Campus Recruitment – Verbal Ability – Adjective
An adjective is a word used with a noun to add something to its meaning. It qualifies nouns and is typically used before nouns.
e.g.: That tall boy is a cricket player (tall modifies boy)
It was a bright day. (bright modifies day)
Kinds of Adjectives:
Adjectives of Quality which describe the quality of a person or thing.
e.g.: a large house, a pretty girl, a sincere boy etc
Adjectives of quantity which show how much of the quantity is present.
e.g.: some, little, all, no etc
Adjectives of number which show the number of persons or things.
e.g.: two, few, many, most, first, second etc
Demonstrative adjectives indicate which person or thing. For example, this, that, these, those etc
- Adjectives like adverbs show to what extent the quality is possessed by the corresponding noun or verb, hence this is mentioned as degrees of comparison.
- Adjectives can be modified by adverbs like
e.g.: an extremely beautiful girl, a very useful book.
- Adjectives describe the quality and also change their form to indicate degree of quality possessed called degrees of comparison.
- Adjectives made up of a one or two syllables form their comparative degree by adding ‘er’ after the adjective. For example,larger, bigger, smaller, wider etc
- The superlative form takes ‘est’.
e.g.: largest, fastest, biggest, smallest etc.
There are some adjectives which form their comparative and superlative in a different manner.
We can also say they are irregular comparisons.
|Old||Older, elder||Oldest, eldest|
- The positive degree of an adjective is the adjective in its simple form. It is used to denote the mere existence of some quality of what we speak about. It is used when no comparison is made,
e.g.: He is tall.
This chair is comfortable.
There are many students in this class.
She is a good singer.
- The comparative degree denotes a higher degree of the quality than the positive and is used when two things are compared,
e.g.: He is taller than his brother.
This chair is more comfortable than that.
There are more students in this class than in that.
She is a better singer than many others.
- The superlative degree of an adjective denotes the highest degree of the quality, and is used when more than two things are compared. For example,
He is the tallest in the class.
This is the most comfortable chair that I have ever used.
This class has the most number of students in this school.
She is the best singer in our group.
- Adjectives ending in ‘ing’ are used to describe things or events or what effect it has on us.
e.g.: The film was boring.
- Adjectives ending with ‘ed’ describe how people feel.
e.g.: I felt bored while travelling by train.
- The comparative form – ‘er’ is not used when we compare two qualities in the same person. It is used only when the quality is used in two different persons.
e.g.: Rama is braver than strong, (incorrect)
Rama is more brave than strong, (correct)
Rama is more stronger than Rahul, (incorrect)
Rama is stronger than Rahul, (correct)
- When two qualities are compared in the same person or thing the comparative degree is formed by using ‘more’ instead of ‘r’ or ‘er’ with the positive.
e.g.: Raju is more wise than intelligent.
- When two objects are compared with each other the latter term of comparison must exclude the former by using ‘any other’.
e.g.: Gold is more precious than any other metal.
- There are some words used in positive degree only but not in comparative or superlative.
e.g.: superior, junior, prior, anterior, prefer etc.
- Some adjectives are used only in positive & superlative
e.g.: top topmost, northern … northernmost etc.
- The adjective ‘preferable’ is used as comparative and followed by ‘to’ not ‘more’.
e.g.: A regular course is preferable to an online course.
- The comparative adjectives ending in ‘or’ are followed by the preposition ‘to’ not ‘than’. The words which take ‘to’ are superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior and posterior.
e.g.: He is superior to me.
- The words ‘much, less, far’ are used before comparatives to denote emphasis or excess.
e.g.: He is far superior to his colleagues.
Toned milk is much cheaper than whole milk.
- Two adjectives referring to the same noun or pronoun joined by conjunction must be in same degree of comparison.
Gandhiji is the noblest and wisest of all national leaders.
- farther, further: Farther indicates distance.
e.g.: Sheila lives at the farther end of the street.
Further means additional, more.
There is nothing further to tell about him.
- ‘many’, ‘few’ are used with plural nouns and ‘little’ with singular non-countable nouns.
‘A few’ and ‘a little’ mean more than expected, whereas few ‘and ‘little’ mean practically nothing.
‘Fewer’ is used before plural words and ‘less’ before uncountable.
‘Many’ is used before countable nouns and ‘much’ before mass noun. For example,
Few students have enrolled for the course this year, (means practically no students)
A few students have enrolled this year.
(means enough to start the course)
There is little rice left, (practically nothing)
There is a little rice left, (something)
There are fewer students in this section than in that. Vijayawada has lesser pollution than Hyderabad.
There are many beautiful, heritage sites in Hyderabad. There isn’t much water in the lake.
- elder, eldest, older, oldest: elder and eldest are used only for persons and are confined to siblings. Old and older are used for both persons and things, (remember older thaw, elder to).
e.g.: This is the oldest temple in town.
Sheela is elder to me. (when I am referring to my sister) My eldest brother is ten years older elder than me.
She’s three years older than me.
He’s their eldest son.
He’s the oldest kid in the class.
His elder brother works in an MNC.
Among our friends, Amol is the oldest.
- nearest, next, near indicates proximity and next denotes position.
e.g.: Your turn is next.
The nearest is half a mile away.
- some, any – both are used to express quantity or degree. While ‘some’ is used in affirmative sentences ‘any’ is used in negative or interrogative sentences,
e.g.: Do you have any money to spare?
I don’t have any cash on me.
She wants to buy some mangoes.
- each – every: They are similar in meaning, but every is stronger than each, ‘every’ means without exception. ‘Each’ is used in speaking of two or more things; ‘every’ is used only in speaking of more than two things, ‘each’ directs attention to the individuals forming any group, ‘every’ to the whole group. Each is used only when the number in the group is limited and definite; Every when the number is indefinite.
e.g.: Every student must come on time.
Each student was given a book.
Correction of Sentences
- Shyam is the eldest in the class. (oldest) eldest is used only for siblings.
- He is junior than me. (junior to be followed by ‘to’)
- Delhi is hottest than Hyderabad. (hotter)
- Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.(a little – remember little means nothing)
- Local apples are inferior than Shimla apples.(inferior to)
- Burj Khalifa is tallest building in the world.(the tallest)
- The traffic in Bangalore is worse than Chennai.(than that of Chennai – remember the comparison is with the traffic)
Comparisons must be always between similar things – a city with a city, a person with a person, the quality of a person or thing with a quality of another person or thing.
- He is a famous smuggler, (famous is positive so it must be ‘notorious’)
- You can wear any of the two dresses. (either of the two)
- Do you have some change for 100 INR? (any)
- What is the last score? (latest- meaning most recent)
- There is a little rice, you might have to eat something else. (little – means nothing)
- This is the most worse match that I have seen.(the worst – superlative)
- The concert was a grand success. Each seat was taken, (every)
- His house is the furthest, (farthest)