Campus Recruitment – Verbal Ability – Conjunction
A conjunction is a word which merely joins together words or sentences, they do no other work.
e.g.: She and her friends are visiting us.
He came early but couldn’t complete the work.
Some conjunctions are single and some conjunctions are used in pairs. Some of these are:
either – or, neither – nor, not only – but also, though – yet, whether – or etc. these conjunctions which are used in pairs are called Correlative Conjunctions or just Correlatives.
Some compound expressions are also used as conjunctions and these are called compound conjunctions. Some of these are:
even if, as though, as well as, as if, as soon as, so that, in order that etc.
Conjunctions are divided into two classes:
Coordinating and Subordinating.
Coordinating Conjunctions bring together two independent statements or two statements of equal rank or importance. The main coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, also, either-or, neither-nor.
e.g.: He is slow but steady.
The thieves broke the door and entered the house.
You must return the book tomorrow or pay the fine.
Subordinating conjunctions bring together two statements or clauses, one of which is dependent on the other. The chief subordinating conjunctions are:
after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless,
as, when, where, while.
e.g.: You will pass if you work hard.
He didn’t speak up because he was afraid.
Though he was ill, he attended the meeting.
He came after I had left.
Subordinating conjunctions may be classified according to meaning or function:
e.g.: I knew him before he came here.
I waited till the train arrived.
Cause or reason:
e.g.: Since you say so I must believe it.
He did not come because you did not call him.
e.g.: We eat that we may live.
He deserved the prize for he had worked hard.
Result or consequence:
e.g.: He was rude so he was punished.
e.g.: Unless you bring your Passport, the tickets cannot be booked.
If you had asked me earlier, I could have helped you.
e.g.: She is as tall as her sister.
He is richer than I am.
Concession: For example,
Although he worked hard, he could not get a state rank.
Though he is strong, he is unable to do this work.
Troublesome Rules and Contusing Areas
- The most common mistake is the placement of the I conjunction. The conjunction should be placed just before the clause it introduces.
e.g.: It is raining because he has not come. (incorrect)
He has not come because it is raining. (correct)
- ‘Scarcely’ is followed by ‘when’.
e.g.: Scarcely had we entered the house when it started raining.
- ‘No sooner’ is followed by ‘than’.
e.g.: No sooner had she got her results than she got a job.
- ’Neither’ is followed by ’nor’.
e.g.: He is neither intelligent nor hardworking.
- While using ‘not only . . . but also’, the verb must agree with the noun or pronoun mentioned second.
e.g.: Not only the students but the teacher were also injured. (incorrect)
Not only the students but the teacher was also injured. (correct)
Correction of Errors
- He is sincere and also hardworking.(not only – but also)
- She asked me whether I had a pen or not.(‘or not’ can be omitted)
- He did not come or sent a message, (neither nor)
- He not only broke the glass, but threw it away.(not only…. but also)
- Both he and I contributed to the fund, (no error)
- No sooner had the bell rung then the students ran out. (replace ‘then’ with ‘than’)
- She is taller as her sister, (as tall as)
- He worked hard and could not get a state rank, (you can use ‘but’ instead of ‘and’, or start the sentence with ‘Although’)
- There is a bus strike because she is not coming.(she is not coming because there is a bus strike)
- He will return the money on the 1st or 2nd.(He will return the money either on 1st or 2nd)