Telangana History Mudigonda Chalukyas
The second Chalukya dynasty which flourished during the Rashtrakuta era in Telangana was of the Mudigonda Chalukyas.
This was a subordinate/feudatory dynasty which supported the Vengi-Chalukyas against the Rashtrakuta and later on against the Kakatiyas also in the Telugu regions in early middle ages. Their capital was “Mudigonda” of the Khammam region. The Khammam and Warangal regions were called as, Koravi seema and Visuruntidu during middle ages. The Eastern region of Koraviseema was called as Manchikondanadu. The Mudigonda ’chalukyas ruled this region with Mudigonda as their capital between 850 and 1200 A.D. This kingdom bordered the Vengi region from river Krishna to river Godavari.
All the roads that lead to the Coastal Andhra region from the Deccan went through this. Geographical studies indicate that this region was established as a separate kingdom to prevent the attacks of Rashtrakutas on the Vengi kingdom directly by the Eastern Chalukyas. As it was a branch of Chalukyas, was called as Mudigonda Chalukyas. This dynasty held a key role in the local politics until. the period of Kakatiya Ganapatideva. The inscriptions of Koravi, Magallu, Guduru inscription of Viriyala dynasty and Kriwaka or Kukkunoor inscription of Kusumayudha reveal the history of this dynasty. They acted as a protective shield to Eastern Chalukyas and fought many battles with Rashtrakutas. They became the subordinate rulers of Kalyani Chalukyas from 1000A.D. As there were no date and proper information in the inscriptions regarding their reign, it is difficult to compile their history completely.
According to inscriptions, Ranamarda was the founder of Mudigonda Chalukya dynasty. His elder brother was Kokkili, of whom no details were available. Ranamarda had two titles namely- “Pravarthamana and Vijaya“. Historians opined that Ranamarda belonged to the western chalukya dynasty because his name resembles the names of the rulers of that dynasty like- Ranaraguda, Ranavikrama and Ranavikranta. He must have served the Eastern Chalukyas first and was given Koravi region by them to rule, with Mudigonda as his capital. Inscriptions compared Ranamarda to Lord Rana in wars. He expanded his kingdom upto Kondapalli of Krishna district and reportedly wore a necklace called ‘Ranamarda Kantiya‘ to denote his victories. That necklace was worshiped as hereditary asset and god by his dynasty later on.
Kusumayudha-I (870-895 AD)
After the death of Ranamarda, his son Kusumayudha succeeded him as the ruler. He was the contemporary of Gunaga Vijayaditya and Chalukya Bhima. During their period, conflicts between the Eastern Chalukyas and Rashtra kutas reached their high. Krishna-II of Rashtra kutas tried to invade Vengi region and first occupied the Koravi seema. He then captured Chalukya Bhima at kolanikota. Kusumayudha came to Bhima’s rescue by attacking Rashtra kutas; he not only freed Bhima but defeated Rashtrakutas and recaptured his kingdom, Koravi seema. Chalukya Bhima honoured him in many ways for his help. He also donated a village called ‘Kukiparru’ to a Brahmin named Pothamayya on the request of Kusumayudha. Short by after Chalukya Bhima ascended the throne, Kusumayudha died. In fact he was the a subordinate ruler of the Chalukyas from the period of Gunaga Vijayaditya.
Gonagayya (898-910 AD.)
Kusumayudha had two sons- Gonagayya and Niravadya. Gonagayya succeeded Kusumayudha as the ruler. Kusumayudha named his son Gonagayya in honour of the Chalukya ruler Gunaga Vijayaditya. After the death of Chalukya Bhima-I, internal conflicts arose in the Vengi kingdom. As Gonagayya did not participate in them, he lost the confidence of Vengi Chalukyas; and his younger brother Niravadya (910-935 A.D.) took this as an opportunity to usurp Gonagayya from power and occupy the throne. Gonagayya, who* lost his kingdom, went to Arikesari-II of Vemulawada Chalukya dynasty for help. He could reclaim his lost kingdom with the help of Arikesari, but Arikesari had become a subordinate ruler then. After that, the off spring of Gonagayya ruled the Mudigonda kingdom. Gonagayya had other names- Vijayaditya Gonaga, Vijayata Gonaga and Vijaya Gonaga.
Kusumayudha-II (935-960 AM.)
After the death of Gonagayya, his son Kusumayudha-II succeeded him. He had a title- namely, “Vineeta Janasraya”.
Vijayaditya-II (960-980 A.D)
Vijayaditya-II son of Kusumayudha-II succeeded him and ruled between 960 and 980 A.D.
Kusumayudha-III (980-1000 A.D.)
Kusumayudha-III, son of Vijayaditya-II ruled after him. He had 4 sons namely- Gonaga, Nijjayaraya, Mallappa and Lobhacha. Their names except that of Gonaga were, mentioned in the Magallu tank inscription. But the Narayana giri inscription mentioned the name of Gonaga. So, it was concluded that he had four sons. Gonaga (1000-1025 A.D.) succeeded his father and Nijjayaraya (1000-1025 A.D.) succeeded his brother.
Kusumayudha-IV (1050-1075 A.D.)
Kusumayudha-IV, son of Nijjayaraya came to rule after his father’s death, between 1050 and 1075 A.D. The inscription of Magallu tank reveals that he donated the village of Magallu pond to a Brahmin called Gonayya.
Betaraja-I (1075-1100 AD.)
Kusumayudha’s son Betaraja-I came to rule after his death. Until that time the region of Koravi seema was completely under the control of Mudigonda Chalukyas. But from then onwards conflicts occurred in the kingdom. Kakatiya Gundana defeated Betaraja and occupied the Koravi region. Betaraja later took the help of. Erra, the ruler of Viriyala, to regain his kingdom. This was revealed by the Gudur inscription issued by Viriyala Erra and Kainasani.
The main reason for Mudigonda Chalukyas losing their kingdom was because of the establishment of Kakatiya dynasty at this period. Krishna-II of Rashtrakutas wanted to contain Mudigonda Chalukyas and appointed Iriya, his chief of army as the head of Kurawadi region. This region was a part of Koravi kingdom. Iriya must have made Orugallu his capital, which led to conflicts between the Kakatiya and Mudigonda Chalukya dynasties. As the Kakatiyas raged over the region, Mudigonda Chalukyas had to leave the Koravi area temporarily. In this background the Mudigonda Chalukyas took shelter with Tailapa-II, the ruler of Kalyani Chalukya dynasty. As the Mudigonda Chalukyas were a branch of their own dynasty (Chalukyas) and as Kakatiya Gundana was the army chief of their enemy dynasty Rashtrakutas, Tailapa decided to help Mudigonda Chalukyas and go to war against Kakatiyas to recapture Koraviseema. This task was assigned to Erra, the chief of army of Taiilapa-II and also the head of Viriyala region. Erra defeated and killed Kakatiya Gundana and appointed Bottu Beta as the ruler of Koraviseema, according to Guduru inscription. This Bottu Beta belonged to the dynasty of Mudigonda Chalukyas, according to the Kriwaka inscription. These two above inscriptions prove that Bottu Beta of Mudigonda Chalukyas again became the ruler of Koraviseema.
Kusumayudha-V (1100-1128 AD)
Kusumayudha-V, son of Bottu Beta succeeded him as the ruler of Koraviseema. He had a title namely Muthenagallu.
Betaraja-II (1125-1150 AD.)
Betaraja-II, son of Kusumayudha-V came to rule in 1125. He had a title- ‘Vineetha Janasraya’. He had two sons- Kusumayudha and Nagatiraja. They were the last heirs of their dynasty.
Kusumayudha-VI (1150-1175 A.D.) |
Kusumayudha who came to rule in 1150 was a contemporary of Kakatiya Rudradeva. The Kakatiya kingdoms expanded tremendously during Rudradeva’s reign. He defeated polavasa dynasty, who ruled the Karimnagar region and Kandur Cholas, who were the rulers of Panagallu and annexed their regions to his kingdom. He also occupied the Mudigonda kingdom. Karunadhi pati, Indaparaju and Devaraju all ministers under Kusumayudha-VI, escaped to deep forest with their king and the royal family along with a lot of money and valuables, and lived underground for 12 years. According to ‘Krivvaka’ inscription, Kusumayudha later recaptured his kingdom, appointed the ministers who helped him as Mahamandaleswaras (Grand chiefs) and presented them with the Kriwaka village of Godavari coast.
Nagathi Raja (1175-1200 AD)
Nagatiraja, younger brother of Kusuma yudha- VI, succeeded him in 1175 A.D. He was a contemporary of Mahadeva of Kakatiya dynasty. During that period, Mahadeva invaded the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri in 1198 A.D. and died in war in the hands of Jaitugi. His son Ganapatideva was also captured in the war. Nagathi raja felt that it was good opportunity to take revenge on Kakatiyas and attacked their kingdom. Recharla rudra came to the rescue of Kakatiya dynasty and chased away Nagatiraja; recaptured Kakatiya region and also occupied the Mudigonda kingdom. After the release of Ganapatideva, he annexed Mudigonda region to the Kakatiya empire. Thus ended the rule of Mudigonda chalukya dynasty at around 1200 A.D.
According to the ‘Srikakulam inscription‘ at Natha Rameswaram of Krishna district. Nagatiraja, who lost his kingdom lived in Kolanu region with his family. There was a stone inscription at Natha Rameswaram of Kolanu mandal which narrates that a person named Bothu Nagatiraja made a donation in 1218 A.D. there. Nagatiraja of Mudigonda chalukyas himself issued that inscription. Later, Sri ramabhadra, son of Nagatiraja also issued a donation inscription in the Gopalaswami temple at Sikakulam of Krishna district, which says that he had titles called-Vineetajanasrya, Prachchanna Vidyadhara, Marbala kesari and Koravi Purahara-adheeswara. These were the traditional titles of Mudigonda Chalukyas. It also narrated his Gotra as mana vyasa. These two inscriptions reveal that the lost of Mudigonda chalukyas lived in Vengi kingdom.
According to Kriwaka inscription of Kusumayudha-Vi, ‘Palampeta’ inscription of Recharla Rudra, ‘Natha Rameswara’ inscription in Kolanu mandal of Bottu Nagatiraja and ‘Srikakula inscription’ of Sri ramabhadra, the Mudigonda Chalukya kingdom declined due to the attack of Kakatiyas and fell by 1200 A.D. and the descendants of that dynasty became common citizens.
★ The kingdom, which established in the period of Rashtrakutas and flourished in Telangana: Mudigonda Chalukya Kingdom
★ The capital of Mudigonda Chalukyas: – Mudigonda, near Khammam town
★ Mudigonda situated in: – Koraviseema
★ Another name for Koraviseema: – Visarunadu
★ In the medieval period, the regions of Khammam and Warangal districts are called as: –Koraviseema
★ What was the name for eastern part in Koraviseema – Manchi Kondanadu
★ The inscription tells about the genealogy of Mudigonda Chalukyas: – Maagallu tank
★ The contemporary kingdoms of Mudigonda Chalukyas: Vemulawada Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Viriyala rulers
★ Another name for the dynasty of Mudigonda Chalukyas? . MudugOnduru
★ The dynasty of Mudigonda Chalukyas extended upto: In the western boundary of Vengi, from Godavari to Krishna
★ The ruling period of Mudigonda Chalukyas: 850 – 1200 A.D,
★ ‘The inscriptions which shows the history of Mudigonda Chalukyas upto eastern Chalukya period . Koravi and maagallu eheruvu inscriptions
★ The founder of Mudigonda Chalukya dynasty: . Ranamarda
★ Who is the brother of Ranamarda? Kokkiii
★ The titles of Kokkili king? – Pravarthamana, Vijaya
★ After Ranamarda who ruled the Country? Kusumayudha
★ Who is the contemporary of Gunaga Vijayaditya and Chalukya Bhima and took important role in Vengi- Manyakheta clashes? Kusumayudha
★ Mudigonda Chalukya king, who drove away the Rashtrakuta king Krishna-II and handed over the throne of Vengi to Chalukya Bhima-I: – Kusumayudha
★ The regime of Kusumayudha: 870-895 AD
★ Who are the sons of Kusumayudha? Gonagayya and Niravadya
★ Who ruled the country after Kusumayudha? – Gonagayya
★ Because of the reason that Gonagayya was not took proper interest towards the administration of the Kingdom, who ruled the country in his place? Niravadya
★ Vemulawada Chalukya king who gave shelter to Gonagayya who lost his kingdom? Arikesari -II
★ Other names of Gonagayya: Vijayaditya, Vijayata Gonaga and Vijaya Gonaga
★ With whose help Gonagayya, dethroned his brother Niravadya and reoccupied the Mudigonda Kingdom? –Arikesari
★ After Gonagayya, his son came to the power what is the name of his son? • Kusumayudhya-II
★ The regime of Kusumayudha -II: 838-880 AD,
★ After Kusumayudha -II who ruled the country?- Vijayaditya-II
★ The regime of Vijayaditya-II: 960-980 AD
★ The inscription which informs about the internal quarrels between Vijayaditya-I and Niravadya: Koravi Inscription
★ The regime of Kusumayudha-III: 980-1000 AD
★ Who ruled after Kusumayudha-III? Gonaga
★ After Kusumayudha-IV, who came to the power? -Betaraju-I
★ The regime of Betaraju-I: 1075-1100 AD,
★ Who occupied Koravi region after defeating Betaraju-I – Kakatiya Gundana
★ With whose help Betaraju, re-occupied Koravi region? Viriyala ruler Errani
★ The reason for the loss of Koravi seema by Mudigonda Chalukyas: The emergence of Kakatiya kingdom
★ After Betaraju, who ruled the country? Kusumayudha-V
★ The regime of Kusumayudha-V: 1100-1125 AD.
★ The title of Kusumayudha -V: Muttenagallu
★ Who ruled after Kusumayudha V? Bottu Betaraju -II
★ The regime of Bottu Betaraju: 1125-1150 AD
★ The inscription Which mentioned Betarju-II: • Krivvaka inscription
★ The sons of Bottu Betaraju -II: • Kusumayudha-VI and Nagati raju
★ Kusumayudha-VI, was a contemporary of: • Kakati Rudradeva
★ Who occupied Mudigonda kingdom after drove away Kusumayudha-VI? Rudradeva
★ Kusumayudha -VI, who lost his kingdom, live incognito for how many years? 12 years
★ After how many years Kusumayudha regained his kingdom? 12 years
★ The regime of Nagati raju: 1175-1200A.D.
★ When did Mudigonda Chalukya kingdom came to an end? – about 1200 A.D.
★ After losing the kingdom, Nagatiraju run away to which country? Kolanu
★ Kolanu king, who treated well Nagati raju: Somaya
★ The inscription which inform us about the living of Nagatiraju in Kolanu kingdom:Natta rameswaram, Srikakula inscription
★ The historian who said, that Kakatiya ruler Rudra deva defeated Nagatiraju and occupied Koravi region? • P.V. Parabrahma Sastry
★ The inscription which informs about the downfall of Mudigonda Chalukyas: Palampeta inscription of Reeharla Rudra
1 Among the following which districts are called as Koraviseema in medieval period?
1. Khammam 2. Warangal
3. Karimnagar 4.1 & 2
2. The inscriptions which informs about Mudigonda Chalukyas!
1. Koravi 2. maagallu tank
3. Guduru 4. All the above
3. The ruling period of Mudigonda Chalukyas!
1. 850-1200 A.D. 2. 750-1100 A.D.
3. 700-1000 A.D. 4. 800-1150 A.D.
4. Who is the founder of Mudigonda Chalukya dynasty?
1. Kusumayudha 2. Ranamarda
3. Vijayaditya-II 4. Betaraju
5.St The son of Ranamarda!
1. Kusumayudha 2. Vijayaditya
3. Betaraju-I 4. Gonagayya
6. Kusumayudha was the contemporary of
1. Gunaga Vijayaditya 2. Chalukya Bhima 3. 1 & 2 4. Krishna-II
7. The sons of Kusumayudha!
1. Gonagayya 2. Niravadya
3. Vinayaditya 4. 1 & 2
8. Other names of Gonagayya!
1. Vijayaditya Gonaga
2. Vijayata Gonaga
3. Vijaya Gonaga
4. All the above
9. Among the following who is having the title Vineeta Janasraya
1. Kusumayudha -II 2. Vijayaditya -II 3. Betaraju-I 4. Kusumayudha-I
10, The regime of Vijayaditya-II
1. 930-950 A.D. 2. 960-980 A.D.
3. 940-960 A.D. 4. 970-990 A.D.
11. According to which inscription, Koraviseema was ruled by two Retarajas between 1080*1078 A.O.?
1. Guduru 2. maagallu tank
3. Kriwaka 4. Koravi
12, The regime of Betaraja-I
1. 1050-1075 A.D. 2. 1075-1100 A.D.
3. 1025-1050 A.D. 4. 1000-1025 AD.
13. Mudigonda Chalukya king having the title ‘Muttenagailu’i
1. Kusumayudha-V 2. Betaraju-II 3. Kusumayudha-VI 4. Negatiraju
14 Mudigonda Chalukya king, who is a eon* temporary of Kakati Rudradeva
1. Kusumayudha-V 2. Betaraju-II
3. Kusumayudha-VI 4. Nagtiraju
15. Kakati Rudra invaded Mudigonda and drove away Kusumayudha-VI; At that time some ministers of Mudigonda run away into forests with valuable things and treasury. Who are they?
1. Sri Karanadhipati 2. Indrapa raju 3. Deva raju 4. All the above
16. Through which inscription, we came to know that kusumayudha V lived in exile for the period of 12 years?
1. Kriwaka 2. Koravi
3. maagallu 4. Mudigonda
17. The year in which Mudigonda Chalukya kingdom came to an end?
1. 1050A.D. 2. 1100A.D. ;
3. 1150 AD. 4. 1200 AD.
18. The region of Mudigonda kingdom was called as:
1. Visu runadu 2. Koravinadu
3. Manchikondanadu 4. Mudugonduru
19. The contemporary kingdoms of Mudigonda Chalukyas:
1. Vemulawada Chalukyas
3. Viriyala rulers
4. All the above
20. Who is greatest among Mudigonda chalukyas?
1. Ranamarda 2. Kusumayudha-III
3. Krishna-11 4. Chalukya Bhima
21. The capital of Mudigonda Chalukyas:
1. Khammam 2. Bodhan
3. Mudigonda 4. Vemulawada
22. According to Guduru inscription, in which period Koravi seema ruled by two Betarajas:
1. 1050-1075 A.D. 2. 1040-1065 A.D.
3. 102-1050 A.D. 4. 1030-1060 AD.
23. The last king of Mudigonda Chalukyas:
1. Kusumayudha -VI 2. Nagati raju
3. Beta raja 4. Ranamarda
24. Another name for Mudigonda:
4. Manchi kondanadu