Telangana History Ikshvakus and their Contributions
- 1 Telangana History Ikshvakus and their Contributions
- 2 Vasishtiputra Santamula-I (180-193 A.D.)
- 3 Maihariputra Veerapurusha datta-I (193-213 A.D.)
- 4 Ehubala Santamula (213-237A.D).
- 5 Rudrapurmha Datta (237-248 AM)
- 6 Political Conditions
- 7 Cultural Development
- 8 Social Conditions
- 9 Bit Bank
- 10 Objective Bits
Among the feudatories who hastened the downfall of the Satavahanas, the Ikshvakus of the Krishna – Guntur region were prominent. The Puranas refer to them as ‘Sriparvateeya Andhras’ who held power in the region around Nagarjuna Konda. They referred to themselves as a branch of the celebrated dynastyof Ayodhya to which Lord Sri Rama belonged. But it is difficult to prove or support this view. But the history of Ikshvakus was written in the inscriptions found near Jaggayyapeta and Nagaijuna Konda which were in Prakrit language and Brahmi script. Based on the coins of ikshvakus which obtained at Nalgonda (phanigiri), khammam (Nelakonda palli) Districts and one temple constructed by ikshvaku officer ‘Elisiri’ on his name at Eleshwaram of Nalgonda district, historians and archaeologists anticipating that these ikshvakus ruled some places of the southern districts of Telangana. Historians like Dr. Bhandarkar, Rapson and others believed that the Ikshvakus of Telugu region belonged to the Surya Vamsa Kshatriyas of ancient Ikshvaku dynasty of North India.
The facts regarding the Ikshvaku dynasty, which ruled Telugu region after the Satavahanas were found during the excavations of Nagaijuna Konda or Sri Parvata neighbourhood. The inscriptions found here stated that Ikshvakus ruled this area with Vijayapuri as their capital. According to Itihasas, Ancient Ikshvaku dynasty ruled the Upper Gangetic plains including Ayodhya, Kosala and Saketa Janapadas. ‘Vayupurana’ states that Ikshvaku, one of the nine sons of Manu was the founder of this dynasty and the later heirs of this dynasty went to Dakshinapatha and founded Assaka,. Mulaka kingdoms there. A Jain work of “Dharmamrutham” Karnataka reports that an Ikshvaku prince founded a kingdom near the mouth of the river Krishna with Pratipalapura as its capital. Historians believe that this Pratipalapura is today’s Bhattiprolu. Inscriptions found here state that a king called Kuberaka ruled this area, who belonged to the Ikshvaku dynasty.
Prominent historians like Burgen, Caldwell and Rapson argue that a branch of the ancient Ikshvakus of North India came to the South- and founded another kingdom there. In this process they fought with the local minor kingdoms and races also. But some scholars dispute this, saying that the Ikshvakus of Andhra, belonged to a Dakshinapatha or Southern Indian race, possibly who spoke a language nearer to either Kannada or Tamil. ‘Ikshvaku’ means ‘related to sugar cane’ in Sanskrit. Some tribes who lived in Eastern Deccan and Vindhyas called themselves with names of animals and trees. So, the origin of this dynasty might have been from a tribal race (The same fact applies to the ancient north Indian Ikshvaku race also). However, many believe that the Ikshvakus of Andhra originated in the Dakshinapatha itself and spread all over the South and were influenced by the Sanskrit language.
After the death of Yajnasri Satakamigia state of confusion prevailed in the Satavahana Kingdom and many minor dynasties took advantage of this situation and had become independent. The coins of vijaya satakarni and chanda siri satakami of later satavahanas of satavahana kingdom were obtained at krishna, godavari plains only. One king named Madhariputra sakasena who occupied the western part of Deccan Plateau, i,e the places of maharashtra and Telangana. One sub branch of satavahana ruled the places of Telangana districts and neighbouring Berar places which besides to eastern ghats, contemporary to madhariputra saka satakami.
As of the above stated, the places of madhira, Nelakondapally, khammam to\vn of khammam district were also under the rule of ikshvakus, because these ikshvakus were the subordinates of satavahanas at that period and also as per the title of “Dakshina padapathi” to santamula of ikshvaku king (founder of Ikshvaku dynasty) historians anticipates that he conquered the races of saka, abhira, yavana, gardhabhi, and also the kings of Asmaka, mulaka (Ancient Telangana region) kosala, kalinga etc. Based on these anticipations, we came to know clearly that the districts of khammam, Nalgonda, and Mahabubnagar of today’s Telangana were under the rule of ikshvakus.
A total of seven kings belonging to the Ikshvaku dynasty ruled for a hundred years. Four of them were mentioned in various inscriptions and ruled for 68 years (180-248 A.D.). Later, 3 more kings ruled for another 30 years.whose names were unavailable till now.
Vasishtiputra Santamula-I (180-193 A.D.)
The earliest known king of the dynasty was Vasishtiputra Santamula who came into prominence in the second quarter of 3rd century A.D. following the end of Satavahana rule. So, he can be called as the founder of this dynasty. Very little is known about his empire. The inscriptions of santamula were also unavailable till the last decade. Recently the excavations conducted by the state archaeological department in the year of 2002-03A.D. at phanigiri village of Nalgonda district. Some cracked inscriptional plates (or) tablets were obtained in that excavations. One of that cracked inscriptional plate contains the name of santamula, and the name of mahatalavara also found in another phrase of other plate of cracked inscription. By observing these evidences historians anticipated that santamula worked as ‘Mahatalavara’ in the court of last satavahana king. By this inscriptional plate, we came to know that he was designated as mahatalavara in satavahana court, and later he became independent in Nagarjuna konda in the period of pulomavi.
The phanigiri inscription is very useful to know some how about the pre history of santamula. According to this inscription historians assumed that santamula Forked with a status called ‘Talavara’*in Nalgonda district in the period of last satavahana king. Historians anticipated that santamula disregarded (or) disobeyed pulomavi-III arid became independent at Nagarjuna konda. This 10 lined phanigiri inscription of ikshvaku king santamula is very important & tells about him.
According to this inscription, santamula conducted his son veerapurusha datta’s marriage with the daughter of santisri, who is the sister of santamula and also this inscription reveals that the conflicts which occured in the kingdom and also reveals the promise of santamula about the development of phanigiri buddhist site to cool down the conflicts in the kingdom, and also the words of “kshantamula maharaja”, “mahata- lavarasa” can be seen on this inscriptional plates.
However, he proclaimed independence by performing Aswamedha Yaga. He married a Brahmin lady named Matari Devi. Santamula was a staunch Hindu. Besides Aswamedha, he performed other vedic sacrifices like Rajasuya and Vajapeya. He had two sisters, Santisri and Harmyasri. The eldest, Santisri followed Buddhism and constructed a Maha Chaitya at Nagarjuna Konda. She was married to Skandasri, the commander in chief and feudatory belonging to Pugiya family Another sister, Harmyasri had two daughters, Vapisri and Sashtisri. The king’s daughter was married to a high official ‘Mahadanda Nayaka’, who belonged to the noble family of Dhanakas. Santamula-I thus tried to protect the interests of the dynasty by forging matrimonial alliances with his feudatories. He donated lakhs of cpws and land and gold to Brahmins and was called as ‘Mahadanapati’. He was succeeded by his son Veerapurusha Datta.
Maihariputra Veerapurusha datta-I (193-213 A.D.)
The rule of Veerapurusha Datta started sometime in the third quarter of the 3rd century, A.D. The records belonging to his reign were discovered at Amaravati, Jaggayyapeta and Nagaijuna Konda. Some of his inscriptions were issued in his twentieth ruling year, so it is presumed that he might have ruled for atleast 20 years. Veerapurusha married three daughters of his paternal aunts (Santisri and Harmyasri). Such marriages which are peculiar to Andhra were familiar even in early times. Another queen of Veerapurusha was Rudradhara-Bhattarika. According to historian D.C.Sarkar she might have been related to Rudrasena-II (254-274 A.D.), the Saka ruler of Western India. Veerapurusha’s daughter Kondabalisiri was married to the ruler of Vanvasa (Banavasi) in Karnataka. The ruler of Banavasi belonged to the Chutu family, a branch of Satavahana dynasty. Virapurusha, by forging matrimonial alliances with royal houses of Ujjain and Banavasi, continued the policy of his father in strengthening the Ikshvaku dynasty. He was succeeded by his son Vasishtiputra Ehubala Santamula-II. *
Veerapurusha patronised Buddhism and gave it back the fame it lost dining his father’s reign. Though Ikshvaku kings did not try to encourage Buddhism, their queens donated vigorously to the Buddhist cause and constructed a number of Buddhist monuments, The Bodhisri inscriptions clearly state the fact that Buddhism gained fame and popularity during Veerapurusha’s rule.
Ehubala Santamula (213-237A.D).
Ehubala Santamula was the third and last independent ruler of the Ikshvaku dynasty. He ruled for about 24 years and was overthrown by the Pallavas who occupied the Krishna-Guntur region by the end of the 3rd century A.D. The inscriptions of his period were found in the excavations at nagaijuna konda in 1954-61 A.D. The method of writing of inscriptions in Sanskrit language instead of prakrit language has been started with his rule only. The most number of Hindu temples were constructed during his reign. Pushpabhadra temple, Nandikeswara temple, kartikeya temple, Ashtabhuja temple, Navagraha temples of Nagaijuna konda were belongs to his rule only. Ehubala santamula was the first king that who constructed Hindu temples in southern country. In his reign of 11 years, his prime minister “Elisiri” has constructed a shaiva temple named “swarna devalaya” and laid an inscription there. Elisiri described himself about his victories in many wars in this inscription.
Unlike Santamula-I, who championed Vedic faith, his successors were Buddhists and made liberal donations to several Chaityas and Viharas in and around the capital city, Vijayapuri. Most of the inscriptions.at Nagaijuna Konda record the liberal donations made by the ladies of the Ikshvaku dynasty. The language used in these inscriptions was Prakrit. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, Buddhism began to decline in the heart land of Telugu region.
Rudrapurmha Datta (237-248 AM)
Ehubala Santamula was succeeded by his son Rudrapurusha Datta. During his ascension to throne, the Pallava king Simhavarma invaded the Ikshvaku kingdom, where upon a state of confusion prevailed. The kingdom suffered enormous military and financial losses and slowly started to decline. After Simhavarma, “Sivaskanda Varma” became the Pallava king and brought the whole of Ikshvaku kingdom under his control. This was recorded in the ‘Mydavolu inscription”. The weakening of friendly neighbour state of Mahakshatrapas, the revolt of Brihatpalayanas and other reasons might have contributed to the decline of the Ikshvaku kingdom.
By the time Ikshvakus started to become independent, a number of minor dynasties were ruling the region to the South of the river Krishna. Prominent among them were the Pugiyas. Pugiprolu is contemporary Ongole of Prakasam district. This region was called as Pakanadu during Pallava, Chola reigns. Another dynasty was ‘Hiranyakas’ who ruled today’s Giddaluru (Prakasam district) and Nandyala (Kurnool district) regions and some parts of Kadapa also. They were called as the ‘Chaliki’ family, which later on became the Chalukya dynasty. Two more dynasties were Dhanaka and Kulahaka, but the pMcOs under their control could not be identified. However, they also ruled the Southern Andhra (Rayalaseeiria) region. Santamula merged all these regions into the Ikshvaku kingdom and maintained good relations with them. He formed matrimonial alliances with these families and strengthened his kingdom.
The first state formed after the decline of the Satavahana empire was the Ikshvaku kingdom. Its founder was Santamula-I who proclaimed independence and performed Aswamedha and other Yagas. He gave enormous donations and developed agriculture and other fields during his rule. His successors vigorously supported Buddhism and constructed many monuments which attract tourists even to this day. Nagarjuna Konda had become a very famous Buddhist educational centre and attracted many student and pilgrims not only from India but also from all over Asia.
The 100 year period of Ikshvaku dynasty is considered as a turning point in the cultural and religious development of the region. As Ikshvakus supported both Vedic and Buddhist faiths, they flourished during this period, and the region became one of the most famous Buddhist educational centres of the world. Many Buddhist Stupas and Viharas were built. in and around Jaggayyapeta, Bhattiprolu, Chinna ganjam and other places. The Maha Chaitya was renovated at the Nagarjuna Konda. Students used to come from all over Asia to Nagarjuna Konda to get trained as the propagators of Buddhist faith.
During the same period, Vedic faith also flourished. Many Hindu temples were built along with Buddhist Stupas. Related Art and architecture developed under the rulers and Sreeparvata had become the centre of Buddhism, Saivism and Vaishnavism at the same time. Some argue that the tradition of worshipping Buddha as an incarnation (Avatara) of Vishnu started here. Pilgrims of different races and regions like Kashmir, Gandhara, China, Lata, Tosali, Vanavasa, Yavana, Dravida and Parur used to come here for learning and discussing the rules, and rituals of Buddhist faith. Buddhism was propagated from Andhra to China in the East, Kashmir in the north and Srilanka in the South. It
is said that Veerapurushadatta repressed the Vedic faith and championed Buddhism tremendously. All the women of Ikshvaku royal families patronised Buddhism.
The kingdom of Ikshvakus spread over telan- gana contemporary districts of Mahaboobnagar, Nalgonda, Madhira and Nelakondapally (Khammam district) and some other parts. They followed the model of Satavahana administration. Santamula-I followed the Vedic faith, performed many Yagas and also encouraged and supported agriculture. They followed Satavahanas in religious matters also. The kingdom was divided into states, Haras and Pathas. The highest officials were called as Mahatalavars, Maha Senapathis and Mahadanda Nayakas. Mahadanda Nayakas were appointed as governors of state.
Village life was stable and prosperous. Santamula used to donate lakhs of cows and other animals which helped the agriculture and related fields. Kolika or Kulika was the head of merchant guild. These guilds encouraged and supported Vedic and welfare programmes. But after Santamula’s death, Vedic faith was pushed down to second place and Buddhism replaced it. Vengi, Dhanyakataka and Nagarjuna Konda had become’ famous educational centres.
- Who was the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty ? – Santamula-I
- Who was the popular king among Ikshvakus? –Veerapurushadatta
- Who was the last king of Ikshvakus? – Rudra purusha Datta
- What was the capital of Ikshvakus ? Vijayapuri
- What is the modem name of Vijayapuri, the capital of Ikshvakus? – Nagaijuna Konda
- According to puranas, what is the name of Ikshvakus? – Sri parvatiyas
- What are the sources of the history of Ikshvakus? – Puranas, inscriptions of Nagarjuna konda, Jaggayyapeta and phanigiri
- Vijayapuri situated in which direction of Sreeparvatam ? – West
- What is the inscriptional language during Ikshvakus ? – Prakrit
- What was the Royal symbol of Ikshvakus ? – Lion
- On whose invasion, was Ikshvaku empire destroyed? – Sivaskanda varma
- Which literature mentions that there was a custom of marrying paternal Aunt’s daughter prevailing during Ikshvaku rule? – Buddhist literature
- According to which inscriptions, Pallavas destroyed the Ikshvakus and occupied their Kingdom?Manchikallu inscription ofPallavas and Maidavolu inscription
- According to puranas, how many kings in Ikshvaku dynasty ruled the court ? Eight
- According to inscription, how many Ikshvaku kings are ruled ? – Five
- After the downfall of Ikshvaku dynasty, the region to the south of river Krishna came under which rule ? – Pallavas
- After the down fall of Ikshvaku dynasty which dynasty engaged in the region to the north of river Krishna ? – Brihatpalayana dynasty
- Buddhism flourished during which Ikshvaku King? – Veerapurusha datta
- What was the name of the period between the end of Satavahana rule and the emergence of the independent kingdom of Vengi chalukyas? –After Satavahana era
- According to the inscription available at Nagarjuna konda, what was the name of Nagaijuna konda in the first century A.D. ? Sri Parvata
- According to the inscription of Nagarjuna konda, Veerapurasha datta belonged to which dynasty ? – Sakya Dynasty
- What was the other name of Ikshvaku king Santamula-I ? – Vasishtiputra Sri Santamula
- Inscriptions of Santamula Phanigiri-I are available at? – Rentala, Dachepalli
- After which yaga did Sri Santamula declare himself independent ? – Rajasuya Yaga
- Santamula-I, performed which yagas other than Rajasuya ? – Agnishtoma, Agnihoma, and Vajapeya
- Santamula-I was a devotee of? – Kartikeya
- Who was the wife of Santamula-I – Mathari Devi
- Santamula-I, belonged to which sect ? – – Vaidika
- What were the names of the son and daughter of Santamula-I ? – Veerapurusha datta and Adavi Santisri
- Who were the sisters of Santamula-I ?
– Harmyasri and Santisiri’. They were also known as (Hammasirika and Chatisiri)
- Who was the wife of Skanda Visakha ? – Adavi Santisri
- What are the names of the two daughters of Harmyasri who were also wives of Veera purusha Datta – Bapisri and Sashtisri (also known as Bapi sirika and Chatisiri)
- The temple constructed by Virapurusha Datta in Nagaijuna konda ? Pushpa Bhadra swami temple
- Veerapurushadatta married princess of Ujjain. What was the name of that princess?
- Who was the husband of Santisri? – Vasishti Putra Skanda sri
- The Ikshvaku king, who issued crores of gold coins and donated thousands of cows ? .
- The Ikshvaku king, who used lakhs of ploughs to have bring the land into irrigation ? –Santamula-I
- The hill which had become famous as the Gaya of South ? – Nagaijuna konda
- The word ‘Mahatalavara’ belongs to ‘Which language –Telugu
- The title for Ikshvaku queens : – Mahadevi
- Highest officials under Ikshvaku rule? – Mahatalavaras
- The wives of Mathariputra sri Veerapurushadatta? – Bhattidevi, Rudra Bhattarika, Santisri, Bapisri, Sastisri
- Who was the first Andhra king, who patronised Hinduism? – Santamula-I
- Who constructed the first Hindu temple ? – Ikshvakus
- Which is the important inscription among the inscriptions, that gives evidence of the development of Buddhism during Ikshvakus? – Upasika Bodhisri inscription
- Like Satavahanas, Ikshvakus also used to join the names of whom before their original names ?
, – The names of their mothers
- Santamula-I, the first Ikshvaku king, after whose defeat.laid the foundation for the kingdom? – Pulomavi-III
- In which inscription did Veerapurusha datta, declare that they were the heirs of Buddha?
– Nagaquna konda
- According to Vishnupurana and ‘Jaina dharma mruta’Ikshvakus were the heirs of? –Buddha
- What is the ruling period of Ikshvakus? – From 225 A.D. to 300 A.D.
- Santamula-I, ruled his country by attracting the feudatories of Satavahanas towards himself. What were the names of the dynasties of those feudatories? – Pugiya and Devaka
- Santisri, who got the titles Mahatalavari and Mahanamapati, was wife of ? – Skandha sri
- The Ikshvaku king who donated ’Satasahasrahala? – Santamula-I
- The Ikshvaku king who issued the inscription of Nagarjuna konda, Uppugonduru, Jaggayyapeta and Allur: – Veerapurusha datta
- The Ikshvaku king, who initiated the marriages with maternal or fraternal cousins (menarikam):
- What is the name of- the daughter of Veerapurushadatta ? – Kondabala siri (Konda balasri)
- Who was the husband of Konda balasri? – Sivaskandha Satakami(Banavasi king)
- Among Ikshvaku kings whose reign is said to be golden age for Buddhism? The reign of Veerapurashadatta
- To whom Konda Balasri constructed a Buddhist vihara on Nagaijuna konda ? – for Mahisakas
- In whose reign did Sreeparvatam flourish with the Buddhists of Mahayana branch ?
- Name one famous woman who had given donations to Buddhists ? – Upasika Bodhisri
- Buddhists of Andhra propagated Buddhism upto China in the east and upto Kashmir in the west. Who extended help for their propagation: – Upasika Bodhisri
- Mahasanghika were called during the period of Ikshvakus as ? – Andhakas
- What is the name of the son of Virapurusha- datta ? – Ehubala Santamula-I
- Who issued Chejarla inscription ? – Kandara raju
- According to Chejarla inscription, between which two dynasties waged war against each other?
– Between Ikshvakus and Anandagotrikas
- In whose reign, were Buddhist institutions and Hindu temples constructed in the valley of Nagarjuna konda abundantly? – Ehubala Santamula-I
- Who constructed ‘Sarvadevadhikasam’ temple for Kumara swami? – Elisiri
- In which places the inscription of Rudra purushadatta was discovered ? Nagarjuna konda, and Gurajala
- Where was the Manehikallu inscription found ? – Near Vijayapuri
- In which year did Pallavas occupy the Guntur mandal from Ikshvakus ? – 300A.D.
- The script of Manehikallu inscription is similar to which inscription? — Inscriptional script of Nagaijuna Konda
- Name The Ikshvaku king, who destroyed the Sivalingam, according to the architecture of Ikshvaku period ? – Veerapurusha datta
- The social evil during the period of Ikshvakus? – Sati sahagamanam
- First Island museum in India? – Nagaijuna konda island museum
- Brihatpalayanas were the feudatories of whom? – The Ikshvakus
- During Ikshvaku period, the trade guilds were called as? –Nigamas
- Who constructed the Chaitya near Nagaijuna konda ? – Santisri
- The coins discovered at Nagarjuna konda belonged to which country ? – Rome
- During Ikshvakus, rule what ware the Collective name for various villages ? – Grama Panchika
- The temples of Ikshvaku period was discovered at Nagaijuna konda. What were they?
– Pushpabhadra swami temple, Ashta Bhujaswami temple and Hariti temple
- The coins which were under circulation: – Suvama, Phanam, Dinar, Marakan
- Which were the important ports during Ikshvakus? – Motupatfi and Ghantasala
- During which period Nagarjuna konda, Pratipalapuram and Kontakosala were famous social cities ? – Period of Ikshvaku
- Which dynasty comes into mind when we visit the Nagaijuna konda ? – Ikshvakus
- Temple architecture was initiated in which period ? – Ikshvakus
- Where is the Ashtabhuja Narayana’ temple is located? – Nagaijuna konda
- Who constructed Chaitya griha on Chandragiri, Nagaijuna konda? –Bodhisri
- What is the modem name for Pratipalapuram ? – Bhattiprolu
- According to Puranas, for how many years Ikshvakus rule the region? –100 years
- What do we know through Rajasuya Yaga of Santamula-I? – Santamula-I conquered the surrounding kingdom with his courage
- Among Ikshvaku kings, who gave Halampura Swami a donation? – Rudra purushadatta
1.Which of the following districts of Telangana rule of ikshvakus as per the anticipations of historians and Archaeologists?
1. Nalgonda 2. Mahabub nagar
3. Khammam 4. All of the above
2. Who were referred to as Sreeparvatiyas and Andhra bhrityas by puranas ?
1. Ikshvakus 2. Abhiras
3. Early Pallavas 4. Chutunagas
3. According to Puranas, Ikshvakus ruled for how many years ?
1. 100 years 2. 200 years
3. 300 years 4. 500 years
4. According to puranas, how many kings ruled in Ikshvaku dynasty ?
1. Ten 2. Seven 3. Five 4. Four
5. The capital of Ikshvakus ?
1. Nagarjuna konda 2. Vijayapuri
3. Amaravati 4. Sri parvatam
6. Who was the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty?
1. Vasishti putra Santamula
2. Veerapurusha datta
3. Ehubala Santamula
4. Rudra Purushadatta
7. Sri Santamula, the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty, followed which religion ?
1. Vaidika 2. Buddhism
3. Jainism 4. None of these
8. Sri Santamula gave his sister in marriage to Whom ?
1. Vasishtiputra Skandasri ‘
2. Veerapurusha datta
9.The woman who had the titles Mahatalavara, Mahadanapatni
1. Santisri 2. Adavi Santisri
3. Harmyasri 4. None of the above
10. “Mahatalavara” means:
1. The person who conquered many kingdoms
2. Great feudatory
11 Who among the following was the daugh¬ter of Sri Santamula ?
1. Santisri 2. Adavi Santisri
3. Vapisri 4. Sastisri
12. The king who helped a lot for the develop¬ment of agriculture by giving lakhs of cows, ploughs and gold coins in the form Of donation:
1. Sri Santamula 2. Veerapurushadatta
3. Ehubala Santamula 4. Rudra Purushadatta
13. Among Ikshvaku kings, whose period was considered as golden age in the history of Buddhism?
1. Sri Ehubala 2. Rudra Purushadatta
3. Sri Santamula 4. None of the above
14. During the reign of Virapurusha datta,
which among the following flourished as a great holy place for Mahayana Buddhists ?
1. Amaravati 2. Sri parvatam
3. Ghantasala 4. Vijayapuri
15. Which of the following informs us that Virapurusha datta was a follower of the vedic religion first and adopted Buddhism later?
1. Inscriptions of Amaravati
2. Evidences of Nagaijuna konda sculpture
3. Writings of Huien-Tsang
4. Inscription of Sri Santamula
16. Who was the mother of Ehubala Santamula?
1. Vasishti Bhattidevi 2. Mahadevi
3. Santisri 4. None of the above
17. The last king of Ikshvaku dynasty:
1. Rudra Purushadevi 2. Sri Santamula 3. Veera Purusha datta 4. None of the above
18. Among the following who conquered Rudra Purushadatta ?
1. Pallava Narasimha Varma
2. Sivaskanda varma
3. Buddha Yankara
4. Shanti Varma
19. During Ikshvaku period, which was the foremost profession?
1. Foreign trade 2. Agriculture
3. Sale of textiles 4. All the above
20. Who started the self supporting rural sys¬tem in Andhra desa ? .
1. Satavahanas 2. Ikshvakus , •
3. Chalukyas 4. Pallavas
21. ‘Ulika Pramukh’ means
1. Military chief 2. Leader of srenis
3. Maha Mantri 4. Feudatories
22. In which metal, did Ikshvakus issue the coins?
1. Lead 2. Gold
3. Silver 4. All the above
23. Dinars which were in circulation during Ikshvakus were imported from :
1. Tamil Country 2. Rome
3. North 4. Persia Tt
24. Where is the great ‘Dhvani Vijnana’ con-struction ‘Sabda gelari’ located? /
1. Nagaijuna konda 2. Amaravati
3. Vijayapuri 4. Kanchipuram
25. ‘Hariti’ means
1. The goddess who protects the children ‘
2. The goddess who pxmishes the sinners ‘
3. One Raga in music
4. One great construction/building
26. Who performed Aswamedha, Vajapeya, and Agnistoma yagas?
1. Rudra purushadatta 2. Virapurusha datta 3. Santamula 4. None of the above
27. During whose period, worship of mother goddess, and Nagapuja, the custom of aborigines, was practiced ?
1. Satavahanas 2. Pallavas
3. Ikshvakus 4. None of the above
28. ‘Veeragallulu’ means: .
1. Memory symbol of courageous leaders who died in the war
2. Soldiers who fled from the war
3. Place where wrestling competitions held t
4. Secret room
29. ‘Construction of Mudupu stupas’ means :
1. The stupas carved secretly
2. The stupas with great skill
3. The stupas erected after the fulfilment of desires or wants
4. The stupas which was destructed
30. Who constructed the stupa erected by
Yajnasri Satakarni for Acharya Nagaijuna? 1. Santamula 2. Santisri
3. Sashtisri4. Gautami Balasri
31. Among Ikshvakus, who used Sanskrit lan¬guage in inscriptions?
1. Santisri 2. Sri Santamula
3. Ehubala Santamula 4. Rudra purushadatta
32. The Ikshvaku king whose name was mixed with Tamil and Telugu words ?
1. Ehubala (Ehubala) Santamula
2. Sri Santamula
3. Rudra Purusha datta
4. None of the above
33. Theravada-people practice to which religion?
1. Vaidika 2. Buddhism
3. Jainism 4. None of these
34. Among Indian inscriptions, whose inscriptions revealed the year lor the first time?
l.Ashoka 2. Satavahanas
3. Ikshvakus 4, Pallavas
35. Whom of the following king of ikshvakus mentioned in the inscriptional plates obtained in the excavations held at phani- giri of Nalgonda district ?
1. Sri santamula 2. veera purusha datta
3.. Ehubala santamula 4. Rudrapurusha datta
36. In which of the following places of Telangana that the coins of ikshvakus era found?
1. phanigiri 2. Dhoolikatta
3. peddabankur 4. kotilingala
37. What was the name for Trade Groups dur¬ing Ikshvaku period?
1. Nigamas 2. Phanim
3. Grama panchika 4. None of these
38. The first island museum established in India?
1. Amaravati 2. Nagarjuna konda
3. Nalanda 4. Bhattiprolu
39. A group of villages were called with the
following name .
1. Grama panchika 2. Phanim
3. Sreni 4. Hariti
40. Which social evil was practiced during Ikshvaku period?
1. Sati sahagamanam 2. Foeticide
3. Human sacrifice 4. Religious riots
41. Where were the buildings which are famous for their beauty during Ikshvaku period located?
a.Vijayapuri b. Sri parvatam
c. Manchi kallu d. Alampuram
1. a, b, c, d 2. a, b, c 3. a, b 4. b, c, d
42. Where was the temple of Ashtabhuja Narayana Swami located?
1. Vijayapuri 2. Nagaijuna konda
3. Manchikallu 4. Alampuram
43. The king who took up the construction of Buddhist monuments along with Hindu temples?
1. Vasishtiputra Santamula
2. Veerapurusha datta
3. Ehubala Santamula
4. Rudra purusha datta
44. The title ‘Apratihata Sankapana’ belongs to which king?
1. Veerapurusha datta
4. Vasishti putra Santamula
45. In which of the following kingdom does santamula of ikshvakus worked as ‘Mtthatalavara’ as per the inscription found in telangana ?
1. kingdom of vishnukundina
2. kingdom of satavahana
3. kingdom of salamkayana
4. kingdom of vakataka