio was established? – Hyderabad State Congress
★ Who organised the Bhagyanagar Radio? – Paga Pull a Reddy
★ The centre for Bhagyanagar Radio – Kurnool
★ Bhagyanagar Radio programmes were used to broadcast in how many languages? – 3 languages (Telugu, Urdu, English)
★ Who established Deccan Radio? – Nizam government
★ Who arranged machinery Bhagyanagar Radio broadcastings? – Raghunatha Reddy and Kodandarami Reddy (Vanaparty), Govardhana Reddy (Yallepadu)
★ Who took the responsibility of the organisation of programmes from Bhagyanagar Radio centre? – Gadiyaram Ramakrishna Sarma and Gottimukkala Krishna Murthy
★ Who organised urdu programmes in Bhagyanagar Radio?- Vakil Nagappa (Gadwal)
★ Who organised english programmes in Bhagyanagar Radio? – Komatala Venkata Reddy
★ Who used to take responsibilities of collecting the news and edit? – Gottimukkala Krishna Murthy
★ Who was the chairman of executive council of Nizam government? – Chathari Nawab
★ Who met 1946 cabinet mission on behalf of Hyderabad state? – Chathari Nawab, Nawab Aliyavar jung, Sir Walter Mankton
★ When did Nizam entered into status quo agreement with Indian government? – 29th November, 1947
★ Nizam prime minister who commenced the sta¬tus quo agreement? – Mir Layak Ali
★ Who was the agent general of Indian Government in Nizam state? * K.M. Munshi
★ How much money has given by Hyderabad Nizam to Pakistan? – 20,000 pounds
★ The person who made a bomb attack to kill Nizam? – Gandaiah
★ On which date a bomb was thrown on the Nizam to kill him? – 4th December, 1947
★ The editor who was killed in the hands of Razakars? – Shoyabullah Khan
★ The paper run by Shoyabullah khan – Imroj
★ Who sort a letter through the secretary of Indian home affairs to Nizam while sending troops to prevent the atrocities of Razakars on the people of Hyderabad state? – V.P. Menon
★ On which date Indian army took police action on Hyderabad state – 13th September, 1948
★ Who lead the police action? , – Major General J.N. Chaudary
★ During the time of police action, who was the Indian Governor General? – C. Rajagopalachari
★ Immediately after the beginning of police action the Indian agent general was house arrested by Nizam army. Who is the agent general? – K.M. Munshi
★ On which date police action was completed? – 17th September, 1947
★ Who announced the surrender on 17th September after lowering the flag of Asafjahi? – Prince Azam jha
★ Under thte leadership of major general J.N.Chaudary Indian army entered in Hyderabad state on which date? – 18th September, 1947
★ After the dismissal of the government of Nizam, who took the responsibilities of Administration? – Major general J.N.Chaudary
★ Who was punished in Bibinagar case after the public trial? – Qasim Razvi
★ Qasim Razvi was sent to which place after the completion of the imprisonment on his wish? – Pakistan
★ Who said that “India is not achieved the complete independence on 15th August, 1947. On 17th Sep-tember 1948, when the Nizam state merged into India only, India got complete independence” – Sardar Vallabhai Patel