Shortcuts in Reasoning for Competitive Exams – Analytical Decision Making
Analytical Decision Making is based on a set of relationships laid out, generally arbitrarily, from which new information can be deduced. This involves two steps-first of analysis and second of reasoning. Analytical decision making deals with questions in which you have to decide upon the course of action taken upon a candidate who has applied for a post or membership to an institution keeping in mind the essential requisites and the data given for the candidate.
CATEGORIES OF ANALYTICAL DECISION MAKING
In this type a vacancy is being declared. The necessary qualifications required by the recruiting agencies are given with certain exceptions. The qualifications and the merits of the candidates are mentioned. The decision about each candidate has to be made from amongst the five choices given, which state the courses of action to be taken as per the candidate’s potential.
Here, the eligibility conditions for joining a course or availing certain benefits etc are given as against the vacancies mentioned in the former category. The qualifications of the candidates are also mentioned. The decision about each candidate is to be made from among the five answer choices given.
FORMAT OF THE QUESTION
Example (Directions): Read carefully the information given below and answer the questions based on it:
The following are the given conditions for the recruitment of a candidate as a family member in a computer institute:
- The candidate must be in the age range of 23 years to 28 years as on 1st November, 2013.
- The candidate must have work experience as a teacher or programming experience of at least 2years.
- The candidate must have a PG degree in computer application, [M.C.A, M.Tech. or M.Sc.
(computer science)] with not less than 60% marks.
- Out of total 50 marks in the interview, the candidate must obtain 50%. In the case when a candidate
- Fulfils the above conditions, he/she shall be appointed as senior teacher.
- Has less than 60% but more than 50% marks in his/her PG degree in computer application, he/she will be appointed as junior teacher.
- Is of age more than 28 years but less than 32 years as on 1st November, 2013, the case may be reffered to the GM of the institute.
On the basis of the above mentioned conditions and information about each of the candidates in the question below, you have to decide which of the following courses of action should be than against each candidate. Point to be noted that nothing extra will be assumed except the given information. The decision must be based only on the data provided.
Mark your answer:
- If the candidate is to be selected as a Junior teacher
- If the candidate is to be selected as a Senior teacher
- If the case will be reffered to the GM of the institute.
- If the data are inadequate
- If the candidate is not to be selected.
- Mukesh Verma was born on 31st July, 1985. He is an M.Tech. in computer engineering with 70% marks. He has been working in an institution as a programmer for the last 7 years.
- Karishma Tiwari is MCA with 72% marks. Her date ofbirth is 14th August, 1990. She has worked as a computer teacher for 4 years. She has got 35 marks in interview.
What You See in the given Question Format?
In the given format you can see the following things:
- Information about some candidates have been provided.
- Some conditions have been given for candidates to fulfill in order to get selected for a particular job/ post. In case of the given format, four conditions have been given.
- When a candidate fulfills all the criteria except some, then different course of action has to be taken for him.
Some more things to understand
- Basic conditions: In the given question format, there are four basic conditions — (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv). They are called basic conditions because they are the original conditions.
- Additional conditions: In the given question format, there are two more conditions apart from the basic conditions and they are (vi) and (vii). point to be noted that (v) will not be on additional condition as t does not talk of exceptions. In fact (v) is only a totality of the four basic or original conditions given in the question format.
What is data inadequacy?
As one of the answer is given as ‘data inadequate’ we must be clear about what exactly does data inadequacy mean? When details given about any candidate provide no information as required by the basic conditions/additional conditions then this would be the case of data inadequacy, For example, let us see the first question given in the format. No information is given about what marks have been obtained by Mukesh Verma in the interview. Hence, the data is inadequate here.
How to solve a given problem?
Let us consider the questions given in the format and start one step wise process.
Write the name of the candidates in the left side and then write the symbols (i, ii, iii, iv) of the basic conditions to the top right.
Now, put the symbols of the additional conditions (vi and vii) below the symbols of that basic condition with which these might be related.
For example, (vi) is a condition about educational qualification and so, it is an exception of (iii).
Hence (vi) should be written below (iii). Similarly, (vii) should be written below (i).
Now, after the completion of step I, the following format will be prepared:
NOTE : To differentiate between basic conditions and additional conditions.
The additional conditions have been encircled.
At the 2nd step just see the given answer 1 choices carefully and decide which combination of the conditions leads to which conclusion. If we see the given question format with serious eye, we find that the following combination can be formed.
i + ii + iii + i v —> 2 [Senior teacher] vii + ii + iii + iv —> 3 [Case will be reffered to GM]
i + ii + vi + iv -> 1 [Junior teacher] When we have decided the above three combination giving answer choices remain and the answer choice (a), (b) and (c), two answer choices remains and they are answer choice (d) and answer choice (e). The answer choice (e), which says that the candidate is not to be selected, should be chosen when any one or more of the given conditions is violated. The answer choice (d), which tells that the data are inadequate, should be chosen when no information is given about any one or more conditions.
How to examine data?
After step II you are required to read all the statements carefully. Just take each question one by one and compare then with the given conditions. Examinees are suggested to use following symbols while doing this comparision:
- If a basic condition is fulfilled mark ‘✓’ sign below it.
- If a basic condition is violated and it is not attached with an additional condition then mark ‘X’ sign below it.
- If a basic condition is violated but it is attached with an additional condition, then
- Mark a ‘x’ sign below it if additional condition is also violated.
- Mark a ‘✓’ sign below it if additional condition is fulfilled.
- In case of unavailability of any information about any condition, a mark’?’ Will be put below that condition.
- I, II, III and IV are basic conditions while (V) and (VI) are two additional conditions. (V) is attached to II and (VI) is attached to III.
- In question (1), I, II and III are satisfied while VI is violated
- In question (2), all the basic conditions I, II, III and IV are satisfied
- One by one, read the questions very carefully and compare the facts given with the various condition.
- Mark the appropriate sign or ‘x’ or ‘ x ’ (✓) or (x)? As required
- When a ‘x’ or a (x) sign is obtained, then stop examining further and without any hesitation select the answer choice “not to be selected” for that particular question. In another words whenever you get ‘x’ or (x) sign, do not take any botheration to examine the remaining condition, select your answer as “not to be selected and quickly move on to the next question. It so happens because,
if a condition as well as its additional condition is violated, it does mean that one necessary requirement is not being fulfilled. Hence, we reach at a conclusion that the selection is not possible even it other conditions are fulfilled.
Now, this is the time to select your answer choices on the pattern given below:
If find a ‘x’ or (x) below any condition, go for the answer choice “not to be selected”
If you find no cross mark but there is a question mark below any condition, your answer choice would be “data are inadequate”, (iii) If you find neither any cross mark nor any question mark, than compare the combination with the three answer combinations obtained in step II and select the answer choice accordingly. After understanding the above steps, now we are at a position of solving the question given in the question format. Let us see the solution:
Condition (V) is attached to II while the additional condition is VI attached with the basic condition III.
STEP WISE EXPLANATION OF ABOVE TABLE:
At the step I level, we read the question carefully and find out that there are four, basic conditions (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) and two additional conditions (vii) and (vi). further, it is clear that ‘(vii)’ is an exception of ‘(i)’ and ‘(vi)’ is an exception of‘(iii)’. Now we write the name of the candidates in extreme left and then put the basic conditions (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) at the top-right of the candidate in question 1.
Next, we write additional condition ‘(vii)’ below ‘o’ and additional condition ‘(vi)’ below ‘(iii)’.
At the 2nd level, we look at the answer choices and prepare one answer combinations accordingly.
This will be:
i + ii + iii + iv ⇒ b
vii + ii + iii + iv ⇒ c
i + ii + vi + iv ⇒ a
At the step III level, we read every question carefully and compare the facts given in it with the various conditions.
Let us see the detailed analysis of every candidate question wise.
He is an M.Tech in computer engineering with 70% marks. This fulfills condition C. Hence we write ‘ ✓’ mark below C.
Next, his date of birth is 31st July, 1985. Here, we do a mental calculation that on 31st July, 2013 he turned 28th. This is the reason that on 1st November 2013, he is more than 28 years. Therefore, (i) is violated, but the additional condition of (i) is (vii) which is fulfilled and we write (✓) mark here. Further, Mukesh Verma is having a programming experience of 7 years (more than 2 years). So we mark (✓) below (ii). Lastly, there is no information about marks of Mukesh in the interview. Thus the sign of question mark ‘?’ is put below d.
Karishma is an MCA with 72% marks. This fulfills (iii), so we put the mark ‘✓’ below (iii). Her date of birth is 14th August, 1990, Soon 1st November, 2013, she is more than 23 years. This fulfills ‘(i)’ and hence we put a (✓) mark below ‘(i)’. She is a computer teacher from last 4 years. This fulfills (ii) and we put (✓) mark below (ii), lastly, she has obtained 35 marks in the interview. This marks is more than the required 50% (25 marks out of 50 marks), therefore (iv) is also fulfilled and we put (✓) mark below (iv).
At 4th level we select the answer choices.
Solution 1. No cross mark. But a question mark is available. Hence, data is inadequate.
Solution 2. i + ii + iii + iv => b [step II]
So, the candidate is to be selected as a senior teacher.
- For selection all basic conditions must be fulfilled.
- For rejection atleast one independent basic condition must I be violated/basic ‘+’ additional condition must be violated.
- If a basic condition is violated but an additional condition attached with it is fulfilled and all other,remaining basic conditions are fulfilled, then the case will be referred to the person given in the questions.
- Once the symbol x/(x) is put in the table, there is no need to check further conditions as person is . declared rejected at this stage only.
- If for one basic condition, the data is not given while all other basic, conditions are fulfilled, it means data is inadequate. .
- If any information is not given, I and answer choices don’t have] data inadequate option, then, condition related to that particular information is supposed to be violated.