**Campus Recruitment – Logical Reasoning – **Analogy – Classification

Contents

**Concepts**

Analogy is comparison between things which have similar features (i.e. similarity or correspondence).

Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving such as creativity, memory, perception, emotion, decision making, explanation and communication.

**Types of Analogy:** Analogy questions are two types.

They are, a) Number Analogy,

b) Alphabet Analogy.

Analogy involve critical thinking and involve little bit of secret language. In this type of problems, a rule or a logic will lie behind the given items, based on that the candidate is required to find the similar item/pair.

A simple analogy is as follows.

Word-1: Word-2 :: Word-3 : Word-4

Here “:” reads as “is to” and “::”reads “as”.

**Steps for Analogy problem solving:**

Step-1: Observe the first pair of given analogy, then find out the relation between them. Be sure to look all parts of the relationship between them.

Step-2: Once you found the correct relationship between the first analogy pair, then apply the same relation to given options. If any of the option pair has the same relation as first pair then that option is the required answer. If more than one option has same relation as the first pair, then find out some other relationship between the first pair and apply it to the options.

**a) Number Analogy:** In this type of analogy, you are required to find similar pair or single number based hidden relation in then given pair(s).

**Examples**: 1) 2 : 7 :: 5 : ?

a) 15 b) 16 c)18 d) 20 e) 19

**Explanation:**

The relation between 2 and 7 is, 2 x 3 +1=7.

5 x 3 + l = 16 is the answer.

2) 3 : 28 : : ?

a) 2: 9 b) 3: 29 c) 4: 64 d) 5:125 e) none of these

**Explanation**: Here only 1st pair is given, we have to find the 2nd analogy pair.

The relation between 1st pair is : 3-> 3³+1= 28.

From option-a, 2-> 2³+ 1 = 9.

**b)Alphabet Analogy:** In this method, a group of alphabet pairs or an individual alphabet will be given. You need to find out the similar relationship from the options which correctly matches to the question analogy pair.

**Examples**: 1) A : E : : T : ?

**Explanation**: The relation in the first pair is A + 4 = E. In the same way T+4 = X.

2) KP : LO : : BY : ?

**Explanation**: In first pair K, P are opposite letters.

L is next to K. Opposite of L is O.

In the same way, letter next to B is C. Opposite letter of C is X. Answer is CX.

3) ABC : GHI:: MNO : ?

**Explanation**: In the first pair, the last letter of the first part is C and the first letter of the 2nd part is G. The relation between C and G is C + 4 = G.

In the same way, in the second pair, last letter of the first part (MNO) is O. So, O + 4 = S.

Hence, answer is ‘STU’.

**Complex Expressions:** Sometimes the hidden relation between the given numbers could be any complex expression. For example, 6 : 19 : : 8 : ?

a) 34 b) 30 c) 38 d) 33 e) 39

**Explanation**: The hidden relation in the first pair is

**Conceptual Examples**

**Exercise**

1) 8: 56 :: 13 : ?

a) 153 b) 158 c) 155 d) 156 e)none

2) 3: 64 :: ?

a) 2:8 b)6:343 c)1:62 d) 18 : 528 e) 64 : 4

3) 2 : 7 :: 11: ?

a) 20 b) 21 c) 19 d) 23 e) 29

4) 4673 : 2451 :: 8346 : ?

a) 5264 b) 4236 c) 7346 d) 6124 e) 8312

5)4/5:41::3/5?

а) 40 b) 14 c) 24

d)30 e)34

б) MAN : 82 :: CAT: ?

a) 28 b) 40 c) 42 d) 82 e) 24

7) LOGIC : BHFNK :: CLERK : ?

a) ABCDF b) LJPQT c) JQDKB

d) ZTMBS e) None of these

8) If ‘ELNZ’ is related to ‘GNPB’ in the same way ‘STOP’ is related to?

a) POTS b) OPST c) UVQR

d) VUQR e) RQUV

9) If ‘HIGH’ is related to ‘HGIH’ in the same way

’SCHOOL’ is related to __?

a) LOHOCS b) SCHOOL c) LHOOCS

d) LOOHCS e) None of these

10) If ‘NSPL’ is related to ‘ORQK’ in the same way

BSNL is related to__ ?

a) PHONE b) CROK c) CSOK

d) KOSC e) None

11) 8 : 81:: 9 : ?

a) 102 b) 19 c) 100 d) 90 e) 92

12) Given set: (641, 507, 715)

a) (371, 237 , 823) b) (372, 238, 824)

c) (471, 328, 842) d) (237, 237, 823)

e) (864, 928 ., 203)

13) Given set: (16, 8,14)

a) (3, 6,10) b) (8, 12,16) c) (18, 20,1)

d) (17,18) e) (13 l, 16,10)

14) 6:108: : ?

a) 7:343 b) 8: 258 c) 5:128

d) 12:864 e) 11 : 121

15) 9 : 648 : ; ?

a) 6:216 b) 11 : 1210 c) 7:336

d) 8:256 e) 1: 3

16) 16 : 27: : 9: ?

a) 8 b) 18 c) 20 d) 14 e) 17

17) 17: 54 : : 1: ?

a) 7 b) 8 c) 6 d) 15 e) 17

18) 22:12: :108 : ?

a) 50 b) 56 c) 42 d) 55 e) 46

19) 853 : 392 :: 866 : ?

a) 291 b) 873 c) 874,. d) 185 e) 132

20) 5 :33 :: 9:?

a) 91 b) 92 c) 96 d) 95 e) 97

21) 574 : 82 1:: 63 : ?

a) 8 b) 7 c) 9 d) 17 e) 27

22) 10 : 7 :: : 32: ?

a) 19 b) 18 c) 20 d) 22 e) 16

23) 27:65: :: 64: ?

a) 125 b) 124 c) 126 d) 128 e) 129

**Explanations**

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